Statistical Study : Poor Farmers & Dirty Indian Politics

India farmer kills himself at Delhi AAP rally

cartoon_politics_india2This is the most debated news on Indian media now! Maybe for this week, till we get another sensational news. Political parties are taking their respective pickings to do politics. Blaming one another and trying to follow their traditional strategy to make people fools. None of the political parties ever tried to resolve the agricultural issues on a serious move. So many projects are been dragged for political and business reasons. Meanwhile, farmers are continuing to commit suicide across the country. When the media covered a single farmer’s suicide on daylight, the politicians are ‘ullu banaving’ making fool of us.

Delhi BJP demands AAP Govt to give compensation of Rs 5 crore to farmer’s family – What about thousands of farmers who died without making a political impact as the farmer who committed suicide in Delhi recently? Our politicians are exposing themselves by making such statements and irresponsible blaming on each other.

Why no Indian Political party is focusing on the solution to end this? They are fighting over how to acquire lands from farmers by various laws to favours industries. Why no one is talking about Indian Rivers Inter-link project?

The Indian Rivers Inter-link is a proposed large-scale civil engineering project that aims to link India‘s rivers by a network of reservoirs and canals and so reduce persistent floods in some parts and water shortages in other parts of India. Which can address the causes of farmer suicides and also enrich the Environment of the whole country!

The raw truth is, projects like inter-linking rivers would unite the people of India together. Maybe while executing the project some politics may happen but once the project gets completed the whole nation will get the benefits of it. People will come together ahead of their regional and states differences. Which will revamp agriculture, India will become more of a Green Nation than an industrial nation. This of course, will prevent Industrialists to an extent and prevent politicians’ tie up with Industries and they cannot make easy money. That’s why such effective projects are kept on hold or progressing at snail pace!

As of 2013, a total of 296,438 farmers had killed themselves in India since 1995.[4] Most farm suicides have been linked to debt, a sharp rise in input costs, serious water crises, price volatility and crop failure due to pest attacks and disease. India is an agrarian country with around 60% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. Farmer suicides account for 11.2% of all suicides in India.[1]

In Britain farmers are taking their own lives at a rate of one a week. ƒ In India, one farmer committed suicide every 32 minutes between 1997 and 2005. Read more from UN’s article here 

The following data is bit old, but shared here for analytical purpose.

Reasons for farm suicides.
(in 2002)[27]
Percent
(of suicides)
Habits like drinking, gambling, etc. 20.35
Failure of crops 16.81
Other reasons (e.g. chit fund) 15.04
Family problems with spouse, others 13.27
Chronic illness 9.73
Marriage of daughters 5.31
Political affiliation 4.42
Property disputes 2.65
Debt burden 2.65
Price crash 2.65
Borrowing too much (e.g. for house construction) 2.65
Losses in non-farm activities 1.77
Failure of bore well 0.88
Note: “Reasons were given by close relatives and friends. There are multiple reasons for suicides. Not even one case was given only one reason.”[27]

Indian Politicians must understand that people are no fools and we can read their minds so well! Instead of blaming one another, they must act upon solutions. Shame on them if they continue doing politics with Farmers and commoners of this country.


Courtesy and Sources : Source 1, Source 2, Source 3, Source 4

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Eco Preservation : The Spotted Lake, Kliluk

Spotted Lake is a saline endorheic alkali lake located northwest of Osoyoos in the eastern Similkameen Valley of British Columbia, Canada.

Kliluk Lake (11)

Spotted Lake is richly concentrated with various minerals. It contains dense deposits of magnesium sulfate, calcium and sodium sulphates. It also contains high concentrations of eight other minerals and lower amounts of silver and titanium.

Kliluk Lake

Most of the water in the lake evaporates over the summer, revealing colorful mineral deposits. Large “spots” on the lake appear and are colored according to the mineral composition and seasonal amount of precipitation. Magnesium sulfate, which crystallizes in the summer, is a major contributor to spot color. In the summer, remaining minerals in the lake harden to form natural “walkways” around and between the spots.

