Know : List of Oldest & Continuously Inhabited Cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

The age claims listed are generally disputed and may indeed be obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of “city” as well as “continuously inhabited” and historical evidence is often disputed.

Several cities listed here (Balkh, Byblos, Aleppo, Damascus, and Jericho) each popularly claim to be “the oldest city in the world”.

Name Continuously
inhabited since
Historical
region
Location
Aberdeen c. 580 Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Acoma
Puebloand Taos Pueblo,  New Mexico
c. 1075 Pueblo culture US
Albany, New York 1614 New Netherlands US
Aleppo Chalcolithic
(4300 BC or earlier)
Levant Syria
Alexandria 332 BC Egypt
Amesbury 8th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Britain
UK (England)
Amman c. 1878 Levant Jordan
Argos 5th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Mycenaean Greece
Greece
Århus c. 770 Denmark
Athens 5th–4th
Millennium BC
Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica,
Greece
Axum c. 400 BC Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia
Bagan 849 AD Kingdom of Pagan Myanmar
Baku The 1st century AD. Azerbaijan Absheron peninsula
Balkh  (as Bactra) 1500 BC Bactria Balkh
Province, Afghanistan
Bamyan 1st century AD Bactria Bamyan Province, Afghanistan
Bandar Seri Begawan 977 AD Kingdom of
Po-ni
Brunei
Baracoa 1511 New Spain Cuba
Barcelona  (as
Barcino)
3rd century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Bath  (as Aquae Sulis) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Beijing c. 1045 BC Ji,
Yan
Beijing,
China
Beirut 3000 BC Levant Lebanon
Belgrade 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Berat 314 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Albania
Berbera c. 400 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi 6th century BC Bessarabia Ukraine
Butuan 1001 AD Kingdom of Butuan Philippines
Byblos (Jubayl) Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier) Levant Lebanon
Cádiz 1100 BC Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Cagliari 8th century BC Sardinia Sardegna,
Italy
Cape Guardafui c. 500 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Cape Town 1652 Cape colony South Africa
Cartagena  (as
Carthago Nova)
228 BC Iberia Spain
Carthage 814 BC Tunisia
Chalcis before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Chania c. 1400 BC Crete Crete,
Greece
Chengdu c. 400 BC Shu Sichuan,
China
Chios c. 1100 BC Chios North Aegean, Greece
Cholula c. 2nd
century BC
Old Cholula Mexico
Chur 15 BC Raetia Prima Grisons,
Switzerland
Cologne 50 AD Germania Inferior Germany
Constanţa 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Corfu,  Kerkyra 700 BC Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece
Crotone  (as Kroton) 710 BC Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy
Cusco c. 1100 Inca Empire Peru
Damascus Chalcolithic Levant Syria
Djenné-Jeno c. 200 BC Mali
Dublin 841 Ireland Ireland
Durrës 627 BC Illyria Albania
Edessa, Greece before the 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Edinburgh as Din
Eidyn
c. 580 Gododdin UK (Scotland)
Erbil 6000 BC or earlier Mesopotamia Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq
Évora 53 BC (Roman conquest) Lusitania Portugal
Faiyum  (as Shediet,
Crocodilopolis,  Ptolemais Euergetis,  Arsinoe)
c. 4000 BC Lower Egypt Faiyum Governorate, Egypt
Feodosiya  (as
Theodosia)
7th century
BC
Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Fes  (as Fes-al-Bali) 789 Morocco
Gaza c. 1000 BC Levant Gaza Strip
Gaziantep c. 3650 BC Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey
Ghadames  (as Cydamus) 19 BC Libya
Glasgow c. 6th century Dál Riata orAlt
Clut
UK
(Scotland)
Guangzhou
(as Panyu)
214 BC Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China
Gyeongju 57 BC Silla South Korea
Hamadan
(asEcbatana)
c. 800 BC Median Empire Iran
