Know : List of Countries using Nuclear Energy

Nuclear_power_station

Nuclear_label

Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries. Of the thirty countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Belgium, Hungary and Slovakia use them as the primary source of electricity, although many other countries have a significant nuclear power generation capacity. According to the World Nuclear Association, a nuclear power advocacy group, over 45 countries are giving “serious consideration” to introducing a nuclear power capability, with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey,Vietnam, Belarus, and Jordan at the forefront. China, South Korea and India are pursuing ambitious expansions of their nuclear power capacities

As of June 2011, Germany and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power which will be replaced mostly by fossil fuels, and a smaller part renewable energy.

Rank Country Capacity (MW)
(2014)
Nuclear share of
electricity production, 2013
1 United States United States 99,081 19.4%
2 France France 63,130 73.3%
3 Japan Japan 42,388 1.7%
4 Russia Russia 23,643 17.5%
5 South Korea South Korea 20,721 27.6%
6 China China 17,978 2.1%
7 Canada Canada 13,538 16.0%
8 Ukraine Ukraine 13,107 43.6%
9 Germany Germany 12,068 15.4%
10 Sweden Sweden 9,474 42.7%
11 United Kingdom United Kingdom 9,243 18.3%
12 Spain Spain 7,121 19.7%
13 Belgium Belgium 5,927 52.1%
14 India India 5,308 3.5%
15 Taiwan Taiwan 5,032 19.1%
16 Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,884 35.9%
17 Switzerland Switzerland 3,308 36.4%
18 Finland Finland 2,752 33.3%
19 Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,906 30.7%
20 Hungary Hungary 1,889 50.7%
21 Brazil Brazil 1,884 2.8%
22 South Africa South Africa 1,860 5.7%
23 Slovakia Slovakia 1,815 51.7%
24 Argentina Argentina 1,627 4.4%
25 Mexico Mexico 1,570 4.6%
26 Romania Romania 1,300 19.8%
27 Iran Iran 915 1.5%
28 Pakistan Pakistan 690 4.4%
29 Slovenia Slovenia 688 33.6%
30 Netherlands Netherlands 482 2.8%
31 Armenia Armenia 375 29.2%
World 374,704

Courtesy & Source: “Nuclear power station” by Ichabod Paleogene, Krzysztof Kori. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Eco Preservation : The Spotted Lake, Kliluk

Spotted Lake is a saline endorheic alkali lake located northwest of Osoyoos in the eastern Similkameen Valley of British Columbia, Canada.

Kliluk Lake (11)

Spotted Lake is richly concentrated with various minerals. It contains dense deposits of magnesium sulfate, calcium and sodium sulphates. It also contains high concentrations of eight other minerals and lower amounts of silver and titanium.

Kliluk Lake

Most of the water in the lake evaporates over the summer, revealing colorful mineral deposits. Large “spots” on the lake appear and are colored according to the mineral composition and seasonal amount of precipitation. Magnesium sulfate, which crystallizes in the summer, is a major contributor to spot color. In the summer, remaining minerals in the lake harden to form natural “walkways” around and between the spots.

Kliluk Lake (9)

Originally known to the First Nations of the Okanagan Valley as Kliluk, Spotted Lake was for centuries and remains revered as a sacred site thought to provide therapeutic waters. During World War I, the minerals of Spotted Lake were used in manufacturing ammunition.

Kliluk Lake (3)

Later, the area came under the control of the Ernest Smith Family for a term of about 40 years. In 1979, Smith attempted to create interest in a spa at the lake. The First Nations responded with an effort to buy the lake, then in October 2001, struck a deal by purchasing 22 hectares of land for a total of $720,000, and contributed about 20% of the cost. The Indian Affairs Department paid the remainder.

Kliluk Lake (7)

Today, there is a roadside sign telling visitors about the lake’s mythical healing powers. Despite a fence protecting the lake shore from the liabilities of public access, the lake can be easily seen and many visitors stop to view the site.

