Food We Eat : List of Edible Seaweeds

Arame

Arame (Eisenia bicyclis, syn. Ecklonia bicyclis), sea oak is a species of kelp best known for its use in Japanese cuisine.


Badderlocks (Alaria esculenta)

dabberlocks

Alaria esculenta is an edible seaweed, also known as dabberlocks or badderlocks, or winged kelp. It is a traditional food along the coasts of the far north Atlantic Ocean. It may be eaten fresh or cooked in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland. It is the only one of twelve species of Alaria to occur in both Ireland and in the British Isles


Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus)

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Fucus vesiculosus, known by the common name bladder wrack or bladderwrack, is a seaweed found on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, also known by the common names black tang,rockweed, bladder fucus, sea oak, black tany, cut weed, dyers fucus, red fucus, and rock wrack. It was the original source of iodine, discovered in 1811, and was used extensively to treat goitre, a swelling of the thyroid gland related toiodine deficiency.


Carola (various species of Callophyllis)

Callophyllis is a red algae genus in the family Kallymeniaceae. Several species are exploited as edible seaweedsunder the common name carola, most commonly Callophyllis variegata.


Carrageen moss (Mastocarpus stellatus)

Mastocarpus stellatus

Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Cait (cats’ puff), carragheen, or false Irish moss, is a species of red algaeclosely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus. It is collected in Ireland and Scotland, together with Chondrus crispus asIrish moss, dried, and sold for cooking and as the basis for a drink reputed to ward off colds and flu.


Channelled wrack (Pelvetia canaliculata)

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Pelvetia canaliculata, channelled wrack, is a very common brown alga (Phaeophyceae) found on the rocks of the upper shores of Europe. It is the only species remaining in the monotypic genus Pelvetia. In 1999, the other members of this genus were reclassified as Silvetia due to differences of oogonium structure and of nucleic acid sequences of the rDNA


Chlorella (Chlorella sp.)

chlorella

Chlorella is a genus of single-cell green algae belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. It is spherical in shape, about 2 to 10μm in diameter, and is without flagella. Chlorella contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and -b in its chloroplast. Many people believed Chlorella could serve as a potential source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency can, in theory, reach 8%, comparable with other highly efficient crops such as sugar cane.


Cochayuyo (Durvillaea antarctica)

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In Chilean Cuisine, the Durvillaea antarctica (Quechua: cochayuyo : Cocha: Lake, and yuyo: weed) stem and holdfast, known as hulte is used for different recipes, like salads and stews. Durvillaea antarctica or Cochayuyo is a large, robust bull kelp species and the dominant seaweed in southernNew Zealand and Chile. D. antarctica has a circumpolar distribution between the latitudes of 29°S (in Chile) and 55°S (on Macquarie Island)


Dulse (Palmaria palmata)

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Dulse is a good source of minerals and vitamins compared with other vegetables, contains all trace elements needed by humans, and has a high protein content. Palmaria palmata, also called dulse, dillisk or dilsk (from Irish/Scottish Gaelic duileasc/duileasg), red dulse, sea lettuce flakes or creathnach, is a red alga (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata. It grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is a well-known snack food. In Iceland, where it is known as söl, it has been an important source of fibre throughout the centuries.


Ecklonia cava (Ecklonia cava)

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Ecklonia cava is an edible marine brown alga species found in the ocean off Japan and Korea.

It is used as a herbal remedy in the form of an extract called Seanol, a polyphenolic extract. Another phlorotannin-rich natural agent, Ventol, is also extracted from E. cava


Eucheuma ( Eucheuma spinosum, Eucheuma cottonii )

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Eucheuma or Guso in the Philippines is a group of red seaweeds/seaplants representing the Tribe Eucheumatoideae used in the production of carrageenan, an important product used in cosmetics, food processing, and industrial uses, as well as a food source for those living in Indonesia and the Philippines. The farming of eucheuma has raised certain environmental issues, mostly centered on the ecology and biodiversity of coastal environments.


