Know : List of Plants – A

Here is the list of plants with their Common Name, Botanical Name and Pictures

This post features all plants with common names starting with ‘A’

Alder – Alnus

Alder is particularly noted for its important symbiotic relationship with Frankia alni, an actinomycete, filamentous, nitrogen-fixing bacterium. This bacterium is found in root nodules, which may be as large as a human fist, with many small lobes, and light brown in colour. The bacterium absorbs nitrogen from the air and makes it available to the tree. Alder, in turn, provides the bacterium with sugars, which it produces through photosynthesis. As a result of this mutually beneficial relationship, alder improves the fertility of the soil where it grows, and as a pioneer species, it helps provide additional nitrogen for the successional species which follow.


AlmondPrunus amygdalus

The almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as the Indus. In India, it is known as badam. It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe and more recently transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States.


This is an annual herb usually growing up to 2 meters tall, but known to reach 6 meters in rich, moist soils. The tough stems have woody bases and are branching or unbranched. This species is well known as a noxious weed, both in its native range and in areas where it is an introduced and ofteninvasive species. It is naturalized in some areas, and it is recorded as an adventive species in others. It grows in many types of disturbed habitat, such as roadsides, and in cultivated fields.

Amy root – Apocynum cannabinum

It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means “poisonous to dogs”. All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. The cannabinum in the scientific name and the common names Hemp Dogbane and Indian Hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant, rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug. A very strong and good quality fiber obtained from the bark is a flax substitute that does not shrink and retains its strength in water. It is used for making clothes,twine, bags, linen, paper, etc.The plant yields a latex which is a possible source of rubber.

Apple – Malus domestica

The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India andPoland.

Apple of Sodom – Solanum carolinense

hnettle“Horsenettle” is also written “horse nettle” or “horse-nettle”. These plants can be found growing in pastures, roadsides, railroad margins, and in disturbed areas and waste ground. They grow to about 1 m tall, but are typically shorter, existing as sub shrubs. Bumblebees pollinate the flowers of this species. Fruits are eaten by a variety of native animals, including Ring-necked pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, and Striped skunk. Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant

ApricotPrunus armeniaca

Although the apricot is native to a continental climate region with cold winters, it can grow in Mediterranean climates if enough cool winter weather allows a proper dormancy. A dry climate is good for fruit maturation. The tree is slightly more cold-hardy than the peach, tolerating winter temperatures as cold as −30 °C (−22 °F) or lower if healthy.

Arfaj – Rhanterium epapposum

Native to the deserts of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait where it is known locally as Arfaj . The Arfajplant consists of a complicated network of branches scattered with small thorny leaves and bright yellow flowers about 1.5 cm wide. The Arfaj flower is also the national flower of Kuwait.

Arizona sycamorePlatanus wrighitii

Sycamore is a name which is applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms

Arrowwood – Cornus florida

Ash – Fraxinus spp.

Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana, and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior), tough and verystrong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, hurleys and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.

It is also often used as material for electric guitar bodies and, less commonly, for acoustic guitar bodies, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Some Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters are made of ash, as an alternative to the darker sounding alder. They are also used for making drum shells. Interior joinery is another common user of both European Ash and White Ash. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. Ash is not used extensively outdoors due to the heartwood having a low durability to ground contact, meaning it will typically perish within five years.

Azolla – Azolla

As an additional benefit to its role as a paddy biofertilizer, Azolla spp. have been used to control mosquito larvae in rice fields. The plant grows in a thick mat on the surface of the water, making it more difficult for the larvae to reach the surface to breathe, effectively choking the larvae.

Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a “super-plant”, as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed – doubling its biomass every two to three days. The only known limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral.

Know : TomTato – Tomato and Potato on the same plant

By combining the genes of tomatoes and potatoes they were able to create a “TomTato”, which is essentially a plant that grows tomatoes and potatoes at the same time. This is the creation of Thompson and Morgan.

TomTato (4)

TomTato (1) TomTato (2) TomTato (3)  TomTato (5)

Courtesy: Thompson and Morgan (For more details please visit their website, we shared this on our blog for educational and non-profit purposes only.

Know: Gene splicing is a post-transcriptional modification in which a single gene can code for multiple proteins. Gene Splicing is done in eukaryotes, prior to mRNA translation, by the differential inclusion or exclusion of regions of pre-mRNA. Gene splicing is an important source of protein diversity. During a typical gene splicing event, the pre-mRNA transcribed from one gene can lead to different mature mRNA molecules that generate multiple functional proteins. Thus, gene splicing enables a single gene to increase its coding capacity, allowing the synthesis of protein isoforms that are structurally and functionally distinct. Gene splicing is observed in high proportion of genes. In human cells, about 40-60% of the genes are known to exhibit alternative splicing.

