Know : About Daylight Saving Time

Daylight saving time (DST) or summer time is the practice of advancing clocks during the summer months that have more sunlight so that people get up later in the morning and go to bed later at night. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in the autumn.

The modern idea of daylight saving was first proposed in 1895 by George Vernon Hudson, and it was first implemented by Germany and Austria-Hungary starting on 30 April 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, most consistently since the energy crisis of the 1970s.

DaylightSaving-World-Subdivisions

The practice has been both advocated and criticized. Putting clocks back benefits retailing, sports, and other activities that exploit sunlight after working hours, but can cause problems for evening entertainment and other activities tied to the sun (such as farming) or to darkness (such as firework shows). Although an early goal of DST was to reduce evening use of incandescent lighting (formerly a primary use of electricity), modern heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST currently affects energy use is limited or contradictory.

Other problems sometimes caused by DST clock shifts are: they complicate timekeeping, and can disrupt meetings, travel, billing, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, and sleep patterns. Software can often adjust computer clocks automatically, but this can be limited and error-prone, particularly when DST dates are changed.

Country/Territory Continent Summer/Hemisphere DST start
(adjust clocks forward)
DST end
(adjust clocks backward)
Notes and other mentions
Afghanistan Asia Does not use DST
Akrotiri and Dhekelia(UK) Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October
Albania Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1940-1943, and since 1974.
Algeria Africa Observed DST in 1916-1921, in the autumn of 1939, in 1944-1945, 1971, 1977-1978 and 1980-1981 .
American Samoa (US) Oceania Does not use DST
Andorra Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST since 1985.
Angola Africa Does not use DST
Anguilla (UK) Central America Does not use DST
Antigua and Barbuda Central America Does not use DST
Argentina South America Observed DST in 1930-1969, 1974, 1988-2000, 2007-2009.
Armenia Europe Observed DST in 1981-1995, 1997-2011.
Aruba (NL) Central America Does not use DST
Australia Oceania Austral/South First Sunday October First Sunday April

DST used only in Australian Capital Territory,VictoriaNew South WalesTasmaniaSouth Australia and Lord Howe Island.

Austria Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1918, 1920, 1940-1948 and since 1980.
Azerbaijan Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1981-1992 and since 1996.Nagorno-Karabakh abolished DST in 2012.
Bahamas North America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November Observed DST since 1964.
Bahrain Asia Does not use DST
Bangladesh Asia Observed DST in 2009.
Barbados Central America Observed DST from 1977-1980.
Belarus Europe Observed DST in 1941-1944, 1981-2010.
Belgium Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1940, 1942-1946 and since 1977.
Belize Central America Observed DST in 1973-1974 and 1982-1983.
Benin Africa Does not use DST
Bermuda (UK) North America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November Observed DST since 1974.
Bhutan Asia Does not use DST
Bolivia South America Observed DST in 1931-1932.
Bonaire (NL) Central America Does not use DST
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1945 and since 1983.
Botswana Africa Observed DST in 1943-1944.
Brazil South America Austral/South Third Sunday October Third Sunday February

DST end delays one week during Carnival week. Only these south and central states use DST: São PauloRio de JaneiroFederal District Brasilia,Santa CatarinaParanáGoiásRio Grande do Sul,Mato Grosso do SulEspírito SantoMinas Geraisand Mato Grosso (some exceptions).

British Virgin Islands(UK) Central America Does not use DST
Brunei Asia Does not use DST
Bulgaria Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1943-1944 and since 1979.
Burkina Faso Africa Does not use DST
Burma Asia Does not use DST
Burundi Africa Does not use DST
Cambodia Asia Does not use DST
Cameroon Africa Does not use DST
Canada North America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November

Some regions in Quebec, east of 63° westlongitude, most of SaskatchewanSouthampton Island and some areas in British Columbia do not observe DST. Saskatchewan however, observes Central Time even though it is located in the Mountain Time Zone, meaning it effectively observes DST year round.

