Speech : The Importance of Basic Education : Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen’s speech – Commonwealth education conference, Edinburgh – 2003

Amartya_Sen_NIHIt’s a great privilege for me to have the opportunity of speaking at this meeting of Commonwealth countries on education. I am also very happy that you have chosen Edinburgh as the venue of this important conference. I am very proud of my own association with Edinburgh, through being an alumnus of two universities here, Edinburgh University and Heriot-Watt University (admittedly my connections are only through honorary degrees but they generate a sense of closeness to the real students here), and also through belonging to the Royal Society of Edinburgh and having other associations with this great city. So I welcome you to beautiful Edinburgh and to its wonderful intellectual community, of which I am privileged to be a nomadic member, as something of an academic gypsy. But to this welcome I must add my belief that there could not be a better place for a meeting on “closing the gap” in education than the city of Adam Smith and David Hume, the earliest and greatest champions of education for all.

Why is it so important to close the educational gaps, and to remove the enormous disparities in educational access, inclusion and achievement? One reason, among others, is the importance of this for making the world more secure as well as more fair. HG Wells was not exaggerating when he said, in his Outline of History: “human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe.” If we continue to leave vast sections of the people of the world outside the orbit of education, we make the world not only less just, but also less secure.

The precariousness of the world is now greater than it already was in HG Wells’s time in early twentieth century. Indeed, since the terrible events of September 11, 2001 – and what followed after that – the world has been very aware of problems of physical insecurity. But human insecurity comes in many different ways – not just though terrorism and violence. Indeed, even on the very day of September 11, 2001, more people died from Aids than from physical violence including the atrocity in New York. Human insecurity can develop in many different ways, and physical violence is only one of them. While it is important to fight terrorism and genocide (and in this too, education can have a big role, as I will presently discuss), we must also recognise the plural nature of human insecurity and its diverse manifestations.

As it happens, widening the coverage and effectiveness of basic education can have a powerfully preventive role in reducing human insecurity of nearly every kind. It is useful to consider briefly the different ways in which removing discrepancies and neglects in education can contribute to reducing human insecurity across the world.

The most basic issue relates to the elementary fact that illiteracy and innumeracy are forms of insecurity in themselves. Not to be able to read or write or count or communicate is a tremendous deprivation. The extreme case of insecurity is the certainty of deprivation, and the absence of any chance of avoiding that fate. The first and most immediate contribution of successful school education is a direct reduction of this basic deprivation – this extreme insecurity – which continues to ruin the lives of a large part of the global population, not least in the Commonwealth.

The difference that basic education can make to human life is easy to see. It is also readily appreciated even by the poorest of families. Speaking personally, it has been wonderful for me to observe how easily the importance of education is perceived even by the poorest and the most deprived of families. This emerges from some studies on primary education in India that we are currently undertaking (through the “Pratichi Trust” – a trust aimed at basic education and gender equity that I have been privileged to set up in India and Bangladesh through using my Nobel Prize money from 1998). As the results of our studies come in, it is remarkable to find how the parents from even the poorest and most depressed families long to give basic education to their children, to make them grow up without the terrible handicaps from which they – the parents – had themselves suffered.

Indeed, contrary to claims often made, we have not observed any basic reluctance by parents to send their children – daughters as well as boys – to school, provided affordable, effective and safe schooling opportunities actually exist in their neighbourhood. Of course, there are many obstacles in giving shape to the dreams of parents. The economic circumstances of the families often make it very hard for them to send their children to school, particularly when there are fees to be paid.

The obstacle of unaffordability must be firmly removed across the Commonwealth – indeed the world. I am, of course, aware that some champions of the market system want to leave school fees to the market forces. But this cannot but be a mistake given the social obligation to give the essential opportunity of schooling to all children. Indeed, Adam Smith, who provided the classic analysis of the power and reach of the market mechanism two and quarter centuries ago, wrote eloquently, sitting in Kirkcaldy (not far from here), why it would be wrong to leave this to the market:

For a very small expence the publick can facilitate, can encourage, and can even impose upon almost the whole body of the people, the necessity of acquiring those most essential parts of education.
There are other obstacles too. Sometimes the schools are very thinly staffed (many primary schools in developing countries have only one teacher), and parents are often worried about the safety of children, especially girl children (particularly in case the teacher fails to turn up, which seems to happen often enough in many of the poorer countries). Quite often, the parents’ reluctance has a rational basis, and these gaps too need to be addressed.

There are other barriers as well. Very poor families often rely on labour contributions from everyone, even the children, and this can compete with the demands of schooling. This unfortunate practice, though generated out of hardship, must also be removed, through regulation as well as by making the economic benefits of schooling clearer to all. This brings us to the second issue in understanding the contribution of schooling in removing human insecurity. Basic education can be very important in helping people to get jobs and gainful employment. This economic connection, while always present, is particularly critical in a rapidly globalising world in which quality control and production according to strict specification can be crucial.