EcoPreservation : Mesmeric’ Mushrooms

Mushrooms (15)

If there weren’t any mushrooms, our world would be one medium garbage dump. Mushrooms play an important role in the world by breaking down plant and animal material.

Mushrooms are fungi. Fungi are as uniquely different from plants as plants are from animals. In fact, fungi and animals are now in the same super-kingdom, Opisthokonta.

After degradation, the remains are reused by other plants and animals. Mushrooms are unable to produce their own energy to grow so they always live in relationship with other organisms.

In exchange for energy from plants, many mushroom species provide various nutrients that the plants themselves are unable to produce sufficiently.

Mushrooms can have three kinds of relationships with plants: those that clean up (saprophytes), those that kill (parasites) and those that work together (mycorrhizasymbionts).

Studies (2011) showed that mushrooms also use meat in the form of eelworms and other such creatures, to meet their nitrogen requirements!

Fungi recycle plants after they die and transform them into rich soil. If not for mushrooms and fungi, the Earth would be buried in several feet of debris and life on the planet would soon disappear.

The oldest mushroom found in amber is from 90 million years ago—a Cordyceps. Scientists recently discovered a fossil first uncovered in 1859 and named Prototaxites, dating back more than 420 million years, a time when the tallest plants were around 2 feet tall. Prototaxites was 3 feet tall laying down, but if standing was nearly 30 feet high. In either case it would be the tallest organism on landand it was a giant fungus!

You can make beautiful colors by boiling wild mushrooms and dipping cloth in the resulting broth.

Many mushrooms grow towards light, following the sun just like plant. Unlike with plants, scientists do not yet know how mushrooms use sunlight; only that they do.

The spores of mushrooms are made of chitin, the hardest naturally-made substance on Earth. Some scientists suspect that mushroom spores are capable of space travel; a few even believe that some fungi found on Earth originally came from outer space! (Others believe that people who think this must be from outer space themselves.)

Under the right conditions, some mushrooms’ spores can sit dormant for decades or even a century, and still grow!

Mushrooms are useful not only as food and medicine; some are also being used in bioremediation, to absorb and digest dangerous substances like oil, pesticides and industrial waste, in places where they threaten the environment.

 Images Credit : Unknown / collected from the internet. Credits goes to whosoever concerned.

Earth Our Home Too : Bearded Tit Birds

This is a small orange-brown bird with a long tail and an undulating flight. The male has a grey head and black moustaches (not a beard). Flocks often betray their presence in a reedbed by their characteristic “ping” call.

The Bearded Reedling (Panurus biarmicus) is a small, sexually dimorphic reed-bed passerine bird. It is frequently known as the Bearded Tit, due to some similarities to the Long-tailed Tit, or the Bearded Parrotbill.

This species is a wetland specialist, breeding colonially in large reed beds by lakes or swamps. It eats reed aphids in summer, and reed seeds in winter, its digestive system changing to cope with the very different seasonal diets.

Adult male

Adult Female

The Bearded Reedling is a species of temperate Europe and Asia. It is resident, and most birds do not migrate other than eruptive or cold weather movements. It is vulnerable to hard winters, which may kill many birds. The English population of about 500 pairs is largely confined to the south and east with a small population in Leighton Moss in north Lancashire. In Ireland a handful of pairs breed in County Wexford. The largest single population in Great Britain is to be found in the reedbeds at the mouth of the River Tay in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, where there may be in excess of 250 pairs.

Tit Bird (2)

Tit Bird (3) Tit Bird (4) Tit Bird (5) Tit Bird (6) Tit Bird (7) Tit Bird (1)