Hangzhou  (as Lin’an) c. 200 BC Qin Dynasty Zhejiang,
China
Hanoi 454 AD Jiaozhou Vietnam
Hebron c. 1500 BC Levant West Bank
Heraklion 824 Crete Greece
Ife c. 350 BC Osun State Nigeria
Igodomigodo c. 400 BC Kingdom of Benin Nigeria
Inverness c. 6th century Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Ioannina 527–565 Byzantine Empire Greece
Istanbul/Byzantion 685 BC Anatolia ThraceAnatolia Turkey
Jaffa c. 2000 BC Levant Israel
Jamestown,
Virginia
1607 Colony of Virginia US
Jenin c. 2450 BC Levant West Bank
Jericho Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Levant West Bank
Jerusalem (Old
City)
2800 BC Levant West Bank
Kaifeng  (as Daling, Bianzhou,
Dongjing, Bianjing)
c. 364 BC Wei Henan,
China
Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur c. 2nd
century AD
Nepal Kathmanduvalley,
Nepal
Kavala 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Kediri 1042 AD Kediri Kingdom Indonesia
Kerch 7th century BC Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Kerikeri c. 1818 Northland New Zealand
Kiev 482 AD Medieval East Slavic civilization Ukraine
Kirkuk
(asArrapha)
3000–2200 BC Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate,
Iraq
Kismayo 4th century Bilad al-Barbar, after the 14th century part of theAjuuraan
Empire
Somalia
Kraków  (Wawel Hill) 7th century Lesser Poland Poland
Kumasi c. 1680 Ashanti
Empire
Ghana
Kutaisi c. 2000 BC Colchis Imeretiprovince,
Georgia
Kyoto
(as Heian-kyō, and sometimes
known in the west as Miyako)
794 AD Japan Japan
Lamia before the
5th century BC
Greece Greece
Lamu c. 1300 Kenya
Larnaca c. 1400 BC Alashiya Cyprus
Lisbon c. 1200 BC Iron Age Iberia Portugal
Ljubljana 50 BC Italia Slovenia
London  (asLondinium) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Luang Prabang 698 AD Muang Sua Laos
Lund c. 990 Denmark Sweden
Luoyang  (as Zhenxun, Xibo) c. 2070 BC Xia Dynasty Henan,
China
Luxor  (as Waset, better known by its Greek nameThebes) c. 3200 BC Ancient Egypt Egypt
Madurai 500 BC Pandyan kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Mahasthangarh, Bogra 4th century BC Pundravardhana Bogra District, Bangladesh
Málaga 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Mangalia 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Manila 900 AD Kingdom of
Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila
Philippines
Mantua 6th century BC Po Valley Lombardy,
Italy
Marrakesh
(Murakuc)
1070 Morocco
Marseilles  (as
Massilia)
600 BC Gaul France
Messina  (as Zancle) 8th century
BC
Sicily Sicily, Italy
Metz 4th century BC Gaul France
Mexico City 1325 Mexica culture Mexico
Mogadishu c. 700 Sultanate of Mogadishu Somalia
Montreal 1642 New France Canada
Mtskheta c. 1000 BC Caucasian Iberia Georgia
Mytilene 10th century
BC
Lesbos North Aegean, Greece
Nablus  (asShechem) c. 100 Levant West Bank
Nanjing  (as Yecheng, Jianye,
Jiankang, Jinling)
c. 495 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Naples c. 680 BC Magna Graecia Italy
Nara  (as Heijō-kyō) 710 AD Japan Japan
Nijmegen 19 BC Germania Inferior Netherlands
Niš 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Nombre de Dios,
Colón
1510 New Granada Panama
Novi Sad 1st century
AD
Illyria Serbia
Old Cairo c. 100 Egypt
Oraibi, Arizona c. 1100 Hopi culture US
Osaka  (as Naniwa) c. 400 AD Japan Japan
Palembang c. 600 AD Srivijaya Indonesia
Panama City 1519 New Granada Panama
Paris 52 BC Lutetia France
Patna 5th century BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Patras c. 1100 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Peshawar c. 400–300 BC Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Plovdiv 3000 –
4000 BC
Thrace Plovdiv
Province, Bulgaria
Plymouth,
Massachusetts
1620 Plymouth Colony US
Polatsk 862 Belarus
Prague c. 6th century Bohemia Czech Republic
Provadia 4700 BC. Neolithic,
Danubian Plain
Bulgaria
Ptuj 1st century BC Pannonia Slovenia
Pyeongyang
(as Wanggeom-seong)
194 BC Gojoseon North Korea