Cape Verde Africa Observed DST in 1942-1945.
Cayman Islands (UK) Central America Does not use DST
Central African Republic Africa Does not use DST
Chad Africa Observed DST in winter 1979-1980.
Chile South America Austral/South Second Sunday September Last Sunday April Observed DST in 1927-1946 (excluding Easter Island which observed it in 1932-1946 ) and since 1968. Easter Island starts on Saturday to sync withChile
China Asia Observed DST in 1986-1991.
Christmas Island (AU) Asia Does not use DST
Cocos Island (AU) Asia Does not use DST
Colombia South America Observed DST in 1992-1993.
Comoros Africa Does not use DST
Congo Africa Does not use DST
Cook Islands (NZ) Oceania Observed DST in 1978-1991.
Costa Rica Central America Observed DST in 1954, 1979-1980 and 1991-1992.
Croatia Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1945 and since 1983.
Cuba Central America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November Observed DST in 1928, 1940-1942, 1945-1946 and since 1965.
Curacao (NL) Central America Does not use DST
Cyprus Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST since 1975.
Czech Republic Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1918, 1940-1949 and since 1979.
Democratic Republic of Congo Africa Does not use DST
Denmark Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916, 1940-1948 and since 1980.
Djibouti Africa Does not use DST
Dominica Central America Does not use DST
Dominican Republic Central America Observed DST in 1966-1967, 1969-1974.
East Timor Asia Does not use DST
Ecuador South America Does not use DST
Egypt Africa/Asia Boreal/North Last Friday April Last Friday September Observed DST in 1940-1945 and 1957-2010. Re-introduces DST in 2014. DST is stopped during Ramadan
El Salvador Central America Observed DST in 1987-1988.
Equatorial Guinea Africa Does not use DST
Eritrea Africa Does not use DST
Estonia Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1918, 1940-1944 and since 1981.
Ethiopia Africa Does not use DST
Falkland Islands (UK) South America Keeps on continuous DST since 2011
Faroe Islands (DK) Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST since 1981.
Fiji Oceania Austral/South Last Sunday October Third Sunday January Observed DST in 1998-2000 and since 2009.
Finland Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1942 and since 1981.
France Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1945 and since 1976.
French Guyana (FR) South America Does not use DST
French Polynesia (FR) Oceania Does not use DST
French Southern and Antarctic Lands (FR) Antarctica Does not use DST
Gabon Africa Does not use DST
Gambia Africa Does not use DST
Georgia Europe Observed DST in 1981-2005.
Germany Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1918, 1940-1949, and since 1980.
Ghana Africa Observed DST from 1936-1942.
Greece Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1968 and since 1971.
Greenland North America Boreal/North 22:00 local time on Saturday before last Sunday March 23:00 local time on Saturday before last Sunday October Observed DST since 1980.Follows European Union practice, although not a member: hence start & end times correspond to 01:00 UTC on the respective Sunday. See Daylight saving time in the Americas—Greenland Qaanaaquses US and Canada rules. Danmarkshavn does not use DST.
Grenada Central America Does not use DST
Guadeloupe (FR) Central America Does not use DST
Guam (US) Oceania Does not use DST
Guatemala Central America Observed DST in 1973-1974, 1983, 1991 and 2006.
Guernsey (UK) Europe Boreal/North 01:00 GMT on last Sunday March 01:00 GMT on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1968 and since 1972.
Guinea Africa Does not use DST
Guinea-Bissau Africa Does not use DST
Guyana South America Does not use DST
Haiti Central America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November Observed DST in 1983-1997, 2005-2006 and from 2012 onwards.
Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) Antarctica Does not use DST
Holy See Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1920, 1940-1948 and since 1966.
Honduras Central America Observed DST in 1987-1988 and 2006 .
Hong Kong Asia Observed DST in 1941, 1945-1976 and 1979.
Hungary Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1920, 1941-1950, 1954-1957 and since 1980.
Iceland Europe Observed DST in 1917-1918 and 1939-1968.
India Asia Observed DST in 1942-1945.
Indonesia Asia Does not use DST
Iran Asia Boreal/North March 21–22 September 21–22 Observed DST in 1977-1980, 1991-2005 and since 2008.
Iraq Asia Observed DST in 1982-2007.