Kliluk Lake (10) Kliluk Lake (4) Kliluk Lake (5) Kliluk Lake (1)


Courtesy & Source : Wikipedia


Documentary : World’s Strongest Materials

Materials science, also commonly known as materials engineering, is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This relatively new scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With significant media attention focused on Nano science and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science is becoming more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering. It is an important part of forensic engineering (Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property.) and failure analysis, the latter being the key to understanding, for example, the cause of various aviation accidents. Many of the most pressing scientific problems that are currently faced today are due to the limitations of the materials that are currently available and, as a result, breakthroughs in this field are likely to have a significant impact on the future of technology.


Courtesy : PBS Documentary via YouTube

Know : Amber – Fossil Beauty

Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry.

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There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

Know : Tests to Find Adulterated Milk!

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Well, we have earlier posted about the adulteration in milk and how they use shampoo to make Milk! Here we found some tests to identify the adulterated milk. Though they seem a little chemistry lab friendly tests, we are sharing it anyhow. 

However here are a few easy tests you can do at home:
Milk slip test – Put a drop of milk on a polished vertical surface. If it stops or flows slowly, leaving a white trail behind, it is pure milk. Milk mixed with water or other agents will flow down immediately without a trace.
Reduction test – Boil some milk on a slow heat while moving it with a spoon till it becomes solid (khoya). Take it off the heat and wait for 2-3 hours. If the produced solid is oily, the milk is of good quality; if it’s not, it means the milk is synthetic.

But please handle acids careful if you are doing so, Keep it out of reach from your children strictly! Please do not buy any chemicals if you do not know how to handle it carefully! We care for your kids and you as well.

If the addition of nitric acid drop by drop into the test milk sample results in the development of orange colour, it indicates the milk is adulterated. 

There are many methods known for detection of adulteration in milk but the methods discussed below are simple but rapid and sensitive methods to detect adulteration. 

I. Detection of Neutralizers in milk 

1) Rosalic acid test (Soda Test) 

In milk neutralizers like hydrated lime, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate are added which are generally prohibited. 

How to detect? 

Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 5 ml alcohol followed by 4-5 drops of rosalic acid. If the colour of milk changes to pinkish red, then it is inferred that the milk is adulterated with sodium carbonate / sodium bicarbonate and hence unfit for human consumption. 

This test will be effective only if the neutralizers are present in milk. If the added neutralizers are nullified by the developed acidity, then this test will be negative. In that case, the alkaline condition of the milk for the presence of soda ash has to be estimated. 

How to proceed? 

2) Take 20 ml of milk in a silica crucible and then the water is evaporated and the contents are burnt in a muffle furnace. The ash is dispersed in 10 ml distilled water and it is titrated against decinormal (N/10) hydrochloric acid using phenolphthalein as an indicator. If the titre value exceeds 1.2 ml, then it is construed that the milk is adulterated with neutralizers. 

II. Test for detection of hydrogen peroxide 

Take 5 ml milk in a test tube and then add 5 drops of paraphenylene diamine and shake it well. Change of the colour of milk to blue confirms that the milk is added with hydrogen peroxide. 


III. Test for detection of formalin 

Formalin (40%) is poisonous though it can preserve milk for a long time. 

How to detect? 

Take 10 ml of milk in test tube and 5 ml of conc. sulphuric acid is added on the sides of the test tube with out shaking. If a violet or blue ring appears at the intersection of the two layers, then it shows the presence of formalin. 

IV. Test for detection of sugar in milk 

Generally sugar is mixed in the milk to increase the solids not fat content of milk i.e. to increase the lactometer reading of milk, which was already diluted with water. 

How to detect? 

Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube and add 5 ml of hydrochloric acid along with 0.1 g of resorcinol. Then shake the test tube well and place the test tube in a boiling water bath for 5 min. Appearance of red colour indicates the presence of added sugar in milk. 

V. Test for detection of starch 

Addition of starch also increases the SNF content of milk. Apart from the starch, wheat flour, arrowroot, rice flour are also added

How to detect? 