Kliluk Lake (9)

Originally known to the First Nations of the Okanagan Valley as Kliluk, Spotted Lake was for centuries and remains revered as a sacred site thought to provide therapeutic waters. During World War I, the minerals of Spotted Lake were used in manufacturing ammunition.

Kliluk Lake (3)

Later, the area came under the control of the Ernest Smith Family for a term of about 40 years. In 1979, Smith attempted to create interest in a spa at the lake. The First Nations responded with an effort to buy the lake, then in October 2001, struck a deal by purchasing 22 hectares of land for a total of $720,000, and contributed about 20% of the cost. The Indian Affairs Department paid the remainder.

Kliluk Lake (7)

Today, there is a roadside sign telling visitors about the lake’s mythical healing powers. Despite a fence protecting the lake shore from the liabilities of public access, the lake can be easily seen and many visitors stop to view the site.

Kliluk Lake (10) Kliluk Lake (4) Kliluk Lake (5) Kliluk Lake (1)


Courtesy & Source : Wikipedia


Know : Countrywise Percentage of Arable Land

Arable land is land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

Non-arable land: Land which is unsuitable for arable farming usually has at least one of the following deficiencies: no source of fresh water; too hot (desert); too cold (Arctic); too rocky; too mountainous; too salty; too rainy; too snowy; too polluted; or too nutrient poor. Clouds may block the sunlight plants need for photosynthesis, reducing productivity. Starvation and nomadism often exists on marginally arable land. Non-arable land is sometimes called wasteland, badlands,worthless or no man’s land.

A permanent crop is one produced from plants which last for many seasons, rather than being replanted after each harvest. Traditionally, “arable land” included any land suitable for the growing of crops, even if it was actually being used for the production of permanent crops such as grapesor peaches. Modern agriculture—particularly organizations such as the CIA and FAO—prefer the term of art permanent cropland to describe such “cultivable land” that is not being used for annually-harvested crops such as staple grains. In such usage, permanent cropland is a form of “agricultural land” that includes grasslandsand shrublands used to grow grape vines or coffee; orchards used to grow fruit or olives; and forested plantations used to grow nuts or rubber. It does not include, however, tree farms intended to be used for wood or timber.