Gutweed (Enteromorpha intestinalis)

Ulva

Ulva intestinalis is a green alga in the phylum Chlorophyta, of the genus Ulva (sea lettuce), also known by the common namesgutweed and grass kelp. It can be found in Bering Sea near Alaska, Aleutian islands, Puget Sound, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Russia.[1] Besides this, places it can be found in Israel, and in such European countries as Azores, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Poland, and in such seas as the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea


Gelidiella (Gelidiella acerosa)

Gelidiella-acerosa-02

Gelidiella is a genus of red algae (phylum Rhodophyta). Worldwide there 22 other species of Gelidiella, mostly tropical and subtropical. Gelidiella and Gelidium are now both united into one order Gelidiales.


Gracilaria (Gracilaria edulis, Gracilaria corticata)

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Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans and various species of shellfish. Various species within the genus are cultivated among Asia, South America, Africa and OceaniaGracilaria is used as a food in Japanese, Hawaiian, and Filipino cuisine. In Japanese cuisine, it is called ogonori or ogo. In the Philippines, it is called gulamanand used to make gelatin, also called gulaman.


Hijiki or Hiziki (Sargassum fusiforme)

Hijiki

Hijiki is a brown sea vegetable growing wild on rocky coastlines around Japan, Korea, and China. Hijiki has been a part of the Japanese diet for centuries. Hijiki is rich in dietary fibre and essential minerals such as calcium, iron, and magnesium. According to Japanese folklore, hijiki aids health and beauty, and thick, black, lustrous hair is connected to regular consumption of small amounts of hijiki.


Hypnea order Gigartinales

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Hypnea is a red algal genus, and a well known carrageenophyte (plant producing polysaccharide carrageenan).


Irish moss (Chondrus crispus)

Chondrus_crispus

Chondrus crispus — commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, “little rock”) — is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. In its fresh condition this protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenish-yellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. The principal constituent is a mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan, which constitutes 55% of its weight. The organism also consists of nearly 10% protein and about 15% mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. When softened in water it has a sea-like odour and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jellywhen boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water.


Kombu (Saccharina japonica)

Kombu

Kombu is edible kelp from the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia.  Most kombu is from the species Saccharina japonica (Laminaria japonica), extensively cultivated on ropes in the seas of Japan and Korea. With the development of cultivation technology, over 90% of Japanese kombu is cultivated, mostly in Hokkaidō, but also as far south as the Seto Inland Sea.


Laver (Porphyra laciniata/Porphyra umbilicalis)

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Laver is an edible, littoral alga (seaweed). In Wales, laver is used for making laverbread, a traditional Welsh dish. Laver as food is also commonly found around the west coast of Britain and east coast of Ireland along the Irish Sea, where it is known as slake.


Limu Kala (Sargassum echinocarpum)

Sargassum_on_the_beach,_Cuba

Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species. Sargassum is also cultivated and cleaned for use as an herbal remedy. Many Chinese herbalists prescribe powderedSargassum in paper packets of 0.5 gram, to be dissolved in warm water and drunk as a tea.


Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus)

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Cladosiphon okamuranus is a type of edible seaweed in the genus Cladosiphon, naturally found in Okinawa, Japan. Most of the mozuku now is farmed by locals, and sold to processing factories. The main use of mozuku is as food, and as source of one type of sulfated polysaccharide called Fucoidan to be used in cancer treatment aid health supplements.


Nori (Porphyra)

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Nori is the Japanese name for edible seaweed species of the red algae genus Porphyra, including P. yezoensis and P. tenera. Nori is familiar in the United States and other countries as an ingredient of sushi, being referred to as “nori” (as the Japanese do) or simply as seaweed. Finished products are made by a shredding and rack-drying process that resembles papermaking. Porphyra is also called laver in Wales and other English-speaking countries


Oarweed (Laminaria digitata)

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Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic OceanL digitata was traditionally used as a fertiliser and spread on the land. In the 18th century it was burnt to extract the potash it contained for use in the glass industry. In the 19th century it was used for the extraction of iodine. Both these uses died out when cheaper sources for these products became available. It is still used as an organic fertiliser but also for the extraction of alginic acid, the manufacture of toothpastes and cosmetics, and in the food industry for binding, thickening and moulding.