Courtesy : Edwin Kats (photos) and Wikipedia

Know : List of Sciences and Studies

S.No Word Definition
1 Acarology The study of ticks and mites
2 Accidence Grammar book; science of inflections in grammar
3 Aceology Therapeutics
4 Acology The study of medical remedies
5 Acoustics Science of sound
6 Actinobiology The study of the effects of radiation upon living organisms
7 Actinology The study of the effect of light on chemicals
8 Adenology The study of glands
9 Aedoeology Science of generative organs
10 Aerobiology A branch of biology that studies organic particles that are transported by the air
11 Aerodonetics Science or study of gliding
12 Aerodynamics Dynamics of gases; science of movement in a flow of air or gas
13 Aerolithology The study of aerolites; meteorites
14 Aerology The study of the atmosphere
15 Aeronautics The study of navigation through air or space
16 Aerophilately Collecting of air-mail stamps
17 Aerostatics Science of air pressure; art of ballooning
18 Aetiology The medical study of the causation of disease
19 Agonistics Art and theory of prize-fighting
20 Agriology The comparative study of primitive peoples
21 Agrobiology The study of plant nutrition and growth in relation to soil
22 Agrology The branch of soil science dealing with the production of crops.
23 Agronomics The study of productivity of land
24 Agrostology The study of grasses
25 Alethiology The study of truth
26 Algedonics Science of pleasure and pain
27 Algology The study of algae
28 Allergology The study of the causes and treatment of allergies
29 Anaesthesiology The study of anaesthetics
30 Anaglyptics Art of carving in bas-relief
31 Anagraphy Art of constructing catalogues
32 Anatomy The study of the structure of the body
33 Andragogy Science of teaching adults
34 Andrology The study of male health
35 Anemology The study of winds
36 Anesthesiology The study of anesthesia and anesthetics
37 Angelology The study of angels
38 Angiology The study of the anatomy of blood and lymph vascular systems
39 Anthropobiology The study of human biology
40 Anthropology The study of humans
41 Anus Colon and pelvic floor
42 Aphnology Science of wealth
43 Apiology The study of bees
44 Arachnology The study of spiders
45 Archaeology The study of past cultures
46 Archaeozoology The study of relationships between humans and animals over time
47 Archelogy The study of first principles
48 Archology Science of the origins of government
49 Arctophily The study of teddy bears
50 Areology The study of Mars
51 Aretaics The science of virtue
52 Aristology The science or art of dining
53 Arthrology The study of joints
54 Astacology The study of crawfish
55 Astheniology The study of diseases of weakening and aging
56 Astrobiology The study of origin of life
57 Astrogeology The study of geology of celestial bodies
58 Astrology The study of influence of stars on people
59 Astrometeorology The study of effect of stars on climate
60 Astronomy The study of celestial bodies
61 Astrophysics The study of behaviour of interstellar matter
62 Astroseismology The study of star oscillations
63 Atmology The science of aqueous vapour
64 Audiology The study of hearing
65 Autecology The study of the ecology of any individual species
66 Autology Scientific study of oneself
67 Auxology Science of growth
68 Avionics The science of electronic devices for aircraft
69 Axiology The science of the ultimate nature of values
70 Bacteriology The study of bacteria
71 Balneology The science of the therapeutic use of baths
72 Barodynamics Science of the support and mechanics of bridges
73 Barology The study of gravitation
74 Batology The study of brambles
75 Bibliology The study of books
76 Bibliotics The study of documents to determine authenticity
77 Bioecology The study of interaction of life in the environment
78 Biology The study of life
79 Biometrics The study of biological measurement
80 Bionomics The study of organisms interacting in their environments
81 Botany The study of plants
82 Bromatology The study of food
83 Brontology Scientific study of thunder
84 Bryology The study of mosses and liverworts
85 Cacogenics The study of racial degeneration
86 Caliology The study of bird’s nests
87 Calorifics The study of heat
88 Cambistry Science of international exchange
89 Campanology The art of bell ringing
90 Carcinology The study of crabs and other crustaceans
91 Cardiology The study of the heart
92 Caricology The study of sedges
93 Cariology The study of cells
94 Carpology The study of fruit
95 Cartography The science of making maps and globes
96 Cartophily The hobby of collecting cigarette cards
97 Castrametation The art of designing a camp
98 Catacoustics Science of echoes or reflected sounds
99 Catalactics Science of commercial exchange
100 Catechectics The art of teaching by question and answer
101 Cetology The study of cetaceans (e.g. Whales/ dolphins)
102 Chalcography The art of engraving on copper or brass
103 Chalcotriptics Art of taking rubbings from ornamental brasses
104 Chaology The study of chaos or chaos theory
105 Characterology The study of development of character
106 Chemistry The study of properties of substances
107 Chirocosmetics Beautifying the hands; art of manicure
108 Chirography The study of handwriting or penmanship
109 Chirology The study of the hands
110 Chiropody Medical science of feet
111 Chorology Science of the geographic description of anything
112 Chrematistics The study of wealth; political economy
113 Chronobiology The study of biological rhythms
114 Chrysology The study of precious metals