Qabala  (as Kabalaka) 4th century BC Caucasian Albania Azerbaijan
Quebec City 1608 New France Canada
Quito 980 Quitu culture Ecuador
Rajagriha
(Rajgir)
600 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion) 743 BC Magna Graecia Calabria,
Italy
Rey 3000 BC Media Iran
Reykjavík c. 871 Iceland Iceland
Rhodes c. 408 BC Rhodes,
Aegean Sea
Dodecanese, Greece
Ribe 704–710 Jutland Denmark
Rome 753 BC Latium Lazio,
Italy
Roses  (as
Rhode)
4th century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Saint John 1631 New France Canada
Samarqand 700 BC Sogdiana Uzbekistan
San
Diego
1769 New
Spain
US
San Juan 1508 New Spain Puerto Rico (US)
Sant Martí d’Empúries  (as Emporion) ca. 575 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Santa Fe de Bogota 1538 New Granada Colombia
Santa Fe, New
Mexico
1607 New Spain US
Santa Marta 1525 New Granada Colombia
Santiago del Estero 1553 Río de la Plata Argentina
Santo Domingo 1496 Hispaniola Dominican Republic
São Vicente, São
Paulo
1532 Governorate General of Brazil Brazil
Sault Ste. Marie,
Michigan
1668 New France US
Seoul
(as Wiryeseong)
18 BC Baekjae South Korea
Serres 5th century BC Macedonia Greece
Seville 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Sidon 4000 BC Levant Lebanon
Siem Reap 801 AD Khmer Empire Cambodia
Singapore 1170 AD Kingdom of Singapura Singapore
Skara 988 Sweden
Skopje 81–96 AD Macedonia (Roman
province)
Republic of Macedonia
Smederevo 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
Sofala c. 700 Mozambique
Sofia 4th century
BC
Moesia Sofia
Valley, Bulgaria
Solothurn c. 20 AD Gaul Switzerland
Sremska Mitrovica 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
St. Augustine,
Florida
1565 New Spain US
St. John’s,
Newfoundland and Labrador
1540s Newfoundland Colony Canada
Stara Zagora 342 BC Thrace Bulgaria
Staraya Ladoga 753 Russia
Stobi/Gradsko 217 BC Macedonia Republic of Macedonia
Susa
(Shush)
4200 BC Khuzestan Iran
Suzhou  (as Gusu, Wu) 514 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Syracuse 734 BC Sicily Sicily,
Italy
Taranto  (as Taras) 706 BC Magna Graecia Puglia,
Italy
Tarragona  (as
Tarraco)
218 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Tbilisi c. 500 Caucasian Iberia Kartli province, Georgia
Ternate 1109 AD Sultanate of Ternate Indonesia
Thanjavur 300 BC Early Chola kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Thebes c. 1400 BC Mycenaean
Greece
Boeotia,
Greece
Thessaloniki 315 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Greece
Tidore 1109 AD Sultanate of Tidore Indonesia
Tongeren 10 BC Germania Inferior Belgium
Trier 30 BC Gallia Belgica Germany
Trikala before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Thessaly,
Greece
Trois-Rivières 1634 New France Canada
Trondheim 997 Norway Norway
Tyre 2750 BC Levant Lebanon
Ujjain  (As Avanti) c. 800 BC Malwa India
Upper Xingu c. 800 AD Xingu culture Brazil
Vaisali 500 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Varanasi c. 1200–1100
BC
Iron Age India Uttar Pradesh, India
Varna 585 BC – 570 BC Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria
Veliky Novgorod 859 Russia
Vera Cruz 1519 New Spain Mexico
Verdun 4th century Lotharingia France
Veria c. 432 BC Macedonia Greece
Vitebsk 947 Belarus
Volterra c. 725 BC Tuscany Tuscany,
Italy
Vukovar 3500 BC Illyria Croatia
Winchester  (asVenta Belgarum) c. 70 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Worms 14 BC Germania Superior Germany
Xanthi before 879 Thrace Greece
Xi’an  (as Haojing, Fenghao,
Chang’an, Daxing)
c. 1100 BC Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi,
China
Yeha c. 700 BC D’mt Ethiopia
Yerevan 782 BC Urartu Armenia
York  (asEboracum) c. 72 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Zagreb 1 st century Illyria Croatia
Zeila/Avalite c. 9th century BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Zürich
(Lindenhof)
c. 50 BC Gaul Switzerland
c.
Citation needed
 