Ireland Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1968 and since 1972.
Isle of Man (UK) Europe Boreal/North 01:00 GMT on last Sunday March 01:00 GMT on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1968 and since 1972.
Israel Asia Boreal/North Friday before last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1940-1946, 1948-1957, 1974-1975 and since 1985.
Italy Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1920, 1940-1948 and since 1966.
Ivory Coast Africa Does not use DST
Jamaica Central America Observed DST in 1974-1983.
Japan Asia Observed DST in 1948-1951.
Jersey (UK) Europe Boreal/North 01:00 GMT on last Sunday March 01:00 GMT on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1968 and since 1971.
Jordan Asia Boreal/North Last Friday March Last Friday October Returned again to UTC+2 on Dec, 20 2013, Previsible with DST
Kazakhstan Asia Observed DST in 1981-1990 and 1992-2004.
Kenya Africa Does not use DST
Kiribati Oceania Does not use DST
Kosovo Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST since 1983.
Kuwait Asia Does not use DST
Kyrgyzistan Asia Observed DST in 1981-2005.
Laos Asia Does not use DST
Latvia Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1918-1919, 1941-1944 and since 1981.
Lebanon Asia Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1920-1923, 1957-1961, 1972-1978 and since 1984.
Lesotho Africa Observed DST in 1943-1944.
Liberia Africa Does not use DST
Libya Africa Observed DST in 1951, 1955, 1957, 1982-1989,1997.and 2013.
Liechtenstein Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST since 1981.
Lithuania Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1944, 1981-1999 and since 2003.
Luxembourg Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1946 and since 1977.
Macao (CH) Asia Observed DST in 1961-1980.
Macedonia Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1945 and since 1983.
Madagascar Africa Observed DST in 1954.
Malawi Africa Does not use DST
Malaysia Asia Observed DST in 1933-1935.
Maldives Asia Does not use DST
Mali Africa Does not use DST
Malta Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1920, 1940-1948 and since 1966.
Marshall Islands Oceania Does not use DST
Martinica (FR) Central America Observed DST in 1980.
Mauritania Africa Does not use DST
Mauritius Africa Observed DST in 1982-1983 and 2008-2009.
Mexico North America Boreal/North First Sunday April Last Sunday October Observe DST since 1996, but Baja Californiaobserve DST since 1942. Sonora observed DST 1996–1997. Locations less than 20 km from the US border use US DST.
Micronesia Oceania Does not use DST
Midway (US) Oceania Observed DST in 1956.
Moldova Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1932-1944, 1981-1989 and since 1991.
Monaco Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1945 and since 1976.
Mongolia Asia Observed DST in 1983-1998 and 2001-2006.
Montenegro Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST 1941-1945 and since 1983.
Montserrat (UK) Central America Does not use DST
Morocco Africa Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1939-1945, 1950, 1967, 1974, 1974-1976 and since 2008. DST stops during Ramadan.
Mozambique Africa Does not use DST
Namibia Africa Austral/South First Sunday September First Sunday April Observed DST in 1942-1943 and since 1994.
Nauru Oceania Does not use DST
Nepal Asia Does not use DST
Netherlands Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1945 and since 1977.
New Caledonia (FR) Oceania Observed DST in 1977-1979 and 1996-1997.
New Zealand Oceania Austral/South Last Sunday September First Sunday April Observed DST in 1927-1946 and since 1974.
Nicaragua Central America Observed DST in 1973-1975, 1979-1980, 1992-1994 and 2005-2006.
Niger Africa Does not use DST
Nigeria Africa Does not use DST
Niue (NZ) Oceania Does not use DST
North Korea Asia Does not use DST
Northern Mariana Islands (US) Oceania Does not use DST
Norway Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916, 1940-1945, 1959-1965 and since 1980.Follows European Union practice, although not a member.
Oman Asia Does not use DST
Pakistan Asia Observed DST in 1942-1945 (as belonging to India) and 2002.
Palau Oceania Does not use DST
Palestine Asia Boreal/North Last Friday March Last Friday September Observed DST in 1940-1946, 1957-1967, 1974-1975 and since 1985.
Panama Central America Does not use DST
Papua New Guinea Oceania Does not use DST
Paraguay South America Austral/South First Sunday October Fourth Sunday March Observed DST since 1975. Current start and end dates last updated in 2013.