Arable_land_percent_world

Arable_land_percent_world

Country / Region Area (km²) Arable Land % Permanent Crops  Arable Land (km²)
European Union* 7708000 25%  2.75 1920063
United States 9826675 16.29%  0.26% 1600765
India 3287590 47.87%  3.74% 1573769
Russia 17098242 7.11%  0.1% 1215685
China 9615767 11.62%  1.53% 1117352
Brazil 8515767 8.45%  0.83% 719582
Australia 7692024 6.16%  0.05% 473829
Canada 9889000 4.30%  0.49% 425227
Argentina 2780400 13.68%  0.36% 380359
Nigeria 923768 38.97%  3.46% 359992
Ukraine 603628 53.85%  1.48% 325054
Mexico 1964375 12.98%  1.36% 254976
Kazakhstan 2717300 8.82%  0.03% 239666
Indonesia 1904556 12.34%  10.5% 235022
France 675417 33.45%  1.86% 225927
Pakistan 803940 26.02%  1.05% 209185
Turkey 780580 26.21%  3.94% 204590
Iran 1648000 10.05%  1.08% 165624
Thailand 514000 30.71%  8.77% 157849
Niger 1267000 11.79%  0.05% 149379
Ethiopia 1127127 13.19%  1.01% 148668
Sudan 1861484 6.76%  0.07% 125836
Spain 504781 24.75%  9.29% 124933
South Africa 1219912 9.87%  0.34% 120405
Germany 357021 33.25%  0.56% 118709
Tanzania 947303 12.25%  1.79% 116045
Poland 312685 35.49%  1.25% 110972
Myanmar 678500 15.94%  2.16% 108153
Romania 237500 37.73%  1.86% 89609
Morocco 446550 17.79%  2.6% 79441
Bangladesh 147570 52.97%  6.25% 78168
Afghanistan 647500 11.95%  0.18% 77376
Algeria 2381740 3.15%  0.38% 75025
Mali 1240000 5.53%  0.1% 68572
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2345410 2.90%  0.32% 68017
Italy 301230 22.57%  8.37% 67988
Uganda 241038 27.94%  9.11% 67346
Vietnam 329560 19.64% 11.18% 64726
Cameroon 475440 13.04%  2.94% 61997
United Kingdom 243610 24.88%  0.18% 60610
Rwanda 126338 46.32%  9.49% 58520
Burkina Faso 274200 20.79%  0.24% 57006
Belarus 207600 26.63%  0.59% 55284
Kenya 581309 9.48%  1.12% 55108
Philippines 300000 18.00% 17.33% 54000
Mozambique 801590 6.51%  0.25% 52184
Chad 1284000 3.82%  0.02% 49049
Ghana 238540 20.12% 11.74% 47994
Syria 185180 24.90%  5.69% 46110
Hungary 93030 47.24%  1.97% 43947
Uzbekistan 447400 9.61%  0.8% 42995
Japan 377835 11.26%  0.81% 42544
Angola 1246700 3.29%  0.23% 41016
Zimbabwe 390580 10.49%  0.31% 40972
Iraq 437072 9.19%  0.48% 40167
Cambodia 181035 22.09%  0.86% 39991
Paraguay 406750 9.59%  0.22% 39007
Senegal 196190 19.57%  0.28% 38394
Bolivia 1098580 3.49%  0.2% 38340
Peru 1285220 2.84%  0.66% 36500
Malawi 118480 30.38%  1.1% 35994
Madagascar 587040 5.96%  1.02% 34988
Zambia 752614 4.52%  0.05% 34018
Serbia 88361 37.28%  3.41% 32941
Cuba 100860 32.31%  3.55% 32588
Bulgaria 110910 29.28%  1.44% 32474
Czech Republic 78867 40.12%  0.96% 31641
Saudi Arabia 2149690 1.45%  0.11% 31171
Ivory Coast 322460 8.99% 13.65% 28989
Egypt 1001450 2.87%  0.79% 28742
Guinea 245857 11.59%  2.81% 28495
Tunisia 163610 17.35% 14.63% 28386
Sweden 449964 5.80%  0.02% 26098
Venezuela 912050 2.85%  0.71% 25993
Benin 112620 22.48%  2.61% 25317
Togo 56785 44.20%  3.7% 25099
Greece 131940 18.95%  8.73% 25003
Denmark 43094 57.99%  0.09% 24990
Nepal 147181 16.00%  0.8% 23549
North Korea 120540 19.08%  1.7% 22999
Finland 337030 6.65%  0.01% 22412
Colombia 1197411 1.84%  1.66% 22032
Lithuania 65201 33.48%  0.47% 21829
Turkmenistan 488100 3.89%  0.12% 18987
Nicaragua 129494 14.57%  1.76% 18867
Azerbaijan 86600 21.78%  2.62% 18861
Moldova 33843 53.47%  8.77% 18096
Uruguay 176220 10.25%  0.22% 18063
Central African Republic 622984 2.89%  0.13% 18004
Malaysia 329750 5.44% 17.49% 17938
Libya 1759540 0.99%  0.19% 17419
Guatemala 108890 13.78%  8.68% 15005
South Korea 98480 14.93%  2.06% 14703
Laos 236800 5.91%  0.42% 13995
Slovakia 48845 28.36%  0.41% 13852
Austria 83858 16.25%  0.77% 13627
Chile 756950 1.74%  0.6% 13171
Ecuador 283560 4.51%  5.38% 12789
Kyrgyzstan 198500 6.38%  0.37% 12664
Sri Lanka 65611 18.29% 14.94% 12000
Yemen 527970 2.20%  0.55% 11615
Latvia 64589 17.96%  0.11% 11600
Sierra Leone 72740 15.33%  1.88% 11151
Somalia 637657 1.73%  0.05% 11031