115 Ciselure The art of chasing metal
116 Climatology The study of the climate
117 Clinology The study of aging or individual decline after maturity
118 Codicology The study of manuscripts
119 Coleopterology The study of beetles
120 Cometology The study of comets
121 Conchology The study of shells and of molluscs
122 Coniology The study of dust in the atmosphere and its effects on living organisms
123 Coprology The study of pornography
124 Cosmetology The study of cosmetics
125 Cosmology The study of the universe
126 Craniology The study of the characteristics of the skull
127 Criminology The scientific study of crime
128 Cryobiology The study of life under cold conditions
129 Cryology The study of very low temperatures and related phenomena
130 Cryptology The study of codes
131 Cryptozoology The study of animals for whose existence there is no conclusive proof
132 Ctetology The study of the inheritance of acquired characteristics
133 Cynology The study of dogs
134 Cytology The study of cells
135 Cytomorphology The study of the structure of cells
136 Cytopathology The branch of pathology that studies diseases on the cellular level
137 Dactyliology The study of rings
138 Dactylography The study of fingerprints
139 Dactylology The study of sign language
140 Deltiology The collection and study of picture postcards
141 Demology The study of human behaviour
142 Demonology The study of demons
143 Dendrochronology The study of the age of trees and the records in their rings
144 Dendrology The study of trees
145 Deontology The theory or study of moral obligation
146 Dermatoglyphics The study of skin patterns and fingerprints
147 Dermatology The study of the skin
148 Dermatopathology The field of dermatological anatomical pathology
149 Desmology The study of ligaments
150 Diabetology The study of diabetes mellitus
151 Diabology The study of devils
152 Diagraphics Art of making diagrams or drawings
153 Dialectology The study of dialects
154 Dioptrics The study of light refraction
155 Diplomatics Science of deciphering ancient writings and texts
156 Diplomatology The study of diplomats
157 Dipterology The study of flies
158 Docimology The art of assaying
159 Dosiology The study of doses
160 Dramaturgy Art of producing and staging dramatic works
161 Dysgenics The study of racial degeneration
162 Dysteleology The study of purposeless organs
163 Ecclesiology The study of church affairs
164 Eccrinology The study of excretion
165 Ecohydrology The study of interactions between organisms and the water cycle
166 Ecology The study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment
167 Economics The study of material wealth
168 Ecophysiology The study of the interrelationship between an organism’s physical functioning and its environment
169 Edaphology A branch of soil science that studies the influence of soil on life
170 Egyptology The study of ancient Egypt
171 Ekistics The study of human settlement
172 Electrochemistry The study of relations between electricity and chemicals
173 Electrology The study of electricity
174 Electrophysiology The study of the relationship between electric phenomena and bodily processes
175 Electrostatics The study of static electricity
176 Embryology The study of embryos
177 Emetology The study of vomiting
178 Emmenology The study of menstruation
179 Endemiology The study of local diseases
180 Endocrinology The study of internal secretory glands
181 Enigmatology The study of enigmas
182 Entomology The study of insects
183 Entozoology The study of parasites that live inside larger organisms
184 Enzymology The study of enzymes
185 Ephebiatrics Branch of medicine dealing with adolescence
186 Epidemiology The study of the origin and spread of diseases
187 Epileptology The study of epilepsy
188 Epistemology The study of grounds of knowledge
189 Eremology The study of deserts
190 Ergology The study of effects of work on humans
191 Ergonomics The study of people at work
192 Escapology The study of freeing oneself from constraints
193 Eschatology The study of death; final matters
194 Ethnogeny The study of origins of races or ethnic groups
195 Ethnology The study of cultures
196 Ethnomethodology The study of everyday communication
197 Ethnomusicology The study of comparative musical systems
198 Ethology The study of animal behavior
199 Ethonomics The study of economic and ethical principles of a society
200 Etiology The science of causes; especially of disease
201 Etymology The study of origins of words
202 Euthenics Science concerned with improving living conditions
203 Exobiology The study of life in outer space
204 Exogeology The study of geology of celestial bodies
205 Felinology The study of cats
206 Fetology The study of the fetus
207 Floristry The art of cultivating and selling flowers
208 Fluviology The study of watercourses
209 Folkloristics The study of folklore and fables
210 Futurology The study of future
211 Garbology The study of garbage
212 Gastroenterology The study of stomach; intestines
213 Gastrology Or Gastroenterology The study of the stomach and intestines
214 Gastronomy The study of fine dining
215 Gemmology The study of gems and jewels
216 Gemology The study of gemstones
217 Genealogy The study of descent of families
218 Genesiology The study of reproduction and heredity
219 Genethlialogy The art of casting horoscopes
220 Geobiology The study of the biosphere and its relations to the lithosphere and atmosphere
221 Geochemistry The study of chemistry of the earth’s crust
222 Geochronology The study of the age of the Earth