Peru South America Observed DST in 1938-1940, 1986-1987, 1990 and 1994.
Philippines Asia Observed DST in 1936-1937, 1954, 1978 and 1990.
Pitcairn Islands (UK) Oceania Does not use DST
Poland Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1919, 1940-1949, 1957-1964 and since 1977.
Portugal Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1921, 1924, 1926-1929, 1931-1932, 1934-1949, 1951-1965 and since 1977.
Puerto Rico (US) Central America Observed DST in 1942-1945.
Qatar Asia Does not use DST
Romania Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1932-1939 and since 1979.
Russia Asia/Europe Observed DST in 1917-1919 and 1921 (some areas), 1981-2010 . Since 2011 abolishes DST.
Rwanda Africa Does not use DST
Saba (NL) Central America Does not use DST
Saint Barthélemy (FR) Central America Does not use DST
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (UK) Africa/South America Does not use DST
Saint Kitts and Nevis Central America Does not use DST
Saint Lucia Central America Does not use DST
Saint Martin (FR) Central America Does not use DST
Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) North America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November Observed DST since 1987.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Central America Does not use DST
Samoa Oceania Austral/South Last Sunday September First Sunday April Observed DST since 2011
San Marino Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1920, 1940-1948 and since 1966.
Sao Tome and Príncipe Africa Does not use DST
Saudi Arabia Asia Does not use DST
Senegal Africa Does not use DST
Serbia Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1945 and since 1983.
Seychelles Africa Does not use DST
Sierra Leone Africa Observed DST in 1935-1942 and 1957-1962.
Singapore Asia Observed DST in 1933-1935 by adding 20 minutes to standard time. On January 1, 1936, country changed their time zone to UTC+7:20.
Sint Eustatius (NL) Central America Does not use DST
Sint Maarten (NL) Central America Does not use DST
Slovakia Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916-1918, 1940-1949 and since 1979.
Slovenia Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1945 and since 1983.
Solomon Islands Oceania Does not use DST
Somalia Africa Does not use DST
South Africa Africa Observed DST in 1942-1944.
South Georgia Islands(UK) Antarctica Does not use DST
South Korea Asia Observed DST in 1948-1951, 1955-1960 and 1987-1988.
South Sandwich Islands (UK) Antarctica Does not use DST
South Sudan Africa Observed DST in 1970-1985.
Spain Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1917-1919, 1924, 1926-1929, 1937-1946, 1949 and since 1974. On Canary Islands DST observed since 1980.
Sri Lanka Asia Observed DST in 1942-1945.
Sudan Africa Observed DST in 1970-1985.
Suriname South America Does not use DST
Swaziland Africa Does not use DST
Sweden Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST 15 May–30 September 1916, and since the first Sunday of April in 1980. Before 1996 it ended on the last Sunday of September.
Switzerland Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1942 and since 1980.Follows European Union practice, although not a member.
Syria Asia Boreal/North Last Friday March Last Friday October Observed DST in 1920-1923, 1962-1968 and since 1983.
Taiwan Asia Observed DST in 1945-1962, 1974, 1975 and 1979.
Tajikistan Asia Observed DST in 1981-1991.
Tanzania Africa Does not use DST
Thailand Asia Does not use DST
Togo Africa Does not use DST
Tokelau (NZ) Oceania Does not use DST
Tonga Oceania Observed DST from 1999-2002.
Trinidad and Tobago Central America Does not use DST
Tunisia Africa Observed DST in 1939-1945, 1977-1978, 1988-1990 and 2005-2008.
Turkey Asia/Europe Boreal/North 01:00 UTC on last Sunday March 01:00 UTC on last Sunday October Observed DST in 1916, 1920-1922, 1924-1925, 1940-1942, 1945-1951, 1962, 1964, 1970-1983 and since 1985.Follows European Union practice, although not a member.
Turkmenistan Asia Observed DST in 1981-1991.
Turks and Caicos (UK) Central America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November Observed DST since 1979.
Tuvalu Oceania Does not use DST
Uganda Africa Does not use DST
Ukraine Europe Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST in 1941-1943, 1981-1989 and since 1992.The Crimean Supreme Council announced thatCrimea will switch to Moscow time (which does not observe DST) in March 2014 .
United Arab Emirates Asia Does not use DST
United Kingdom Europe Boreal/North 01:00 GMT on last Sunday March 01:00 GMT on last Sunday October
Main article: British Summer Time