Courtesy & Source: Wikipedia 

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Know : Countries with Capitals which is not their Largest City

Capital_not_largest_city

Country Capital Largest city
 Australia Canberra Sydney
 Belize Belmopan Belize City
 Benin Porto-Novo Cotonou
 Bolivia Sucre Santa Cruz de la Sierra
 Brazil Brasília São Paulo
 Cameroon Yaoundé Douala
 Canada Ottawa Toronto
 People’s Republic of China Beijing Shanghai
 Republic of China(Taiwan) Taipei New Taipei
 Côte d’Ivoire Yamoussoukro Abidjan
 Ecuador Quito Guayaquil
 India New Delhi Mumbai
 Kazakhstan Astana Almaty
 Liechtenstein Vaduz Schaan
 Malta Valletta Birkirkara
 Federated States of Micronesia Palikir Weno
 Monaco Monaco (Monaco-Ville) Monte Carlo
 Morocco Rabat Casablanca
 Myanmar Naypyidaw Yangon
 New Zealand Wellington Auckland
 Nigeria Abuja Lagos
 Pakistan Islamabad Karachi
 Palau Ngerulmud Koror
 Philippines Manila Quezon City
 San Marino San Marino Serravalle
 South Africa Pretoria Johannesburg
 Sudan Khartoum Omdurman
 Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Colombo
  Switzerland Bern Zürich
 Syria Damascus Aleppo
 Tanzania Dodoma Dar es Salaam
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Chaguanas
 Turkey Ankara Istanbul
 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Dubai
 United States Washington, D.C. New York City
 Vietnam Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City

Know : Bicycle Sharing System and Available Countries

Eco bicycle

bicycle sharing system, or bike share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a very short term basis. The main purpose is transportation: bike share allows people to depart from point “A” and arrive at point “B” free from the worries of ownership.

File:Helsinki city bikes.jpg

Helsinki city bikes

Bike-share has seen explosive, global growth over recent years. As of April 2013 there were around 535 bike-sharing programmes around the world, made of an estimated fleet of 517,000 bicycles. In May 2011 there were around 375 schemes comprising 236,000 bikes So those two years saw a doubling of bike share globally.

File:Vélo'v station 5002 - Place des Compagnons de la chanson.jpg

Vélo’v in Lyon

Many bike-share systems offer subscriptions that make the first 30–45 minutes of use very inexpensive, encouraging their use as transportation. In most bike-share cities, people seeking a bicycle for casual riding over several hours or days are better served by bicycle rental than by bike-share.

File:CityBikesStockholm.jpg

Stockholm City Bikes, Sweden

Bike-share use is made more predictable with Smartphone mapping apps which show where nearby stations are located and how many bikes are available at each station. This is also important for riders looking to return a bike; they need to know if there is a dock open at a certain station, since stations can fill up with bikes. So using bike-share to get around a city is made far easier with real-time, GPS-based smartphone apps with bike-share station information overlaid on a city map.

File:Paris 06 2012 Velib 2883.JPG

Most of the latest systems use advanced information technologies (IT) for bicycle reservations, pick-up, drop-off, and information tracking.

The reasons people use bike-share vary considerably. In some cities, people who might use their own bicycle as transportation don’t do so because of concerns about theft or vandalism. In addition, many bike-share users find bike-share extremely liberating. A rider can seamlessly transfer to public transit or to a car without concern about leaving a bike behind: a person can ride to meet someone in a city, leave the bike-share bike then walk with them, tourists go from hotel to museum to show, citizens can take visiting friends or family to local attractions with bike-share, users may take public transit to work on a rainy day then ride home afterwards when the weather improves… the flexibility of not having to always park and own a bicycle make life freer and easier for the growing number of bike-share users globally.

The Wuhan and Hangzhou Public Bicycle bike-share programmes in China are the largest in the world, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively. In Hangzhou there are over 2,400 stations. The Vélib’ in Paris, which comprises around 20,000 bicycles and 1,450 bicycle stations, is the largest outside of China. The countries with the most systems are Spain (132), Italy (104), and China (79). The systems with the higher market penetration are both operating in France, the Parisian Velib’ with 1 bike per 97 inhabitants and Vélo’v in Lyon with 1 bike per 121 residents.

Bicycle sharing systems can be divided into two general categories: “Community Bike programmesorganised mostly by local community groups or non-profit organisations; and “Smart Bike programmes” implemented by government agencies, sometimes in a public-private partnership. The central concept of these systems is to provide free or affordable access to bicycles for short-distance trips in an urban area as an alternative to motorised public transport or private vehicles, thereby reducing traffic congestion, noise, and air pollution. Bicycle sharing systems have also been cited as a way to solve the “last mile” problem and connect users to public transit networks.