223 Geogeny Science of the formation of the earth’s crust
224 Geogony The study of formation of the earth
225 Geography The study of surface of the earth and its inhabitants
226 Geology The study of the Earth
227 Geomorphogeny The study of the origins of land forms
228 Geomorphology The study of present-day landforms
229 Geoponics The study of agriculture
230 Geotechnics The study of increasing habitability of the earth
231 Geratology The study of decadence and decay
232 Gerocomy The study of old age
233 Gerontology The study of old age
234 Gigantology The study of giants
235 Glaciology The study of glaciers
236 Glossology The study of language; study of the tongue
237 Glyptography The art of engraving on gems
238 Glyptology The study of gem engravings
239 Gnomonics The art of measuring time using sundials
240 Gnosiology The study of knowledge; philosophy of knowledge
241 Gnotobiology The study of life in germ-free conditions
242 Graminology The study of grasses
243 Grammatology The study of systems of writing
244 Graphemics The study of systems of representing speech in writing
245 Graphology The study of handwriting
246 Gromatics Science of surveying
247 Gynaecology The study of women’s physiology
248 Gynecology The study of medicine relating to women
249 Gyrostatics The study of rotating bodies
250 Haemataulics The study of movement of blood through blood vessels
251 Hagiology The study of saints
252 Halieutics The study of fishing
253 Hamartiology The study of sin
254 Harmonics The study of musical acoustics
255 Hedonics Part of ethics or psychology dealing with pleasure
256 Helcology The study of ulcers
257 Heliology The study of the sun
258 Helioseismology The study of vibrations and oscillations in the sun
259 Helminthology The study of parasitic worms
260 Hematology The study of blood
261 Heortology The study of religious feasts
262 Hepatology The study of the liver
263 Heraldry The study of coats of arms
264 Herbology The study of the therapeutic use of plants
265 Heresiology The study of heresies
266 Herpetology The study of reptiles and amphibians
267 Heteroptology The study of true bugs
268 Hierology Science of sacred matters
269 Hippiatrics The study of diseases of horses
270 Hippology The study of horses
271 Histology The study of living tissues
272 Histopathology The study of the microscopic structure of diseased tissue
273 Historiography The study of writing history
274 Historiology The study of history
275 Homiletics The art of preaching
276 Hoplology The study of weapons
277 Horography Art of constructing sundials or clocks
278 Horology Science of time measurement
279 Horticulture The study of gardening
280 Hydrobiology The study of aquatic organisms
281 Hydrodynamics The study of movement in liquids
282 Hydrogeology The study of underground water
283 Hydrography The study of investigating bodies of water
284 Hydrokinetics The study of motion of fluids
285 Hydrology The study of water
286 Hydrometeorology The study of atmospheric moisture
287 Hydropathy The study of treating diseases with water
288 Hyetology Science of rainfall
289 Hygiastics Science of health and hygiene
290 Hygienics The study of sanitation; health
291 Hygiology Hygienics; study of cleanliness
292 Hygrology The study of humidity
293 Hygrometry Science of humidity
294 Hymnography The study of writing hymns
295 Hymnology The study of hymns
296 Hypnology The study of sleep; study of hypnosis
297 Hypsography Science of measuring heights
298 Iamatology The study of remedies
299 Iatrology Treatise or text on medical topics; study of medicine
300 Iatromathematics Archaic practice of medicine in conjunction with astrology
301 Ichnography Art of drawing ground plans; a ground plan
302 Ichnology The study of fossil footprints
303 Ichthyology The study of fish
304 Iconography The study of drawing symbols
305 Iconology The study of icons; symbols
306 Ideogeny The study of origins of ideas
307 Ideology Science of ideas; system of ideas used to justify behaviour
308 Idiomology The study of idiom, jargon or dialect
309 Idiopsychology Psychology of one’s own mind
310 Immunogenetics The study of genetic characteristics of immunity
311 Immunology The study of the immune system
312 Immunopathology The study of immunity to disease
313 Insectology The study of insects
314 Irenology The study of peace
315 Iridology The study of the iris; diagnosis of disease based on the iris of the eye
316 Kalology The study of beauty
317 Karyology The study of karyotypes (a branch of cytology)
318 Kidology The study of kidding
319 Kinematics The study of motion
320 Kinesics The study of gestural communication
321 Kinesiology The study of movement in relation to human anatomy
322 Kinetics The study of forces producing or changing motion
323 Koniology The study of atmospheric pollutants and dust
324 Ktenology Science of putting people to death
325 Kymatology The study of waves or wave motions
326 Labeorphily Collection and study of beer bottle labels
327 Larithmics The study of population statistics
328 Laryngology The study of the larynx
329 Lepidopterology The study of butterflies and moths
330 Leprology The study of leprosy
331 Lexicology The study of words and their meanings
332 Lexigraphy Art of definition of words
333 Lichenology The study of lichens
334 Limacology The study of slugs
335 Limnobiology The study of freshwater ecosystems
336 Limnology The study of fresh water environments
337 Linguistics The study of language
338 Lithology The study of rocks