Observed DST (British Summer Time (BST)) since 1916.Year-round Summer Time (BST) + Double Summer Time (BDST) 1940-1945. Two-stage Double Summer Time (BDST) 1947. Year-round Summer Time (BST) 1968-1971.

United States North America Boreal/North Second Sunday March First Sunday November

Arizona (except the Navajo Nation Community) and Hawaii do not use DST.[10]

United States Virgin Islands (US) Central America Does not use DST
Uruguay South America Austral/South First Sunday October Second Sunday March Observed DST in 1923-1926, 1933-1943, 1959-1960, 1965-1970, 1972, 1974-1980, 1987-1993 and since 2004.
Uzbekistan Asia Observed DST in 1981-1991.
Vanuatu Oceania Observed DST in 1983-1993.
Venezuela South America Does not use DST
Vietnam Asia Does not use DST
Wallis and Futuna(FR) Oceania Does not use DST
Western Sahara Africa Boreal/North Last Sunday March Last Sunday October Observed DST since 2008. DST is stopped during Ramadan. Only areas controlled by Morocco uses DST.
Yemen Asia Does not use DST
Zambia Africa Does not use DST
Zimbabwe Africa Does not use DST

Courtesy : CGP Grey via Youtube and Wikipedia

Advertisements

Know : The World’s First Animated Image Sequences

File:Muybridge horse gallop animated 2.gif

This was the world’s first animated image sequences photographed in real-time captured by Muybridge who used High-speed photography  (1878-1887)

Muybridge-2.jpgEadweard James Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. 

He emigrated to the United States as a young man and became a bookseller. He returned to England in 1861 and took up professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process, and secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He went back to San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs of Yosemite Valley made him world famous. Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography

In the 1880s, Muybridge entered a very productive period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion, capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate movements. He spent much of his later years giving public lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences, traveling back to England and Europe to publicise his work. He also edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. He returned to his native England permanently in 1894, and in 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.

In 1874 he shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife’s lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable homicide. He travelled for more than a year in Central America on a photographic expedition in 1875.

File:The Horse in Motion.jpg

Muybridge’s The Horse in Motion, 1878

File:Muybridge Buffalo galloping.gif

American bison cantering – set to motion in 2006 using photos by Eadweard Muybridge

Galloping horse, animated in 2006, using photos by Eadweard Muybridge.

The Horse in Motion by Eadweard Muybridge. “Sallie Gardner,” owned by Leland Stanford; running at a 1:40 gait over the Palo Alto track, 19th June 1878. Frames 1-11 used for animation, frame 12 not used.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

 

Please spare a minute, we need your help not money!!!

GiveTogether.Hands_

Share anything you read, you liked, you want the world to know about. Ask anything you want to know about. 

“Education is Everything” – you might see this as our tag line, not just as words. We Propel Steps get all the inspiration from that strong belief. Through education, we can bring many positive changes. Wisdom, Humanity, Environmental issues, Fair use of Science, Good governance,Prevention of arts, Encouraging creativity… The list is big where your support is needed. 

We do not need money. Just your support and a few mins time whenever feasible for you. Help us to bring a change! Only You can make this reach millions of people.

forumWho can Educate and who can get Educated? Well, everyone of us has a Teacher and a Learner in us.

We are good at many things, skills that we possess naturally or developed over a period of time. When we share it with others, we become the provider of knowledge and help enabling others.

On the other end, every day we learn something new, get educated from some sources. 

Our areas of interest are wide. But Education is the common thing we find in everything we see in life. 

We believe Education is not just limited to, schools anymore, if we are determined to learn and share knowledge this modern world has plenty of opportunities.

We have made our Forum “Propel Steps” – here. Where you can share anything you want to share with the world. Ask anything you wish to know about. Not everyone is good at Googling to learn, also internet cannot self suffice. It’s all about knowledge/info reaching the right people who need them. We connect you with millions of school kids, students, teachers, professionals, activists, etc.

Share your links on our forum. Just a few clicks, you can share even anonymously. 

We have only one objective, education can be liberal and can be boundless.