File:Bike share.jpg

BikeMi, Milan, Italy

Public bike sharing programmes address some of the primary disadvantages to bicycle ownership, including loss from theft or vandalism, lack of parking or storage, and maintenance requirements. However, by limiting the number of places where bicycles can be rented or returned, the service itself essentially becomes a form of public transit, and has therefore been criticised as less convenient than a privately owned bicycle capable of point-to-point transport. Government-run bicycle sharing programmes can also prove costly to the public unless subsidised by commercial interests, typically in the form of advertising on stations or the bicycles themselves.

File:Hubway.jpg

Boston’s Hubway is one of the first and largest bikeshare programs in the U.S.

Bike-sharing systems have undergone changes which can be categorised into three key phases, or generations. These include the first generation, called white bikes (or free bikes); the second generation of coin-deposit systems; and the third generation, or information technology(IT) based systems. Recent technological and operational improvements are also paving the way for a fourth generation, known as the demand-responsive, multimodal system.

List of Current bicycle sharing systems around the world (click on the link to know more)

File:Hangzhou bike sharing station.jpg

The Hangzhou Public Bicycle programme in China, the second largest bicycle sharing system in the world

File:Place de la République (Paris), réaménagement, 2012-04-05 39.jpg

The Vélib’ in Paris is the largest bikesharing programme outside of China

File:Witte fietsen de hoge veluwe.jpg

White bicycles for free use, in Hoge Veluwe national park, the Netherlands

File:Capital Bikeshare DC 09 2010 508.JPG

Bicycle station powered by solar panels

File:E53 St Citibike station loaded jeh.jpg

Citi Bike opened in New York City in May 2013 and is the largest bike sharing program in the U.S.

File:Boulder.bcycle.solar.jpg

Solar powered Boulder B-cycle station with double sided docks.

File:Capital Bikeshare DC 2010 10 539.JPG

Capital Bikeshare was launched in Washington, D.C. and Arlington County, Virginia in 2010

File:Bixi Montreal.JPG

Bixi Montreal, Canada

File:Estacio bicing bcn.jpg

Bicing in Barcelona

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Velib’ bicycle station in Paris

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A station in Lausanne (Switzerland).

File:Barclayscyclehire.jpg

Barclays Cycle Hire, London, UK started in 2010

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The EBI in Esztergom, Hungary

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VeloBike bicycles in Moscow, September 2013

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Capital Bikeshare services Washington, D.C., Arlington, Virginia and Alexandria, Virginia

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Bike Rio rental station located near Posto 9, Ipanema, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

File:Melbourne City Bikes.JPG

A bicycle sharing station in Swanston Street, Melbourne.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

 

Eco-preservation : Chinese Air Pollution affects Japan and Korea

Buildings in the western Japanese city of Osaka, some 2,250 kilometers (1,400 miles) southeast of Beijing, are shrouded in dense smog Wednesday, February 26, 2014 a day after parts of northern China suffered a sixth straight day of severe pollution. The readings of particulate matter known as PM2.5, a key measure of pollution reached 104 micrograms per cubic meter in Osaka in the morning. The World Health Organization considers 25 micrograms a safe level. (Photo by AP Photo/Kyodo News) 

Buildings in the western Japanese city of Osaka, some 2,250 kilometers (1,400 miles) southeast of Beijing, are shrouded in dense smog Wednesday, February 26, 2014 a day after parts of northern China suffered a sixth straight day of severe pollution. The readings of particulate matter known as PM2.5, a key measure of pollution reached 104 micrograms per cubic meter in Osaka in the morning. The World Health Organization considers 25 micrograms a safe level. (Photo by AP Photo/Kyodo News)

A general view of the pollution covered Beijing CBD on February 25, 2014 in Beijing, China. The air pollution has caused an increase in the number of people seeking hospital treatment for respiratory problems and the public are asked to avoid outdoor activities. (Photo by Lintao Zhang/Getty Images)

A general view of the pollution covered Beijing CBD on February 25, 2014 in Beijing, China. The air pollution has caused an increase in the number of people seeking hospital treatment for respiratory problems and the public are asked to avoid outdoor activities. (Photo by Lintao Zhang/Getty Images)

A couple watches the Seoul skyline covered with a thick haze at Seoul Tower's observation deck in Seoul, South Korea, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The Seoul metropolitan government issued a dust warning, urging people to stay indoors. (Photo by Ahn Young-joon/AP Photo) 
A couple watches the Seoul skyline covered with a thick haze at Seoul Tower’s observation deck in Seoul, South Korea, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The Seoul metropolitan government issued a dust warning, urging people to stay indoors.
(Photo by Ahn Young-joon/AP Photo)