Not surprisingly, all the cases of speedy use of the opportunities of global commerce for the reduction of poverty have drawn on help from basic education on a wide basis. For example, in Japan, already in the mid-19th century the task was seen with remarkable clarity. The Fundamental Code of Education, issued in 1872 (shortly after the Meiji restoration in 1868), expressed the public commitment to make sure that there must be “no community with an illiterate family, nor a family with an illiterate person”. Thus – with the closing of educational gaps – began Japan’s remarkable history of rapid economic development. By 1910 Japan was almost fully literate, at least for the young, and by 1913, though still very much poorer than Britain or America, Japan was publishing more books than Britain and more than twice as many as the United States. The concentration on education determined, to a large extent, the nature and speed of Japan’s economic and social progress.

Later on, particularly in the second half of the 20th century, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and other economies in East Asia followed similar routes and firmly focused on general expansion of education. Widespread participation in a global economy would have been hard to accomplish if people could not read or write, or produce according to specifications or instructions, or to have quality control.

Third, when people are illiterate, their ability to understand and invoke their legal rights can be very limited, and educational neglect can also lead to other kinds of deprivation. Indeed, this tends to be a persistent problem for people at the bottom of the ladder, whose rights are often effectively alienated because of their inability to read and see what they are entitled to demand and how. The educational gap clearly has a class connection.

It also has a gender connection since it can be a very important issue for women’s security. Women are often deprived of their due, thanks to illiteracy. Not being able to read or write is a significant barrier for underprivileged women, since this can lead to their failure to make use even of the rather limited rights they may legally have (say, to own land, or other property, or to appeal against unfair judgment and unjust treatment). There are often legal rights in rulebooks that are not used because the aggrieved parties cannot read those rulebooks. Gaps in schooling can, thus, directly lead to insecurity by distancing the deprived from the ways and means of fighting against that deprivation.

Fourth, illiteracy can also muffle the political opportunities of the underdog, by reducing their ability to participate in political arena and to express their demands effectively. This can contribute directly to their insecurity, since the absence of voice in politics can entail a severe reduction of influence and the likelihood of just treatment of those who are kept on the wrong side of the gap.

Fifth, basic education can play a major role in tackling health problems in general and epidemics in particular. It is easy to see the importance of specialised health education (for example, on the way infections spread and how diseases can be prevented). But even general education can broaden a person’s lines of thinking and generate social understanding in ways that may be extremely important in facing epidemiological problems. Indeed, some studies have suggested that general school education has a bigger impact on health than specialised health education itself has.

Sixth, empirical work in recent years has brought out very clearly how the relative respect and regard for women’s well-being is strongly influenced by women’s literacy and educated participation in decisions within and outside the family. Even the survival disadvantage of women compared with men in many developing countries (which leads to such terrible phenomenon as a hundred million of “missing women”) seems to go down sharply – and may even get eliminated – with progress in women’s empowerment, for which literacy is a basic ingredient.

There is also considerable evidence that fertility rates tend to go down sharply with greater empowerment of women. This is not surprising, since the lives that are most battered by the frequent bearing and rearing of children are those of young women, and anything that enhances their decisional power and increases the attention that their interests receive tends, in general, to prevent over-frequent child bearing. For example, in a comparative study of the different districts within India, it has clearly emerged that women’s education and women’s employment are the two most important influences in reducing fertility rates. In that extensive study, female education and employment are the only variables that have a statistically significant impact in explaining variations in fertility rates across more than three hundred districts that make up India. In understanding inter-regional differences, for example the fact the state of Kerala in India has a fertility rate of only 1.7 (which can be roughly interpreted as 1.7 children on average per couple) in contrast with many areas which have four children per couple (or even more), the level of female education provides the most effective explanation.

There is also much evidence that women’s education and literacy tend to reduce the mortality rates of children. These and other connections between basic education of women and the power of women’s agency (and its extensive reach) indicate why the gender gap in education produces heavy social penalties.

I have so far concentrated on gaps in access, inclusion and achievement that differentiate one group of people from another. But this is also a good occasion to reflect a little on the gaps – of a very different kind – that exist in the coverage of the school curriculum. The nature of the curriculum is, of course, of obvious relevance to the development of technical skills (such as computing) that facilitate participation in the contemporary world. But there are also other issues involved, since schooling can be deeply influential in the identity of a person and the way we see ourselves and each other.

This issue has received some attention recently in the special context of the role of fundamentalist religious schools, and there is need to pay attention to the narrowing of horizons, especially of children, that illiberal and intolerant education can produce. It is also important to recognise that lack of public facilities for the schooling of children often contributes greatly to the appeal and popularity of religious schools run by political militants.