339 Liturgiology The study of liturgical forms and church rituals
340 Loimology The study of plagues and epidemics
341 Loxodromy The study of sailing along rhumb-lines
342 Lymphology The study of the lymph system and glands
343 Magirics Art of cookery
344 Magnanerie Art of raising silkworms
345 Magnetics The study of magnetism
346 Malacology The study of mollusks
347 Malariology The study of malaria
348 Mammalogy The study of mammals
349 Manège The art of horsemanship
350 Mariology The study of the Virgin Mary
351 Martyrology The study of martyrs
352 Mastology The study of mammals
353 Mathematics The study of magnitude, number, and forms
354 Mazology Mammalogy; study of mammals
355 Mechanics The study of action of force on bodies
356 Meconology The study of or treatise concerning opium
357 Melittology The study of bees
358 Mereology The study of part-whole relationships
359 Mesology Ecology
360 Metallogeny The study of the origin and distribution of metal deposits
361 Metallography The study of the structure and constitution of metals
362 Metallurgy The study of alloying and treating metals
363 Metaphysics The study of principles of nature and thought
364 Metapolitics The study of politics in theory or abstract
365 Metapsychology The study of nature of the mind
366 Meteoritics The study of meteors
367 Meteorology The study of weather
368 Methodology The study of methods
369 Metrics The study of versification
370 Metrology The study of measurement
371 Microanatomy The study of microscopic tissues
372 Microbiology The study of micro-organisms
373 Microclimatology The study of local climates
374 Micrology The science of preparing and handling microscopic objects
375 Micropalaeontology The study of microscopic fossils
376 Microphytology The study of very small plant life
377 Microscopy The study of minute objects
378 Mineralogy The study of minerals
379 Molinology The study of mills and milling
380 Momilogy The study of mummies
381 Morphology The study of forms and the development of structures
382 Muscology The study of mosses
383 Museology The study of museums
384 Musicology The study of music
385 Mycology The study of fungi
386 Myology The scientific study of muscles
387 Myrmecology The study of ants
388 Mythology The study of myths; fables; tales
389 Nanotechnology The study of machines at the molecular level
390 Nanotribology The study of friction on the molecular and atomic scale
391 Naology The study of church or temple architecture
392 Nasology The study of the nose
393 Nautics Art of navigation
394 Nematology The study of nematodes
395 Neonatology The study of newborn infants
396 Neossology The study of nestling birds
397 Nephology The study of clouds
398 Nephrology The study of the kidneys
399 Neurobiology The study of anatomy of the nervous system
400 Neurology The study of nerves
401 Neuropathology The study of neural diseases
402 Neurophysiology The study of the functions of the nervous system
403 Neuropsychology The study of relation between brain and behaviour
404 Neurypnology The study of hypnotism
405 Neutrosophy The study of the origin and nature of philosophical neutralities
406 Nidology The study of nests
407 Nomology The science of the laws; especially of the mind
408 Noology Science of the intellect
409 Nose And Throat
410 Nosology The study of disease classification
411 Nostology The study of senility
412 Notaphily Collecting of bank-notes and cheques
413 Numerology The study of numbers
414 Numismatics The study of coins
415 Nymphology The study of nymphs
416 Obstetrics The study of midwifery
417 Oceanography The study of oceans
418 Oceanology The study of oceans
419 Odology Science of the hypothetical mystical force of od
420 Odonatology The study of dragonflies and damselflies
421 Odontology The study of the teeth
422 Oenology The study of wines
423 Oikology Science of housekeeping
424 Olfactology The study of the sense of smell
425 Ombrology The study of rain
426 Oncology The study of cancer
427 Oneirology The study of dreams
428 Onomasiology The study of nomenclature
429 Onomastics The study of proper names
430 Ontology Science of pure being; the nature of things
431 Oology The study of eggs
432 Ophiology The study of snakes
433 Ophthalmology The study of the eyes
434 Optics The study of light
435 Optology The study of sight
436 Optometry Science of examining the eyes
437 Orchidology The study of orchids
438 Ornithology The study of birds
439 Orology The study of mountains and their mapping
440 Orthoepy The study of correct pronunciation
441 Orthography The study of spelling
442 Orthopterology The study of grasshoppers and crickets
443 Oryctology Mineralogy or paleontology
444 Osmics Scientific study of smells
445 Osmology The study of smells and olfactory processes
446 Osphresiology The study of the sense of smell
447 Osteology The study of bones
448 Otolaryngology The study of the ear and throat
449 Otology The study of the ear
450 Otorhinolaryngology The study of the ear
451 Paedology The study of children
452 Paedotrophy Art of rearing children
453 Paidonosology The study of children’s diseases; pediatrics
454 Palaeoanthropology The study of early humans
455 Palaeobiology The study of fossil plants and animals
456 Palaeoclimatology The study of ancient climates
457 Palaeolimnology The study of ancient lakes
458 Palaeontology The study of fossils
459 Palaeopedology The study of early soils
460 Paleoanthropology The study of prehistoric people and human origins
461 Paleobiology The study of prehistoric life