Children walk back home after school on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China's Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
Children walk back home after school on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China’s Hebei province,
Wednesday, February 26, 2014.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

Vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing's skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. Chinese characters on board reads: “Smog weather, reduce going outside”. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing’s skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants. Chinese characters on board reads: “Smog weather, reduce going outside”.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

A watchdog stands in front of a wall with a mosaic scenic painting at a cement plant on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China's Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The meteorological center said moderate or severe pollution had persisted in northern China since Thursday, and that it was particularly serious in Beijing and its surrounding area. It forecast that the pollution would continue in parts of eastern, northern and central China until Wednesday evening, when precipitation and wind should help to disperse it. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
A watchdog stands in front of a wall with a mosaic scenic painting at a cement plant on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China’s Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The meteorological center said moderate or severe pollution had persisted in northern China since Thursday, and that it was particularly serious in Beijing and its surrounding area. It forecast that the pollution would continue in parts of eastern, northern and central China until Wednesday evening, when precipitation and wind should help to disperse it.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

People are seen inside a residential apartment building as city skyline shrouded with heavy haze in Beijing Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. (Photo by Andy Wong/AP Photo) 
People are seen inside a residential apartment building as city skyline shrouded with heavy haze in Beijing Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants.
(Photo by Andy Wong/AP Photo)

A man and a car travelling on a road are obscured in heavy haze on a severely polluted day in Pingshan county of Shijiazhuang, in northern China's Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Chinese President Xi Jinping braved Beijing's choking smog Tuesday, making an unannounced visit to a trendy alley and sitting with residents in his latest public relations effort to be seen as a man of the people. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
A man and a car travelling on a road are obscured in heavy haze on a severely polluted day in Pingshan county of Shijiazhuang, in northern China’s Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Chinese President Xi Jinping braved Beijing’s choking smog Tuesday, making an unannounced visit to a trendy alley and sitting with residents in his latest public relations effort to be seen as a man of the people.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

Vehicles clog a highway during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Vehicles clog a highway during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

Paramilitary policemen stand ready to march across Tiananmen Square on a severely polluted day in Beijing, China, Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Pollution across a large swath of northern China worsened on Tuesday. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
Paramilitary policemen stand ready to march across Tiananmen Square on a severely polluted day in Beijing, China, Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Pollution across a large swath of northern China worsened on Tuesday.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

Pedestrians cross an overhead bridge as vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing's skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Pedestrians cross an overhead bridge as vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing’s skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

In this photo taken Sunday February 23, 2014, residents barbecue along the river bank during a hazy day in southwest China's Chongqing municipality. Xinhua said that almost all provinces in central and east China have had serious air pollution since Friday, and that Beijing and five provinces in northern and eastern China had reported “severe smog”. (Photo by AP Photo) 
In this photo taken Sunday February 23, 2014, residents barbecue along the river bank during a hazy day in southwest China’s Chongqing municipality. Xinhua said that almost all provinces in central and east China have had serious air pollution since Friday, and that Beijing and five provinces in northern and eastern China had reported “severe smog”.
(Photo by AP Photo)

Chinese women wearing masks cross the road near the headquarters of the China Central Television headquarters during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Chinese women wearing masks cross the road near the headquarters of the China Central Television headquarters during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

A combination picture shows Beijing's hazy sky (L) on February 24, 2014 and clear sky on February 27, 2014, from the top of Jingshan Park near the Forbidden City. China's environment ministry has vowed to “harshly punish” factories and power plants that contributed to a hazardous smog which enveloped much of Northern China, official state media reported on Wednesday. (Photo by Kim Kyung-Hoon/Reuters) 
A combination picture shows Beijing’s hazy sky (L) on February 24, 2014 and clear sky on February 27, 2014, from the top of Jingshan Park near the Forbidden City. China’s environment ministry has vowed to “harshly punish” factories and power plants that contributed to a hazardous smog which enveloped much of Northern China, official state media reported on Wednesday.
(Photo by Kim Kyung-Hoon/Reuters)

Tourists visit Jingshan Hill before the Forbidden City as heavy air pollution continues to shroud Beijing on February 26, 2014. Beijing's official reading for PM 2.5, small airborne particles which easily penetrate the lungs and have been linked to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths, stood at 501 micrograms per cubic metre. (Photo by Mark Ralston/AFP Photo) 

