Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance, partly due to flavonoids and limonoids (which in turn are terpenes) contained in the rind, and most are juice-laden. The juice contains a high quantity of citric acid giving them their characteristic sharp flavour. The genus is commercially important as many species are cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh, pressed for juice, or preserved in marmalades and pickles.
They are also good sources of vitamin C and flavonoids. The flavonoids include various flavanones and flavones. Citrus trees hybridise very readily – depending on the pollen source, plants grown from a Persian Lime‘s seeds can produce fruit similar to grapefruit. Thus all commercial citrus cultivation uses trees produced by grafting the desired fruiting cultivars onto rootstocks selected for disease resistance and hardiness.
|Bergamot orange||Citrus bergamia|
|Citrus × aurantium|
|Blood orange||Citrus × sinensis|
|Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis|
|× Citrofortunella mitis|
|Cam sành||Citrus reticulata ×maxima|
|Citrus subg. Papeda|
|Desert Lime||Citrus glauca|
|Finger lime||Citrus australasica|
|Florentine citron||Citrus medica|
|Grapefruit||Citrus × paradisi|
|Greek citron||Citrus medica|
New Summer Orange
|Citrus × iyo|
|Kaffir lime||Citrus hystrix|
|Key lime||Citrus aurantiifolia|
|Kinnow||Citrus nobilis × Citrus deliciosa|
|Kiyomi||Citrus unshiu × Citrus sinensis|
|Meyer lemon||Citrus × meyeri|
|Moroccan citron||Citrus medica|
|Myrtle-leaved orange tree||Citrus myrtifolia|
|Citrus × sinensis|
|Citrus grandis × C. Paradisi/Citrus maxima/Citrus grandis|
|Citrus × latifolia|
|Citrus maxima orCitrus grandis|
|Ponderosa lemon||Citrus limon × medica|
|Citrus × limonia|
Australian round lime
Cold hardy mandarin
|Citrus ichangensis ×C. maxima|
|Shonan Gold||Citrus flaviculpus hort. ex Tanaka (Ōgonkan)× Citrus unshiu|
Mediterranean sweet lemon
Thin-skinned flat lemon
|Citrus × depressa|
|C. reticulata × C. maxima or × C. paradisi|
|Tangor||C. reticulata × C. sinensis|
|Ugli fruit||Citrus reticulata ×Citrus paradisi|
|Yuzu||Citrus ichangensis ×C. reticulata|
Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C, which prevents scurvy. Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. An early sign of scurvy is fatigue. If ignored, later symptoms are bleeding and bruising easily. British sailors were given a ration of citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent the onset of scurvy, hence the British nickname of Limey.
After consumption, the peel is sometimes used as a facial cleanser. A peel of lemons or orange is commonly used as a means to moisten medical cannabis when stored with it.
Citrus fruit intake is associated with a reduced risk of stomach cancer.Also, citrus fruit juices, such as orange, lime and lemon, may be useful for lowering the risk of specific types of kidney stones.
Grapefruit is another fruit juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers.
Lemons have the highest concentration of citrate of any citrus fruit, and daily consumption of lemonade has been shown to decrease the rate of stone formation.