Ireland 71273 15.11%  0.01% 10769
Portugal 88267 11.88%  7.71% 10486
Netherlands 41526 25.08%  0.88% 10415
Honduras 112090 9.07%  3.91% 10167
Bosnia and Herzegovina 51129 19.63%  1.99% 10037
Haiti 27750 36.04% 10.09% 10001
Burundi 27834 33.06% 14.37% 9202
Croatia 56542 15.85%  1.47% 8962
Belgium 32545 27.06%  0.72% 8807
Taiwan 36193 24%  1% 8686
Tajikistan 143100 5.96%  0.91% 8529
Norway 324220 2.52%  0.01% 8170
Dominican Republic 48730 16.44%  9.25% 8011
Namibia 825418 0.97%  0.01% 8007
Eritrea 121320 5.87%  0.02% 7121
El Salvador 21040 31.61% 10.93% 6651
Estonia 45226 13.97%  0.13% 6318
Albania 28748 21.63%  2.57% 6218
Mongolia 1565000 0.39%  0% 6104
Panama 78201 7.16%  2.51% 5599
Republic of the Congo 342000 1.46%  0.18% 4993
New Zealand 269190 1.76%  0.27% 4738
Mauritania 1030700 0.44%  0.01% 4535
The Gambia 11300 39.82%  0.44% 4500
Liberia 111370 4.04%  1.62% 4499
Armenia 29800 14.47%  1.8% 4312
Guyana 214970 1.95%  0.13% 4192
China 35980 11.62%  1.53% 4181
Georgia 69701 5.94%  1.65% 4140
Macedonia 25333 16.10%  1.36% 4079
Switzerland 41210 9.80%  0.57% 4039
Israel 26990 13.68%  3.69% 3692
Gabon 267667 1.21%  0.64% 3239
Lesotho 30355 10.14%  0.13% 3078
Papua New Guinea 462840 0.65%  1.51% 3008
Guinea-Bissau 36120 8.30%  6.92% 2998
Botswana 600370 0.45%  0% 2702
Costa Rica 51100 4.89%  6.46% 2499
Jordan 92300 1.97%  0.95% 1818
Swaziland 17363 10.08%  0.86% 1750
Montenegro 13812 12.45%  1.16% 1720
Slovenia 20253 8.31%  1.33% 1683
Fiji 18270 9.17%  4.65% 1675
East Timor 15007 10.09%  4.03% 1514
Equatorial Guinea 28051 4.63%  2.5% 1299
Iceland 103000 1.19%  0% 1226
Jamaica 10990 10.92%  9.1% 1200
Bhutan 47000 2.49%  0.46% 1170
Lebanon 10452 10.72% 12.06% 1120
Comoros 2170 44.06% 31.17% 956
Cyprus 9250 9.06%  3.54% 838
Belize 22966 3.27%  1.39% 751
Mauritius 1860 38.24%  1.96% 711
Luxembourg 2586 23.90%  0.58% 618
Puerto Rico 9104 6.76%  4.51% 615
Suriname 163270 0.36%  0.04% 588
United Arab Emirates 82880 0.61%  0.5% 506
Cape Verde 4033 11.66%  0.74% 470
West Bank 5640 7.39% 10.96% 417
Oman 309500 0.10%  0.12% 310
Isle of Man 572 43.86%  0% 251
Trinidad and Tobago 5128 4.87%  4.29% 250
Vanuatu 12200 1.64% 10.25% 200
Solomon Islands 28450 0.62%  2.25% 176
Tonga 748 21.33% 14.67% 160
Qatar 11437 1.21%  0.17% 138
Barbados 430 27.91%  2.33% 120
Kuwait 17820 0.62%  0.28% 110
São Tomé and Príncipe 1001 9.06% 40.62% 91
Bahamas 13940 0.65%  0.29% 91
Malta 316 28.12%  4.06% 89
Samoa 2860 2.82%  7.75% 81
New Caledonia 18576 0.38%  0.27% 71
Dominica 754 8.00%  24% 60
Hong Kong 1104 5.05%  1.01% 56
Western Sahara 266000 0.02%  0% 53
Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 19.23%  0.38% 50
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 389 12.82%  7.69% 50
Curacao 444 10%  0% 44
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha 394 10.26%  0% 40
Antigua and Barbuda 442 9.09%  2.27% 40
Liechtenstein 160 21.88%  0% 35
Faroe Islands 1399 2.15%  0% 30
Saint Lucia 620 4.84% 11.29% 30
Brunei 5770 0.52%  0.87% 30
Maldives 300 10.00%  10% 30
Grenada 340 8.82% 20.59% 30
French Polynesia 4167 0.68%  6.28% 28
Gaza Strip 360 7.39% 10.96% 27
Andorra 468 5.32%  0% 25
Aruba 193 11.11%  0% 21
Montserrat 102 20%  0% 20
Marshall Islands 181 11.11% 44.44% 20
Micronesia 702 2.86% 24.29% 20
Cook Islands 240 8.33%  4.17% 20
Djibouti 22000 0.09%  0% 20
American Samoa 199 9.50%  15% 19
Kiribati 717 2.47% 39.51% 18
Bahrain 665 1.79%  3.95% 12
Northern Mariana Islands 475 2.17%  2.17% 10
San Marino 61 16.67%  0% 10
Wallis and Futuna 142 7.14% 35.71% 10
Guam 541 1.85% 16.67% 10
Niue 260 3.85% 11.54% 10
Palau 458 2.17%  4.35% 10
Seychelles 455 2.17%  4.35% 10
Bermuda 53 14.80%  0% 8
Turks and Caicos Islands 616 1.05%  0% 6
Singapore 693 0.89%  0.14% 6
Greenland 2166086 0%  0% 0
Tuvalu 26 0.00%  60% 0
Nauru 21 0.00%  20% 0
Gibraltar 7 0%  0% 0
Monaco 2 0.00%  1% 0
Vatican City 0 0.00%  0% 0
World 510072000 10.43%  1.15% 53200510