Ogonori (Gracilaria)

Ogo

Ogonori (Gracilaria spp.), also called ogo or sea moss, is a type of edible seaweed eaten along the coasts of Japan,Southeast Asia, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. Ogonori is typically eaten cold and is a source of the thickener agar.


Sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima)

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Saccharina latissima is a brown algae (class Phaeophyceae), of the family Laminariaceae. It is also known by the common names sea belt and Devil’s apron, due to its shape. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Seasouth to Galicia in Spain. It is not found in the Bay of Biscay but is common round the coasts of the British Isles. The species is found at sheltered rocky seabeds.


Sea grapes or green caviar (Caulerpa lentillifera)

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Caulerpa lentillifera is one of the favored species of edible Caulerpa due to its soft and succulent texture. They are also known as sea grapes or green caviar. C. lentillifera is farmed in the Philippines, where it is locally called ar-arosep,lato,arosep or ar-arosip (as variant names), latok in the Malaysian state of Sabah, and in Okinawa where the plant is eaten fresh. C. lentillifera is usually eaten raw with vinegar, as a snack or in a salad. In the Philippines, after being washed in clean water, it is usually eaten raw as a salad, mixed with chopped raw onions and fresh tomatoes, and dressed with a blend of fish sauce or fish paste (locally called bagoong) and vinegar. It is known to be rich in iodine.


Sargassum (Sargassum cinetum, Sargassum vulgare, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum myriocysum)

Sargassum_weeds_closeup

Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species.


Sea lettuce (various species of the genus Ulva)

Sea Lettuce

The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world’s oceans. The type species within the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca, lactuca being Latin for “lettuce”. Sea lettuce is eaten by a number of different sea animals, including manatees and the sea slugs known as sea hares. Many species of sea lettuce are a food source for humans in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan (where this food is known as aosa). Sea lettuce as a food for humans is eaten raw in salads and cooked in soups. It is high in protein, soluble dietary fiber, and a variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iron.


Spiral wrack (Fucus spiralis)

Fucus Spiralis

Fucus spiralis is a species of seaweed, a brown alga (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae), living on the littoral shore of the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. It has the common names of spiral wrack and flat wrack.


Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima)

Spirulina

Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals. There are two species, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.

Arthrospira is cultivated worldwide; used as a dietary supplement as well as a whole food; and is also available in tablet, flake and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium and poultry industries


Thongweed (Himanthalia elongata)

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Himanthalia elongata is a brown alga in the order Fucales, also known by the common names thongweed, sea thongand sea spaghetti. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.


Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) & Hiromi (Undaria undarioides)

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Wakame a sea vegetable, or edible seaweed. It has a subtly sweet flavour and is most often served in soups and salads. Sea-farmers have grown wakame in Japan from the Nara period. It has been nominated as among 100 of the world’s worst invasive species according to the Global Invasive Species Database.

Wakame fronds are green and have a subtly sweet flavour and satiny texture. The leaves should be cut into small pieces as they will expand during cooking.

In Japan and Europe, wakame is distributed either dried or salted, and used in soups (particularly miso soup), and salads (tofu salad), or often simply as a side dish to tofu and a salad vegetable like cucumber. These dishes are typically dressed with soy sauce and vinegar/rice vinegar.

Know : List of Plants – A

Here is the list of plants with their Common Name, Botanical Name and Pictures

This post features all plants with common names starting with ‘A’

Alder – Alnus

Alder is particularly noted for its important symbiotic relationship with Frankia alni, an actinomycete, filamentous, nitrogen-fixing bacterium. This bacterium is found in root nodules, which may be as large as a human fist, with many small lobes, and light brown in colour. The bacterium absorbs nitrogen from the air and makes it available to the tree. Alder, in turn, provides the bacterium with sugars, which it produces through photosynthesis. As a result of this mutually beneficial relationship, alder improves the fertility of the soil where it grows, and as a pioneer species, it helps provide additional nitrogen for the successional species which follow.