Indeed, the nature of education is quite central to peace in the world. Recently the very deceptive perspective of the so-called “clash of civilisations” (championed particularly by Samuel Huntington) has gained much currency. It is important to see that what is most immediately divisive in this kind of theorising is not the silly idea of the inevitability of a clash (that too, but it comes later), but the equally shallow prior insistence on seeing human beings in terms of one dimension only, regarding them just as members of one civilisation or another (defined mostly in terms of religion), ignoring their other affiliations and involvements.

There are two mistakes here. First, the classification is very crude. For example, India is put in the box of Hindu civilisation, even though with its 130 million Muslims (more than the entire British and French populations put together), India has many more Muslims than most so-called “Muslim countries” in the world. Huntington’s classification gives comfort only to Hindu sectarians.

The second mistake is to assume that a person’s religion defines him or her reasonably adequately. But every human being’s identities have many different components, related to nationality, language, location, class, occupation, history, religion, political beliefs, and so on. A Bangladeshi Muslim is not only a Muslim, but also a Bengali and possibly quite proud of the richness of the Bengali literature and other cultural achievements. Similarly, the history of the Arab world with which an Arab child today can potentially related is not only the achievements of Islam (important as they are), but also the great secular accomplishments in mathematics, science and literature which are part and parcel of Arab history. Even today when a scientist in, say, the Imperial College uses an “algorithm,” he or she unconsciously celebrates the innovativeness of the ninth-century Arab mathematician, Al-Khwarizmi, from whose name the term algorithm is derived (the term “algebra” comes from his book, “Al Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah”).

To define people just in terms of religion-based classification of civilisations can itself contribute to political insecurity, since in this view people are seen as simply belonging to, say, “the Muslim world,” or “the Western world,” or “the Hindu world,” or “the Buddhist world,” and so on. To ignore everything other than religion in classifying people is to set people up in potentially belligerent camps. I personally believe that even the UK government makes a mistake in expanding, rather than reducing faith-based state schools, adding for example Muslim schools, Hindu schools and Sikh schools to pre-existing Christian ones, especially when the new religious schools leave children very little opportunity to cultivate reasoned choice and decide how the various components of their identities (related respectively to language, literature, religion, ethnicity, cultural history, scientific interests, etc) should receive attention. There is need not only to discuss the importance of our common humanity, but also to stress the fact that our diversities can take many distinct forms and that we have to use our reasoning to decide how to see ourselves.

The importance of non-sectarian and non-parochial curricula that expand, rather than reduce, the reach of reason can be hard to exaggerate. Shakespeare talked about the fact that “some men are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.” In the schooling of children, we have to make sure that we do not have smallness thrust upon the young.

The idea of the Commonwealth has something to offer on the philosophy behind such a broad approach. The Queen herself, as the head of the Commonwealth, put the basic perspective with clarity and force half a century ago, shortly after her coronation, in 1953:

The Commonwealth … is an entirely new conception built on the highest qualities of the spirit of man: friendship, loyalty and the desire for freedom and peace.
In promoting friendship and loyalty, and in safeguarding the commitment to freedom and peace, basic education can play a vital part. This requires, on the one hand, that the facilities of education be available to all, and on the other, that children be exposed to ideas from many different backgrounds and perspectives and be encouraged to think for themselves and to reason.

Basic education is not just an arrangement for training to develop skills (important as that is), it is also a recognition of the nature of the world, with its diversity and richness, and an appreciation of the importance of freedom and reasoning as well as friendship. The need for that understanding – that vision – has never been stronger.

Amartya Kumar Sen is an Indian economist and philosopher who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom and the United States. He has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of famines, and indexes of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries. He was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1998 for his work in welfare economics.


Courtesy & Source : The Guardian

Know : List of All Noble Prize Winners

Nobel_PrizeThe Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Each recipient, or “laureate”, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.

555 Nobel Prizes!

Between 1901 and 2012, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 555 times.

Nobel Prize Number of Prizes Number of Laureates Awarded to one Laureate Shared by two Laureates Shared by three Laureates
Physics 106 194 47 29 29
Chemistry 104 163 63 22 18
Medicine 103 201 38 31 33
Literature 105 109 100 4
Peace 93 100+24 62 28 2
Economic Sciences 44 71 22 16 5
Total: 555 862 332 130 87

Only 44 Nobel Prizes to Women!