Take 3 ml milk in a test tube and boil it thoroughly. Then milk is cooled to room temperature and added with 2 to 3 drops of 1% iodine solution. Change of colour to blue indicates that the milk is adulterated with starch. 


VI. Test for detection of glucose 

Usually poor quality glucose is added to milk to increase the lactometer reading. There are two tests available to detect the adulteration of milk with glucose. 

How to proceed? 

1. Phosphomolybdic or Barford Test 

Take 3 ml of milk in a test tube and add 3 ml Barford’s reagent and mix it thoroughly. Then keep it in a boiling water bath for 3 min and then cool it for 2 min by immersing in tap water with out disturbance. Then add 1 ml of phosphomolybdic acid and shake. If blue colour is visible, then glucose is present in the milk sample. 

2. Diacetic test 

Take a strip of diacetic strip and dip it in the milk for 30 sec to 1 min. If the strip changes colour, then it shows that the sample of milk contains glucose. If there is no change in the colour of the strip, then glucose is absent. In this method the presence of glucose in milk can be quantified by comparing the colour developed with the chart strip

VII. Test for detection of urea 

1. Urea is generally added in the preparation of synthetic milk to raise the SNF value. 

Five ml of milk is mixed well with 5 ml paradimethyl amino benzaldehyde (16%). If the solution turns yellow in colour, then the given sample of milk is added with urea. 

2. Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 0.2 ml of urease (20 mg / ml). Shake well at room temperature and then add 0.1 ml of bromothymol blue solution (0.5%). Appearance of blue colour after 10-15 min indicates the adulteration milk with urea. 

VIII. Test for detection of ammonium sulphate 

The presence of sulphate in milk increases the lactometer reading. 

How to proceed? 

5 ml of hot milk is taken in a test tube and added with a suitable acid for e.g. citric acid and the whey thus separated is filtered. Collect the whey in another test tube and add 0.5 ml of 5% barium chloride. Appearance of precipitate indicates the presence of ammonium sulphate in milk. 

IX. Test for detection of salt 

Addition of salt in milk is mainly resorted to with the aim of increasing the corrected lactometer reading. 

How to detect? 

Five ml of silver nitrate (0.8%) is taken in a test tube and added with 2 to 3 drops of 1% potassium dichromate and 1 ml of milk and thoroughly mixed. If the contents of the test tube turn yellow in colour, then milk contains salt in it. If it is chocolate coloured, then the milk is free from salt. 

X. Test for detection of pulverized soap 

Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube and dilute it with equal quantity of hot water and then add 1 – 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. Development of pink colour indicates that the milk is adulterated with soap. 

XI. Detection of detergents in milk 

Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 0.1 ml of bromocresol purple solution. Appearance of violet colour indicates the presence of detergent in milk. Unadulterated milk samples show a faint violet colour

XII. Detection of water in milk 

Though the adulteration of milk with water can be checked by lactometer reading, other adulterations too affect the lactometer reading. Hence freezing point depression, recognized by AOAC, is usually adopted. 

Percentage of water added = Normal freezing point – Observed freezing point X 100 
Normal freezing point 

Normal freezing point of milk is taken as –0.55°C. A tolerance level of 3% is given which is equivalent to specifying a minimum freezing point depression for authentic milk of –0.55°C. 

XIII. Detection of skim milk powder in milk 

If the addition of nitric acid drop by drop in to the test milk sample results in the development of orange colour, it indicates the milk is adulterated with skim milk powder. Samples with out skim milk powder shows yellow colour

XIV. Detection of vegetable fat in milk 

The characteristic feature of milk is its fatty acid composition, which mainly consists of short chain fatty acids such as butyric, caproic, caprylic acid; whereas the vegetable fats consist mainly of long chain fatty acids and hence adulteration of vegetable fat in milk can be easily found out by analyzing the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography


Source and Courtesy : sb via Yahoo Answers and India Today