Varieties 


AlmondPrunus amygdalus

The almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as the Indus. In India, it is known as badam. It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe and more recently transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States.


Ambrosia

This is an annual herb usually growing up to 2 meters tall, but known to reach 6 meters in rich, moist soils. The tough stems have woody bases and are branching or unbranched. This species is well known as a noxious weed, both in its native range and in areas where it is an introduced and ofteninvasive species. It is naturalized in some areas, and it is recorded as an adventive species in others. It grows in many types of disturbed habitat, such as roadsides, and in cultivated fields.


Amy root – Apocynum cannabinum

It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means “poisonous to dogs”. All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. The cannabinum in the scientific name and the common names Hemp Dogbane and Indian Hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant, rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug. A very strong and good quality fiber obtained from the bark is a flax substitute that does not shrink and retains its strength in water. It is used for making clothes,twine, bags, linen, paper, etc.The plant yields a latex which is a possible source of rubber.


Apple – Malus domestica

The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India andPoland.


Apple of Sodom – Solanum carolinense

hnettle“Horsenettle” is also written “horse nettle” or “horse-nettle”. These plants can be found growing in pastures, roadsides, railroad margins, and in disturbed areas and waste ground. They grow to about 1 m tall, but are typically shorter, existing as sub shrubs. Bumblebees pollinate the flowers of this species. Fruits are eaten by a variety of native animals, including Ring-necked pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, and Striped skunk. Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant


ApricotPrunus armeniaca

Although the apricot is native to a continental climate region with cold winters, it can grow in Mediterranean climates if enough cool winter weather allows a proper dormancy. A dry climate is good for fruit maturation. The tree is slightly more cold-hardy than the peach, tolerating winter temperatures as cold as −30 °C (−22 °F) or lower if healthy.


Arfaj – Rhanterium epapposum

Native to the deserts of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait where it is known locally as Arfaj . The Arfajplant consists of a complicated network of branches scattered with small thorny leaves and bright yellow flowers about 1.5 cm wide. The Arfaj flower is also the national flower of Kuwait.


Arizona sycamorePlatanus wrighitii

Sycamore is a name which is applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms


Arrowwood – Cornus florida


Ash – Fraxinus spp.

Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana, and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior), tough and verystrong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, hurleys and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.

It is also often used as material for electric guitar bodies and, less commonly, for acoustic guitar bodies, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Some Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters are made of ash, as an alternative to the darker sounding alder. They are also used for making drum shells. Interior joinery is another common user of both European Ash and White Ash. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. Ash is not used extensively outdoors due to the heartwood having a low durability to ground contact, meaning it will typically perish within five years.


Azolla – Azolla

As an additional benefit to its role as a paddy biofertilizer, Azolla spp. have been used to control mosquito larvae in rice fields. The plant grows in a thick mat on the surface of the water, making it more difficult for the larvae to reach the surface to breathe, effectively choking the larvae.

Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a “super-plant”, as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed – doubling its biomass every two to three days. The only known limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral.

Know : TomTato – Tomato and Potato on the same plant

By combining the genes of tomatoes and potatoes they were able to create a “TomTato”, which is essentially a plant that grows tomatoes and potatoes at the same time. This is the creation of Thompson and Morgan.

TomTato (4)

TomTato (1) TomTato (2) TomTato (3)  TomTato (5)

Courtesy: Thompson and Morgan (For more details please visit their website, we shared this on our blog for educational and non-profit purposes only.