Between 1901 and 2012 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 44 times to women. List of all female Nobel Laureates

List of all Noble Prize Laureates (Winners)

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

1901

Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy

1902

Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat

1903

Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer

1904

Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International

1905

Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner

1906

J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt

1907

Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault

1908

Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer

1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d’Estournelles de Constant

1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau

1911

Wilhelm Wien Marie Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried

1912

Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root

1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine

1914

Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány

None

None

1915

William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter

None

Romain Rolland

None

1916

None

None

None

Verner von Heidenstam

None

1917

Charles Glover Barkla

None

None

Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross

1918

Max Planck Fritz Haber

None

None

None

1919

Johannes Stark

None

Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson

1920

Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois

1921

Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy

None

Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange

1922

Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen

1923

Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats

None

1924

Manne Siegbahn

None

Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont

None

1925

James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

None

George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes

1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann

1927

Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde

1928

Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset

None

1929

Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg

1930

C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom

1931

None

Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler

1932

Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy

None

1933

Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac

None

Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell

1934

None

Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson

1935

James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann

None

Carl von Ossietzky

1936

Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O’Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1937

Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

1938

Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees

1939

Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää

None

1940

None

None

None

None

None

1941

None

None

None

None

None

1942

None

None

None

None

None

1943

Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy

None

None

1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross

1945

Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull

1946

Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott

1947

Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee

1948

Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot

None[B]

1949

Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr

1950

C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche

1951

John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux

1952

Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer

1953

Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall

1954

Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1955

Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness

None

1956

John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez

None

1957

Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson

1958

Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire

1959

Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker

1960

Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli

1961

Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld

1962

Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling

1963

Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies

1964

Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.

1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

1966

Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs

None

1967

Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias

None

1968

Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin

1969

Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen

1970

Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson

1971

Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets

1972

John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll

None

John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow

1973

Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief

1974

Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek

1975

Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans

1976

Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman

1977

Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade

1978

Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon

1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis

1980

James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein

1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui;
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry;
David H. Hubel;
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin

1982

Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström;
Bengt I. Samuelsson;
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal;
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler

1983

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu

1984

Carlo Rubbia;
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne;
Georges J. F. Köhler;
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone

1985

Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman;
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown;
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani

1986

Ernst Ruska;
Gerd Binnig;
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach;
Yuan T. Lee;
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen;
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan

1987

Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram;
Jean-Marie Lehn;
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow

1988

Leon M. Lederman;
Melvin Schwartz;
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer;
Robert Huber;
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black;
Gertrude B. Elion;
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais

1989

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman;
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop;
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo

1990

Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Henry Way Kendall;
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray;
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz;
Merton Miller;
William Forsyth Sharpe

1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher;
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase

1992

Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer;
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker

1993

Russell Alan Hulse;
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis;
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts;
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela;
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel;
Douglass North

1994

Bertram Brockhouse;
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman;
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat;
Shimon Peres;
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi;
John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Reinhard Selten

1995

Martin Lewis Perl;
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen;
Mario J. Molina;
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis;
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.

1996

David Lee;
Douglas Osheroff;
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Harry Kroto;
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty;
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees;
William Vickrey

1997

Steven Chu;
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer;
John E. Walker;
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton;
Myron Scholes

1998

Robert B. Laughlin;
Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn;
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott;
Louis Ignarro;
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume;
David Trimble
Amartya Sen

1999

Gerard ‘t Hooft;
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell

2000

Zhores Alferov;
Herbert Kroemer;
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger;
Alan MacDiarmid;
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson;
Paul Greengard;
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman;
Daniel McFadden

2001

Eric Allin Cornell;
Wolfgang Ketterle;
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles;
Ryōji Noyori;
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell;
Tim Hunt;
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof;
Michael Spence;
Joseph Stiglitz

2002

Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Masatoshi Koshiba;
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn;
Koichi Tanaka;
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner;
H. Robert Horvitz;
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman;
Vernon L. Smith

2003

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Vitaly Ginzburg;
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre;
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur;
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle;
Clive Granger

2004

David Gross;
Hugh David Politzer;
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover;
Avram Hershko;
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel;
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland;
Edward C. Prescott

2005

Roy J. Glauber;
John L. Hall;
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin;
Robert H. Grubbs;
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall;
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann;
Thomas Schelling

2006

John C. Mather;
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire;
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps

2007

Albert Fert;
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi;
Martin Evans;
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz;
Eric Maskin;
Roger Myerson

2008

Yoichiro Nambu;
Makoto Kobayashi;
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura;
Martin Chalfie;
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen;
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman

2009

Charles K. Kao;
Willard S. Boyle;
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Thomas A. Steitz;
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn;
Carol W. Greider;
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom;
Oliver E. Williamson

2010

Andre Geim;
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard Heck;
Ei-ichi Negishi;
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo[F] Peter A. Diamond;
Dale T. Mortensen;
Christopher A. Pissarides

2011

Saul Perlmutter;
Adam G. Riess;
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler;
Jules A. Hoffmann;
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Leymah Gbowee;
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent;
Christopher A. Sims

2012

Serge Haroche;
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka;
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon;
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth;
Lloyd S. Shapley

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

Courtesy & Sources : Wikipedia, Nobelprize.org