Tourists visit Jingshan Hill before the Forbidden City as heavy air pollution continues to shroud Beijing on February 26, 2014. Beijing’s official reading for PM 2.5, small airborne particles which easily penetrate the lungs and have been linked to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths, stood at 501 micrograms per cubic metre(Photo by Mark Ralston/AFP Photo)

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Know : Women too can do what Men can : Female Bodyguards

Since the Chinese government began allowing privately-owned bodyguard companies to be established in 2010, many military veterans like Mr. Chen has sought to capitalize on the increased demand among Chinese for personal protection both at home and abroad.

Located on the northeast outskirts of the Chinese capital, the new training center is the latest expansion by Mr. Chen’s company, Genghis VIP Protection offers a rigorous training course which includes aquatic training, martial arts, vehicle safety training and other necessary skills.

Whether the need is for safety purpose or as a status symbol, no one really cares. Many are lured into becoming bodyguards because of higher income. Even women are attracted to join the trainings since there are also demands for female bodyguards. The whole rigorous training covers a period of 2 weeks.

Personal Guard  (7)

“The bodyguard business has a huge demand in China, and nobody has done something like this before.” – Chen Yongqing (man), founder, Genghis International Security Academy 

The best will be recruited by the school’s sister company Genghis Security Advisor (GSA), which offers protection for China’s wealthiest citizens from attacks and kidnapping at home and abroad — a service analysts say could push the government in Beijing into unwanted foreign entanglements.

“Our main jobs will be abroad, because, as our teacher taught us, the situation there is much more unstable than in China,” said Li Qinsi, a 29-year-old trainee sitting on a dormitory bunk after an intense fighting class. Chinese citizens have been targeted by hostage-takers in countries as far as Pakistan, Nigeria and Indonesia in recent years, with the latest incident in Sudan last weekend, and Chinese resource firms have a growing presence in Afghanistan.

GSA’s founder Chen Yongqing is a former member of the PLA and learnt bodyguard techniques in Israel, a world leader in the field. The firm has permission to use part of the army base but no other connections with the government, he says. “The bodyguard market in China is huge, but no one is serving it,” Chen said. “Lots of Chinese businesspeople have been injured abroad, but it shouldn’t be a problem for our company to protect them.”

The three-week basic bodyguard course costs 28,600 yuan ($4,600), and those who pass can be flown to Israel for advanced weapons training, Chen said. The school is known for its tough regime, sometimes carried out in snowy fields or the strength-sapping heat of tropical beaches. “The situations our bodyguards could face in Israel, or Libya, will be more harsh than they can imagine, so they need to experience that harshness during training,” Chen said.

At the base trainees stooped to hoist classmates onto their shoulders before bundling them into the back of a van, to simulate rescuing a client. GSA declined to specify how many bodyguards it had trained, but said it had sent personnel to the US, Europe and South America, and the school’s graduates can also be recruited by other firms looking to protect Chinese interests overseas.

Chinese security contractors were involved in rescuing 29 of their compatriots kidnapped by Sudanese rebels last February, the Wall Street Journal reported, citing Sudanese army sources. A senior foreign affairs advisor for China’s government said last year that Chinese security companies should be “allowed to head abroad”. Han Fangming told the 21st Century Business Herald that China should “seriously discuss” creating an equivalent to America’s Blackwater security firm “to provide armed security for overseas institutions and enterprises in high-risk areas”.

But the activities of Blackwater — now known as Academi after two name changes — have been hugely controversial, with some of its staff accused of killing civilians in Iraq and Afghanistan. Analysts say Beijing — which has a long-stated policy of non-intervention in foreign conflicts — could become embroiled in situations involving China’s private security firms.

Armed Chinese contractors, especially in areas such as Africa, will “eventually” engage in firefights, said Gabe Collins, founder of the independent Chinese Research website China Signpost. Beijing could come under pressure to launch “some kind of military operation to rescue contractors that got into trouble,” he said.

Even so, 22-year-old Wang Wenwen, one of several women training at the academy, has no doubts about her choice of profession. “The training is torture, but I can still take it,” she said. “Women have certain advantages… Your opponent will overlook you, and you can grab a pen from a desk and stab it here,” she said, pointing at her neck. “It has a high rate of success”

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Courtesy : Google, YouTube and ImagineChina