Know: Gene splicing is a post-transcriptional modification in which a single gene can code for multiple proteins. Gene Splicing is done in eukaryotes, prior to mRNA translation, by the differential inclusion or exclusion of regions of pre-mRNA. Gene splicing is an important source of protein diversity. During a typical gene splicing event, the pre-mRNA transcribed from one gene can lead to different mature mRNA molecules that generate multiple functional proteins. Thus, gene splicing enables a single gene to increase its coding capacity, allowing the synthesis of protein isoforms that are structurally and functionally distinct. Gene splicing is observed in high proportion of genes. In human cells, about 40-60% of the genes are known to exhibit alternative splicing.

Eco Preservation : List of Garden Plants for Saving Bees

Plants for Saving Bees

Bee6

Hey Honey, I can give more than Honey! Save Me!

Bees are important indicators for the health of the environment. When something is wrong with our bees, something is wrong in the environment!

Bees are having a hard time, but we can all do our bit to help save the bees.  You do not need to become a beekeeper. Indeed, many other pollinators (not just honey bees) are in serious decline too. For example, in some countries, like the UK, some bumblebee species have gone extinct already. Many butterfly species are also struggling.

Here is a list of garden plants for bees that provide forage for at least one species of bee. Many of these plants will attract honey bees and different types of bumblebees and solitary bees.

Most people can accommodate at least a few of these flowers to attract bees and butterflies into their gardens, even if only in pots.

GARDEN PLANTS FOR BEES

 LATE WINTER – SPRING GARDEN PLANTS
Mahonia
Winter Aconite
Crocus
Daffodil (try native wild types – e.g. if you live in the UK, try Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Genista
Dicentra (Bleeding Heart)
Pulmonaria (Lungwort)
Gorse (Ulex)  
Rosemary (Rosemarinus)
Flowering Currant (Ribes)  
Primrose (Primula vulgaris)
Bluebell (Choose native varieties)
Cowslip (Choose native varieties)  
Snakeshead (Fritillaria meleagris)
Winter Honeysuckle (Lonicera fragrantissima, Lonicera purpusii)
Barberry (Berberis) (Lamium)
Bugle (Ajuga)
Ground Ivy
Snowdrops (Galanthus) – single flowered varieties  
Winter Heathers (Erica carnea) Erica carnea 003.JPG
Lenten rose ( Helleborus orientalis)
 SPRING – SUMMER GARDEN PLANTS
Forget-me-not (Myosotis)
Foxglove (Digitalis)
Bistort
Crane’s-bill (Geranium)
Poppy (Papaver)
Chives  Chive flower
Bugle (Ajuga) (also in Late Winter – Spring)  
Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus acris)
Borage officinalis
Crocus (also mentioned in Late Winter Spring)  
Comfrey (Malus)  
Honey Suckle (Lonicera)
Passion Flower (Passiflora)
Muscari
Thyme
Sweetpea (Lathyrus)
Campanula
Lupin (Lupinus)
Rosa rugosa
Sea Holly (Eryngium)
Columbine (Aquilegia)
Penstemon
Salvia
Hebe
Allium
Agapanthus
 SUMMER – AUTUMN GARDEN PLANTS
Scorpion Weed (Phacelia tanacetifolia)
Purple Loosestrife
Sedum
Golden Rod (Solidago)
Cornflower Cornflower Blue.jpg
Red Hot Poker (Knifophia)
Veronica
Salvia (mentioned already)  
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus)
 
Verbascum
Scabious
Sunflower
Lavender
Watermint
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum)
Nepeta (Catmint)
Bugle (Ajuga) (mentioned already)  
Bergenia
Hellebores (mentioned already)  
Hollyhock
Bergamot
Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens)
Verbena
Raspberry (especially the Autumn raspberry)
 AUTUMN – WINTER GARDEN PLANTS
Ivy hedera helix
Mint (Mentha) (mentioned already)
Oregano (Origanum)
Autumn raspberries (mentioned already)  
Viburnum
Common Heather (Calluna vulgaris)

Courtesy : www.buzzaboutbees.net and WikiPedia

 

Know : 100s of Rose Species (Gallery)

rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa (The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa), within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.