462 Paleobotany The study of prehistoric metaphytes
463 Paleoclimatology The study of prehistoric climates
464 Paleoecology The study of prehistoric environments by analyzing fossils and rock strata
465 Paleontology The study of fossils of ancient life
466 Paleo-Osteology The study of ancient bones
467 Paleophytology The study of ancient multicellular plants
468 Paleozoology The study of prehistoric metazoans
469 Palynology The study of pollen
470 Papyrology The study of paper
471 Parapsychology The study of paranormal or psychic phenomenon that defy conventional scientific explanations
472 Parasitology The study of parasites
473 Paroemiology The study of proverbs
474 Parthenology The study of virgins
475 Pataphysics The science of imaginary solutions
476 Pathology The study of illness
477 Patrology The study of early Christianity
478 Pedagogics The study of teaching
479 Pedology The study of soils
480 Pelology The study of mud
481 Penology The study of crime and punishment
482 Periodontics The study of gums
483 Peristerophily Pigeon-collecting
484 Pestology Science of pests
485 Petrology The study of rocks and the conditions by which they form
486 Pharmacognosy The study of drugs of animal and plant origin
487 Pharmacology The study of drugs
488 Pharology The study of lighthouses
489 Pharyngology The study of the throat
490 Phenology The study of periodic biological phenomena
491 Phenomenology The study of phenomena
492 Philately The study of postage stamps
493 Philematology The act or study of kissing
494 Phillumeny Collecting of matchbox labels
495 Philology The study of ancient texts; historical linguistics
496 Philosophy Science of knowledge or wisdom
497 Phlebology A branch of medicine that deals with the venous system
498 Phoniatrics The study and correction of speech defects
499 Phonology The study of vocal sounds
500 Photobiology The study of effects of light on organisms
501 Phraseology The study of phrases
502 Phrenology The study of bumps on the head
503 Phycology The study of algae
504 Physics The study of properties of matter and energy
505 Physiology The study of the functions of living organisms
506 Phytology The study of plants; botany
507 Phytopathology The study of plant diseases
508 Phytosociology The study of the ecology of plant communities
509 Piscatology The study of fishes
510 Pisteology Science or study of faith
511 Planetology The study of planets and solar systems
512 Planktology The study of plankton
513 Plutology Political economy; study of wealth
514 Pneumatics The study of mechanics of gases
515 Podiatry The study and treatment of disorders of the foot; chiropody
516 Podology The study of the feet
517 Polemology The study of war
518 Pomology The scientific study of fruits
519 Posology The study of drug dosage
520 Potamology The study of rivers
521 Praxeology The study of practical or efficient activity; science of efficient action
522 Primatology The study of primates
523 Proctology The medical study of the rectum
524 Prosody The study of versification
525 Protistology The study of protists
526 Proxemics The study of man’s need for personal space
527 Psalligraphy The art of paper-cutting to make pictures
528 Psephology The study of election results and voting trends
529 Pseudology Art or science of lying
530 Pseudoptics The study of optical illusions
531 Psychobiology The study and psychology of organisms with regard to their functions and structures
532 Psychogenetics The study of internal or mental states
533 Psychognosy The study of mentality, personality or character
534 Psychology The study of mental processes in living creatures
535 Psychopathology The study of mental illness or disorders
536 Psychopharmacology The study of psychotropic or psychiatric drugs
537 Psychophysics The study of link between mental and physical processes
538 Psychophysiology The study of the physiological bases of psychological processes
539 Pteridology The study of ferns
540 Pterylology The study of distribution of feathers on birds
541 Pulmonology The specialty in medicine that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract
542 Pyretology The study of fevers
543 Pyrgology The study of towers
544 Pyroballogy The study of artillery
545 Pyrography The study of woodburning
546 Quinology The study of quinine
547 Raciology The study of racial differences
548 Radiology The study of rays
549 Reflexology Originally the study of reflexes or of reflex responses
550 Rhabdology Art of calculating using numbering rods
551 Rheology The study of flow
552 Rheumatology The study of rheumatic diseases
553 Rhinology The study of the nose
554 Rhochrematics Science of inventory management and the movement of products
555 Runology The study of runes
556 Sarcology A subsection of anatomy that studies the soft tissues
557 Satanology The study of the devil
558 Scatology The study of feces
559 Schematonics Art of using gesture to express tones
560 Sciagraphy Art of shading
561 Scripophily Collection of bond and share certificates
562 Sedimentology A branch of geology that studies sediments
563 Seismology The study of earthquakes
564 Selenodesy The study of the shape and features of the moon
565 Selenology The study of the moon
566 Semantics The study of meaning
567 Semantology Science of meanings of words
568 Semasiology The study of meaning; semantics
569 Semiology The study of signs and signals
570 Semiotics The study of signs and symbols
571 Serology The study of blood serum
572 Sexology The study of sex
573 Siderography Art of engraving on steel
574 Sigillography The study of seals