Courtesy & Source: Wikipedia and The World Factbook

Know : List of Oldest & Continuously Inhabited Cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

The age claims listed are generally disputed and may indeed be obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of “city” as well as “continuously inhabited” and historical evidence is often disputed.

Several cities listed here (Balkh, Byblos, Aleppo, Damascus, and Jericho) each popularly claim to be “the oldest city in the world”.

Name Continuously
inhabited since
Historical
region
Location
Aberdeen c. 580 Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Acoma
Puebloand Taos Pueblo,  New Mexico
c. 1075 Pueblo culture US
Albany, New York 1614 New Netherlands US
Aleppo Chalcolithic
(4300 BC or earlier)
Levant Syria
Alexandria 332 BC Egypt
Amesbury 8th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Britain
UK (England)
Amman c. 1878 Levant Jordan
Argos 5th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Mycenaean Greece
Greece
Århus c. 770 Denmark
Athens 5th–4th
Millennium BC
Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica,
Greece
Axum c. 400 BC Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia
Bagan 849 AD Kingdom of Pagan Myanmar
Baku The 1st century AD. Azerbaijan Absheron peninsula
Balkh  (as Bactra) 1500 BC Bactria Balkh
Province, Afghanistan
Bamyan 1st century AD Bactria Bamyan Province, Afghanistan
Bandar Seri Begawan 977 AD Kingdom of
Po-ni
Brunei
Baracoa 1511 New Spain Cuba
Barcelona  (as
Barcino)
3rd century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Bath  (as Aquae Sulis) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Beijing c. 1045 BC Ji,
Yan
Beijing,
China
Beirut 3000 BC Levant Lebanon
Belgrade 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Berat 314 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Albania
Berbera c. 400 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi 6th century BC Bessarabia Ukraine
Butuan 1001 AD Kingdom of Butuan Philippines
Byblos (Jubayl) Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier) Levant Lebanon
Cádiz 1100 BC Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Cagliari 8th century BC Sardinia Sardegna,
Italy
Cape Guardafui c. 500 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Cape Town 1652 Cape colony South Africa
Cartagena  (as
Carthago Nova)
228 BC Iberia Spain
Carthage 814 BC Tunisia
Chalcis before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Chania c. 1400 BC Crete Crete,
Greece
Chengdu c. 400 BC Shu Sichuan,
China
Chios c. 1100 BC Chios North Aegean, Greece
Cholula c. 2nd
century BC
Old Cholula Mexico
Chur 15 BC Raetia Prima Grisons,
Switzerland
Cologne 50 AD Germania Inferior Germany
Constanţa 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Corfu,  Kerkyra 700 BC Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece
Crotone  (as Kroton) 710 BC Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy
Cusco c. 1100 Inca Empire Peru
Damascus Chalcolithic Levant Syria
Djenné-Jeno c. 200 BC Mali
Dublin 841 Ireland Ireland
Durrës 627 BC Illyria Albania
Edessa, Greece before the 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Edinburgh as Din
Eidyn
c. 580 Gododdin UK (Scotland)
Erbil 6000 BC or earlier Mesopotamia Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq
Évora 53 BC (Roman conquest) Lusitania Portugal
Faiyum  (as Shediet,
Crocodilopolis,  Ptolemais Euergetis,  Arsinoe)
c. 4000 BC Lower Egypt Faiyum Governorate, Egypt
Feodosiya  (as
Theodosia)
7th century
BC
Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Fes  (as Fes-al-Bali) 789 Morocco
Gaza c. 1000 BC Levant Gaza Strip
Gaziantep c. 3650 BC Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey
Ghadames  (as Cydamus) 19 BC Libya
Glasgow c. 6th century Dál Riata orAlt
Clut
UK
(Scotland)
Guangzhou
(as Panyu)
214 BC Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China
Gyeongju 57 BC Silla South Korea
Hamadan