The Gallery here features native Roses (Rosa flowers not the hybrid ones, which we will post later)

The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:

  • Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning “with single leaves”) containing one or two species from southwest AsiaR. persica and R. berberifolia (syn. R. persica var. berberifolia) which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
  • Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for “western rose”) has two species, both from southwestern North America. These are R. minutifolia and R. stellata.
  • Platyrhodon (from the Greek for “flaky rose”, referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, R. roxburghii.
  • Rosa (the type subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
    • Banksianae – white and yellow roses from China
    • Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India
    • Caninae – pink and white species from AsiaEurope and North Africa
    • Carolinae – white, pink, and bright pink species all from North America
    • Chinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma
    • Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped roses from western Asia and Europe
    • Gymnocarpae – a small group distinguished by a deciduous receptacle on the hip; one species in western North America (R. gymnocarpa), the others in east Asia
    • Laevigatae – a single white species from China
    • Pimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe
    • Rosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa
    • Synstylae – white, pink, and crimson roses from all areas
1 Rosa abyssinica
2 Rosa acicularis – Arctic Rose, Prickly Rose (Rosa)
3 Rosa × alba (possibly R. canina × R. gallica)
4 Rosa alexandrae
5 Rosa alpina see Rosa pendulina
6 Rosa anemoniflora
7 Rosa arkansana (syn. R. pratincola, R. suffulta) – Wild Prairie Rose, Arkansas Rose (Rosa)
8 Rosa arvensis – Field Rose, Trailing Rose (Synstylae)
9 Rosa azerbaidshanica
10 Rosa banksiae (Banksianae)
11 Rosa beggeriana – (Gymnocarpae)
12 R. berberifolia – syn. R. persica var. berberifolia
13 Rosa blanda
14 Rosa bracteata – Chicksaw Rose, Macartney Rose (Bracteatae)
15 Rosa bridgesii
16 Rosa brunonii – Himalayan Musk Rose, Brown’s Musk Rose (Synstylae)
17 Rosa californica – California Wild Rose (Rosa)
18 Rosa canina – Dog Rose (Caninae)
19 Rosa carolina – Carolina Rose, Pasture Rose (Carolinae)
20 Rosa centifolia cristata – Crested Moss
21 Rosa × centifolia (complex hybrid possibly containing R. rubra, R. phoenicia, R. moschata, R. canina)
22 Rosa chinensis var. spontanea – China Rose (Chinensis)
23 Rosa cinnamomea see R. majalis
24 Rosa clinophylla (R. involucrata) (Bracteatae)
25 Rosa × coryana (R. macrophylla x R. roxburghii)
26 Rosa corymbifera (Caninae)
27 Rosa cuspidata see Rosa tomentosa
28 Rosa cymosa (Banksianae)
29 Rosa × damascena ((R. moschata × R. gallica) × R. fedtschenkoana)
30 Rosa davidii – Father David’s Rose (Rosa)
31 Rosa dumalis – Glaucous Dog Rose
32 Rosa dumetorum
33 Rosa ecae (syn. R. xanthina var. ecae) (Pimpinellifoliae)
34 Rosa eglanteria see Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa foetida
35 Rosa elegantula – Threepenny Bit Rose (Rosa)
36 Rosa fedtschenkoana (Rosa)
37 Rosa filipes
38 Rosa floribunda see R. micrantha