575 Significs Science of meaning
576 Silvics The study of tree’s life
577 Sindonology The study of the shroud of Turin
578 Sinology The study of China
579 Sitiology The study of diet
580 Sitology Dietetics
581 Sociobiology The study of the effect of evolution on ethology
582 Sociology The study of society
583 Somatology The study of human characteristics
584 Sometimes Spelled Foetology Formicology The study of ants
585 Somnology The study of sleep
586 Sophiology Science of ideas
587 Soteriology The study of theological salvation
588 Spectrology The study of ghosts
589 Spectroscopy The study of spectra
590 Speleology The study or exploration of caves
591 Spermology The study of seeds
592 Sphagnology The study of peat moss
593 Sphragistics The study of seals and signets
594 Sphygmology The study of the pulse
595 Splanchnology The study of the entrails or viscera
596 Spongology The study of sponges
597 Stasiology The study of political parties
598 Statics The study of bodies and forces in equilibrium
599 Stemmatology The study of relationships between texts
600 Stoichiology Science of elements of animal tissues
601 Stomatology The study of the mouth
602 Storiology The study of folk tales
603 Stratigraphy The study of geological layers or strata
604 Stratography Art of leading an army
605 Stylometry The studying literature by means of statistical analysis
606 Suicidology The study of suicide
607 Symbology The study of symbols
608 Symptomatology The study of symptoms
609 Synecology The study of the ecological interrelationships
610 Synectics The study of processes of invention
611 Syntax The study of sentence structure
612 Syphilology The study of syphilis
613 Systematology The study of systems
614 Taxidermy Art of curing and stuffing animals
615 Technology The study of the practical arts
616 Tectonics Science of structure of objects, buildings and landforms
617 Tegestology The study and collecting of beer mats
618 Teleology The study of final causes; analysis in terms of purpose
619 Telmatology The study of swamps
620 Teratology The study of monsters, freaks, abnormal growths or malformations
621 Teuthology The study of cephalopods
622 Textology The study of the production of texts
623 Thalassography Science of the sea
624 Thanatology The study of death and its customs
625 Thaumatology The study of miracles
626 Theology The study of religion; religious doctrine
627 Theriatrics Veterinary medicine
628 Theriogenology The study of animals’ reproductive systems
629 Thermodynamics The study of relation of heat to motion
630 Thermokinematics The study of motion of heat
631 Thermology The study of heat
632 Therology The study of wild mammals
633 Thremmatology Science of breeding domestic animals and plants
634 Threpsology Science of nutrition
635 Tidology The study of tides
636 Timbrology The study of postage stamps
637 Tocology The study of childbirth
638 Tonetics The study of pronunciation
639 Topology The mathematical study of closeness and connectedness
640 Toponymics The study of place-names
641 Toreutics The study of artistic work in metal
642 Toxicology The study of poisons
643 Toxophily Love of archery; archery; study of archery
644 Tracks And burrows
645 Traumatology The study of wounds and injuries.
646 Tribology The study of friction and lubrication
647 Trichology The study of hair and the scalp
648 Trophology The study of nutrition
649 Tsiganology The study of gypsies
650 Turnery Art of turning in a lathe
651 Typhlology The study of blindness and the blind
652 Typography Art of printing or using type
653 Typology The study of classification
654 Ufology The study of alien spacecraft
655 Uranography Descriptive astronomy and mapping
656 Uranology The study of the heavens; astronomy
657 Urbanology The study of cities
658 Urenology The study of rust molds
659 Urology The study of the urogenital tract.
660 Usually ionising radiation
661 Vaccinology The study of vaccines
662 Venereology The study of venereal disease
663 Vermeology The study of worms
664 Vexillology The study of flags
665 Victimology The study of victims
666 Vinology Scientific study of vines and winemaking
667 Virology The study of viruses
668 Vitrics Glassy materials; glassware; study of glassware
669 Volcanology The study of volcanoes
670 Volcanology (Or Vulcanology) The study of volcanoes
671 Vulcanology The study of volcanoes
672 Xenobiology The study of non-terrestrial life
673 Xylography Art of engraving on wood
674 Xylology The study of wood
675 Zenography The study of the planet Jupiter
676 Zoiatrics Veterinary surgery
677 Zooarchaeology The study and analysis of animal remains at archaeological sites to reconstruct relationships between people, animals and their environment
678 Zoochemistry Chemistry of animals
679 Zoogeography The study of geographic distribution of animals
680 Zoogeology The study of fossil animal remains
681 Zoology The study of animals
682 Zoonomy Animal physiology
683 Zoonosology The study of animal diseases
684 Zoopathology The study of animal diseases
685 Zoophysics Physics of animal bodies
686 Zoophysiology The study of physiology of animals
687 Zoophytology The study of plant-like animals
688 Zoopsychology The study of mental processes in animals
689 Zoosemiotics The study of animal communication
690 Zootaxy Science of classifying animals
691 Zootechnics Science of breeding animals
692 Zygology Science of joining and fastening
693 Zymology The study of fermentation
694 Zymurgy Branch of chemistry dealing with brewing and distilling