(asEcbatana)
c. 800 BC Median Empire Iran
Hangzhou  (as Lin’an) c. 200 BC Qin Dynasty Zhejiang,
China
Hanoi 454 AD Jiaozhou Vietnam
Hebron c. 1500 BC Levant West Bank
Heraklion 824 Crete Greece
Ife c. 350 BC Osun State Nigeria
Igodomigodo c. 400 BC Kingdom of Benin Nigeria
Inverness c. 6th century Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Ioannina 527–565 Byzantine Empire Greece
Istanbul/Byzantion 685 BC Anatolia ThraceAnatolia Turkey
Jaffa c. 2000 BC Levant Israel
Jamestown,
Virginia
1607 Colony of Virginia US
Jenin c. 2450 BC Levant West Bank
Jericho Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Levant West Bank
Jerusalem (Old
City)
2800 BC Levant West Bank
Kaifeng  (as Daling, Bianzhou,
Dongjing, Bianjing)
c. 364 BC Wei Henan,
China
Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur c. 2nd
century AD
Nepal Kathmanduvalley,
Nepal
Kavala 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Kediri 1042 AD Kediri Kingdom Indonesia
Kerch 7th century BC Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Kerikeri c. 1818 Northland New Zealand
Kiev 482 AD Medieval East Slavic civilization Ukraine
Kirkuk
(asArrapha)
3000–2200 BC Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate,
Iraq
Kismayo 4th century Bilad al-Barbar, after the 14th century part of theAjuuraan
Empire
Somalia
Kraków  (Wawel Hill) 7th century Lesser Poland Poland
Kumasi c. 1680 Ashanti
Empire
Ghana
Kutaisi c. 2000 BC Colchis Imeretiprovince,
Georgia
Kyoto
(as Heian-kyō, and sometimes
known in the west as Miyako)
794 AD Japan Japan
Lamia before the
5th century BC
Greece Greece
Lamu c. 1300 Kenya
Larnaca c. 1400 BC Alashiya Cyprus
Lisbon c. 1200 BC Iron Age Iberia Portugal
Ljubljana 50 BC Italia Slovenia
London  (asLondinium) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Luang Prabang 698 AD Muang Sua Laos
Lund c. 990 Denmark Sweden
Luoyang  (as Zhenxun, Xibo) c. 2070 BC Xia Dynasty Henan,
China
Luxor  (as Waset, better known by its Greek nameThebes) c. 3200 BC Ancient Egypt Egypt
Madurai 500 BC Pandyan kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Mahasthangarh, Bogra 4th century BC Pundravardhana Bogra District, Bangladesh
Málaga 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Mangalia 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Manila 900 AD Kingdom of
Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila
Philippines
Mantua 6th century BC Po Valley Lombardy,
Italy
Marrakesh
(Murakuc)
1070 Morocco
Marseilles  (as
Massilia)
600 BC Gaul France
Messina  (as Zancle) 8th century
BC
Sicily Sicily, Italy
Metz 4th century BC Gaul France
Mexico City 1325 Mexica culture Mexico
Mogadishu c. 700 Sultanate of Mogadishu Somalia
Montreal 1642 New France Canada
Mtskheta c. 1000 BC Caucasian Iberia Georgia
Mytilene 10th century
BC
Lesbos North Aegean, Greece
Nablus  (asShechem) c. 100 Levant West Bank
Nanjing  (as Yecheng, Jianye,
Jiankang, Jinling)
c. 495 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Naples c. 680 BC Magna Graecia Italy
Nara  (as Heijō-kyō) 710 AD Japan Japan
Nijmegen 19 BC Germania Inferior Netherlands
Niš 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Nombre de Dios,
Colón
1510 New Granada Panama
Novi Sad 1st century
AD
Illyria Serbia
Old Cairo c. 100 Egypt
Oraibi, Arizona c. 1100 Hopi culture US
Osaka  (as Naniwa) c. 400 AD Japan Japan
Palembang c. 600 AD Srivijaya Indonesia
Panama City 1519 New Granada Panama
Paris 52 BC Lutetia France
Patna 5th century BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Patras c. 1100 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Peshawar c. 400–300 BC Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Plovdiv 3000 –
4000 BC
Thrace Plovdiv
Province, Bulgaria
Plymouth,
Massachusetts
1620 Plymouth Colony US
Polatsk 862 Belarus
Prague c. 6th century Bohemia Czech Republic
Provadia 4700 BC. Neolithic,
Danubian Plain
Bulgaria
Ptuj 1st century BC Pannonia Slovenia
Pyeongyang
(as Wanggeom-seong)