39 Rosa foetida (syn. R. lutea) – Austrian Briar (Pimpinellifoliae)
40 Rosa foliolosa
41 Rosa forrestiana
42 Rosa gallica – French Rose, Rose of Provins (Gallicanae)
43 Rosa gentiliana (syn. R. polyantha grandiflora)
44 Rosa gigantea (syn. R. × odorata gigantea) (Chinensis)
45 Rosa giraldii
46 Rosa glandulosa see Rosa maximowicziana
47 Rosa glauca (syn. R. rubrifolia) – Redleaf Rose
48 Rosa gymnocarpa (Gymnocarpae)
49 Rosa helenae (Synstylae)
50 Rosa hemisphaerica (syn. R. sulphurea) – Sulphur Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
51 Rosa henryi
52 Rosa holodonta (syn. R. moyesii rosea)
53 Rosa hugonis – Father Hugo’s Rose, Golden Rose of China
54 Rosa involucrata see Rosa clinophylla
55 Rosa × kochiana
56 Rosa kokanica (Pimpinellifoliae)
57 Rosa kordesii
58 Rosa laevigata (syn. R. sinica) – Cherokee Rose, Camellia Rose, Mardan Rose (Laevigatae)
59 Rosa laxa (syn. R. gebleriana) (Rosa)
60 Rosa longicuspis
61 Rosa luciae see Rosa wichuraiana
62 Rosa lucida see Rosa virginiana
63 Rosa lutea see Rosa foetida
64 Rosa × macrantha
65 Rosa macrophylla (Rosa)
66 Rosa majalis (syn R. cinnamomea) – Cinnamon Rose (Rosa)
67 Rosa maximowicziana (syn. R. glandulosa)
68 Rosa micrantha (syn. R. floribunda, R. numerosa, R. rubiginosa)
69 Rosa minutifolia (Hesperrhodos)
70 Rosa mollis
71 Rosa moschata – Musk Rose
72 Rosa moyesii (Rosa)
73 Rosa moyesii var. rosea see Rosa holodonta
74 Rosa mulliganii (Synstylae)
75 Rosa multibracteata (Rosa)
76 Rosa multiflora – Multiflora Rose (Synstylae)
77 Rosa nitida (Carolinae)
78 Rosa numerosa see R. micrantha
79 Rosa nutkana – Nootka Rose, Nutka Rose
80 Rosa obtusifolia
81 Rosa × odorata var. gigantea see Rosa gigantea
82 Rosa omeiensis
83 Rosa omissa see Rosa sherardii
84 Rosa oxyacantha
85 Rosa palustris – Swamp Rose (Carolinae)
86 Rosa pendulina (syn. R. alpina) – Alpine Rose
87 Rosa persica (syn. Hulthemia persica, R. simplicifolia)
88 Rosa phoenicia
89 Rosa pimpinellifolia (syn. R. spinosissima) – Burnet Rose, Scots Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
90 Rosa pinetorum
91 Rosa pisocarpa
92 Rosa polyantha var. grandiflora see Rosa gentiliana
93 Rosa pomifera see Rosa villosa
94 Rosa primula – Incense Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
95 Rosa roxburghii – Chestnut Rose, Burr Rose (Platyrhodon)
96 Rosa rubiginosa (syn. R. eglanteria) – Sweetbriar, Eglantine (Caninae)
97 Rosa rubrifolia see Rosa glauca
98 Rosa rugosa – Rugosa Rose, Ramanas Rose, Japanese Rose (Rosa)
99 Rosa salictorum
100 Rosa sempervirens – Evergreen Rose (Synstylae)
101 Rosa seraphinii see Rosa sicula
102 Rosa sericea – Winged Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
103 Rosa setigera – Prairie Rose (Synstylae)
104 Rosa setipoda
105 Rosa sherardii (syn. R. omissa)
106 Rosa sicula (syn. R. seraphinii)
107 Rosa simplicifolia see Rosa persica
108 Rosa sinica see Rosa laevigata
109 Rosa soulieana (Synstylae)
110 Rosa spinosissima see Rosa pimpinellifolia
111 Rosa spithamea
112 Rosa squarrosa
113 Rosa stellata – Gooseberry Rose, Sacramento Rose (Hesperrhodos)
114 Rosa stellata var. mirifica (Hesperrhodos)
115 Rosa suffulta see Rosa arkansana
116 Rosa sulphurea see Rosa hemisphaerica
117 Rosa willmottiae (Gymnocarpae)
118 Rosa woodsii – Mountain Rose
119 Rosa xanthina – Manchu Rose

Courtesy : Wikipedia