We do not need money. Just your support and a few mins time whenever feasible for you. Help us to bring a change! We do not have millions of Dollars to to spend, but we have IDEAS and HOPE. Only You can make this reach millions of people.

Please do not forget to share this post.

Thanks and Regards

– Din

___

Note: This is a non-profit initiative. You are welcome to ask more about our initiative, please contact me here dinesh@propelsteps.com

Find more about our objectives please refer to these articles

Critiques that Drive us

Five Thoughts For you 

More 

Curious Question: How does a Remote Controller Works?

What is inside it? – Basic Version

How it actually works? – Detailed Version

Generally, there are two types of remote controls: infrared (IR), and radio frequency (RF). Infrared remote controls work by sending pulses of infrared light to a device, while RF remote controls use radio waves in much the same way. Pragmatically, the biggest difference between the two is range. IR remote controls require a clear line of sight to the receiving device and their range maxes out at about 30 feet (9.14 meters). RF remote controls can go through walls and around corners, with a range of roughly 100 feet (30.48 meters). 

Do you want to see the Infrared light from your remote.. So simple.. Use the camera in your mobile / a digital camera. Point the remote and press some buttons, you can see the light flashing.

Most home entertainment components such as stereos, televisions and home entertainment centers use IR remote controls. The remote contains an internal circuit board, processor, and one or two Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). 

When you push a button on a remote control, it transmits a corresponding code to the receiving device by way of LED infrared pulses. The idea is somewhat akin to flashing an SOS signal, but instead of letters, the flashing LED light is transmitting a series of 1s and 0s. The “1” might be represented by a long flash, while “0,” a short flash. A receiver, built into the component, receives the pulses of light and a processor decodes the flashes into the digital bits required to activate the function. 

Along with the desired function, remote controls must also piggyback other data. Firstly, they transmit the code for the device they are controlling. This lets the IR receiver in the component know that the IR signals it is picking up are intended for it. It essentially tells the component to start listening. The function data follows, capped by a stop command to tell the IR device go back into passive mode. 

Some remote controls can be very finicky, requiring the user point the remote directly at the component. This is due to a weak transmitter. Changing the batteries can help, but if the transmitter itself is poor, pulses are transmitted in a narrow beam. More robust IR transmitters, and remote controls with double LEDs, transmit broader beams that allow the user to point the remote in the general direction of the transmitter. 

Sometimes it happens that a recliner or favorite spot on the couch does not have a clear line-of-sight to the entertainment center or television. Often a coffee table or some other object is in the way. When this happens, we find ourselves raising an arm, trying to control the object “around” the device. This can get quite annoying, but there’s an easy alternative. 

Since light bounces off objects it is sometimes more convenient to point remote controls towards a flanking wall or even the ceiling to change a channel or send a function command. The light will bounce off the surface of the wall or ceiling and scatter. If you bounce it at an advantageous angle, the scattering light will reach the component. Often it’s easier, with elbow resting on an armrest, to flip your wrist back and point the remote up on a wall behind you. This can work quite well, even though the remote is pointing in the exact opposite direction of the component. Once you find the easiest sweet spots around the room from which to bounce your signal, you can use these instead of struggling with trying to get around your obstructed line of sight. 

Garage door openers, alarm systems, key fobs and radio-controlled toys use RF remote controls. RF remote controls work essentially the same as IR remote controls, except they use radio waves. As stated, radio waves can also penetrate walls and go around objects and corners, making RF arguably more convenient than IR.

Some high-end entertainment systems come with RF remote controls for an expanded remote range. There are also IR-to-RF remote control converters that allow IR remote controls to extend their range through utilizing a RF translator that basically acts as a middleman. The RF converter relays the IR signal in RF waves to get it further. The converter on the component side reverts the RF signal back to IR so the component can understand it.
 

If you have been overrun by remote controls, you might consider a master universal controller. Low-end universal remotes, available for about 10 US dollars (USD), will allow one to control several devices. However, original remotes might still be required for accessing and controlling an advanced component features. Some high-end universal remote controls feature LCD screens and are more like electronic pads than common remote controls. These universal master controllers will eliminate the need to use original remotes, but may require some ramp-up to learn.

___

Courtesy : Youtube, www.wisegeek.com, Rick OsgoodKarl Wendt