194 BC Gojoseon North Korea
Qabala  (as Kabalaka) 4th century BC Caucasian Albania Azerbaijan
Quebec City 1608 New France Canada
Quito 980 Quitu culture Ecuador
Rajagriha
(Rajgir)
600 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion) 743 BC Magna Graecia Calabria,
Italy
Rey 3000 BC Media Iran
Reykjavík c. 871 Iceland Iceland
Rhodes c. 408 BC Rhodes,
Aegean Sea
Dodecanese, Greece
Ribe 704–710 Jutland Denmark
Rome 753 BC Latium Lazio,
Italy
Roses  (as
Rhode)
4th century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Saint John 1631 New France Canada
Samarqand 700 BC Sogdiana Uzbekistan
San
Diego
1769 New
Spain
US
San Juan 1508 New Spain Puerto Rico (US)
Sant Martí d’Empúries  (as Emporion) ca. 575 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Santa Fe de Bogota 1538 New Granada Colombia
Santa Fe, New
Mexico
1607 New Spain US
Santa Marta 1525 New Granada Colombia
Santiago del Estero 1553 Río de la Plata Argentina
Santo Domingo 1496 Hispaniola Dominican Republic
São Vicente, São
Paulo
1532 Governorate General of Brazil Brazil
Sault Ste. Marie,
Michigan
1668 New France US
Seoul
(as Wiryeseong)
18 BC Baekjae South Korea
Serres 5th century BC Macedonia Greece
Seville 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Sidon 4000 BC Levant Lebanon
Siem Reap 801 AD Khmer Empire Cambodia
Singapore 1170 AD Kingdom of Singapura Singapore
Skara 988 Sweden
Skopje 81–96 AD Macedonia (Roman
province)
Republic of Macedonia
Smederevo 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
Sofala c. 700 Mozambique
Sofia 4th century
BC
Moesia Sofia
Valley, Bulgaria
Solothurn c. 20 AD Gaul Switzerland
Sremska Mitrovica 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
St. Augustine,
Florida
1565 New Spain US
St. John’s,
Newfoundland and Labrador
1540s Newfoundland Colony Canada
Stara Zagora 342 BC Thrace Bulgaria
Staraya Ladoga 753 Russia
Stobi/Gradsko 217 BC Macedonia Republic of Macedonia
Susa
(Shush)
4200 BC Khuzestan Iran
Suzhou  (as Gusu, Wu) 514 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Syracuse 734 BC Sicily Sicily,
Italy
Taranto  (as Taras) 706 BC Magna Graecia Puglia,
Italy
Tarragona  (as
Tarraco)
218 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Tbilisi c. 500 Caucasian Iberia Kartli province, Georgia
Ternate 1109 AD Sultanate of Ternate Indonesia
Thanjavur 300 BC Early Chola kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Thebes c. 1400 BC Mycenaean
Greece
Boeotia,
Greece
Thessaloniki 315 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Greece
Tidore 1109 AD Sultanate of Tidore Indonesia
Tongeren 10 BC Germania Inferior Belgium
Trier 30 BC Gallia Belgica Germany
Trikala before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Thessaly,
Greece
Trois-Rivières 1634 New France Canada
Trondheim 997 Norway Norway
Tyre 2750 BC Levant Lebanon
Ujjain  (As Avanti) c. 800 BC Malwa India
Upper Xingu c. 800 AD Xingu culture Brazil
Vaisali 500 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Varanasi c. 1200–1100
BC
Iron Age India Uttar Pradesh, India
Varna 585 BC – 570 BC Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria
Veliky Novgorod 859 Russia
Vera Cruz 1519 New Spain Mexico
Verdun 4th century Lotharingia France
Veria c. 432 BC Macedonia Greece
Vitebsk 947 Belarus
Volterra c. 725 BC Tuscany Tuscany,
Italy
Vukovar 3500 BC Illyria Croatia
Winchester  (asVenta Belgarum) c. 70 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Worms 14 BC Germania Superior Germany
Xanthi before 879 Thrace Greece
Xi’an  (as Haojing, Fenghao,
Chang’an, Daxing)
c. 1100 BC Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi,
China
Yeha c. 700 BC D’mt Ethiopia
Yerevan 782 BC Urartu Armenia
York  (asEboracum) c. 72 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Zagreb 1 st century Illyria Croatia
Zeila/Avalite c. 9th century BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Zürich
(Lindenhof)
c. 50 BC Gaul Switzerland
c.
Citation needed
 

Courtesy & Source: Wikipedia 

Know : Countries with Capitals which is not their Largest City

Capital_not_largest_city

Country Capital Largest city
 Australia Canberra Sydney
 Belize Belmopan Belize City
 Benin Porto-Novo Cotonou
 Bolivia Sucre Santa Cruz de la Sierra
 Brazil Brasília São Paulo
 Cameroon Yaoundé Douala
 Canada Ottawa Toronto
 People’s Republic of China Beijing Shanghai
 Republic of China(Taiwan) Taipei New Taipei
 Côte d’Ivoire Yamoussoukro Abidjan
 Ecuador Quito Guayaquil
 India New Delhi Mumbai
 Kazakhstan Astana Almaty
 Liechtenstein Vaduz Schaan
 Malta Valletta Birkirkara
 Federated States of Micronesia Palikir Weno
 Monaco Monaco (Monaco-Ville) Monte Carlo
 Morocco Rabat Casablanca
 Myanmar Naypyidaw Yangon
 New Zealand Wellington Auckland
 Nigeria Abuja Lagos
 Pakistan Islamabad Karachi
 Palau Ngerulmud Koror
 Philippines Manila Quezon City
 San Marino San Marino Serravalle
 South Africa Pretoria Johannesburg
 Sudan Khartoum Omdurman
 Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Colombo
  Switzerland Bern Zürich
 Syria Damascus Aleppo
 Tanzania Dodoma Dar es Salaam
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Chaguanas
 Turkey Ankara Istanbul
 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Dubai
 United States Washington, D.C. New York City
 Vietnam Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City