Know: Top 100 Inspiring Women

WISH YOU ALL A HAPPY WOMEN’S DAY 🙂

Activists & campaigners
Franny Armstrong Filmmaker behind The Age of Stupid, environmental activist and founder of the 10:10 campaign
Helen Bamber  Helen Bamber Founder of the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, the Helen Bamber Foundation and campaigner for human rights.
Camila Batmanghelidjh  Kids Company founder Camila Batmanghelidjh The founder of Kid’s Company, which offers practical, emotional and educational support to vulnerable inner-city children
Shami Chakrabarti  Shami Chakrabarti of Liberty Director of Liberty, barrister and former lawyer for the Home Office
Margaret Chan  Margaret Chan the World Health Organisation Director of the World Health Organisation, battling international viruses, and championing improvements in all of our most pressing diseases
Sampat Pal Devi  Gulabi gang Leader of the Gulabi Gang in northern India, an all-women vigilante force
   
Shirin Ebadi  Shirin Ebadi at a media forum in Germany this month Iran’s first female judge, founder of the Human Rights Defenders Centre and the first Muslim woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
   
Aparajita Gogoi   arpajita Coordinator of the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood in India
   
Lubna Hussein  Lubna Hussein at the cafe in Khartoum where she was arrested for wearing trousers. Sudanese writer and women’s rights campaigner, who asked to go to trial after being arrested for wearing trousers
   
Malalai Joya  Afghan Member of Parliament Malalai Joya Afghan politician and human rights campaigner who has shown phenomenal courage
   
Wangari Maathai  Wangari Maathai The Kenyan environmental and political activist who won a Nobel Peace prize for her work with the Green Belt Movement
   
Graca Machel  Graca Machel Former Mozambican education minister and advocate for the rights of southern African women and children
   
Somaly Mam   somlay mam Cambodian anti-sex trafficking campaigner and founder of AFESIP, rescuing women from brothels and supporting their recovery
   
Fatema Mernissi  Moroccan writer Fatema Mernissi Professor of sociology at Mohammed V University in Rabat
   
Pragna Patel  Pragna Patel, Chair of Southall Black Sisters Founding member of Southall Black Sisters, a landmark organisation in the history of black and Asian feminism
   
Lisa Robinson   Lisa Civil servant who made a stand and stopped a train carriage of sexist men
   
Nawal El Saadawi  Nawal El Saadawi Egyptian doctor, psychiatrist, feminist, university lecturer and writer
   
Zainab Salbi  zak Iraqi American CEO and founder of Women for Women International
   
Jasvinder Sanghera  Jasvinder Sanghera Director of Karma Nirvana, a charity helping victims of forced marriages and ‘honour‘ violence
   
Vandana Shiva  Vandana Shiva Environmentalist and founder of Diverse Women for Diversity
   
Art, film, music and fashion
Marina Abramovic Marina Abramovic with white lamb Yugoslavian Performance artist famed for her gruelling, intimate works that are legendary feats of endurance, self-exposure and risk
   
Marin Alsop Marin Alsop One of only a few female conductors and music director of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra
   
Kathryn Bigelow Kathryn Bigelow First woman to win the Oscar for best director in the 82 years of the Academy award’s history
   
Tacita Dean Tacita-Dean Turner nominated artist who is set to fill the Tate’s Turbine Hall
   
Zaha Hadid Architect Zaha Hadid at her Guangzhou Opera House Iraqi architect who has designed buildings all over the world and last year won the Stirling prize
   
Angelique Kidjo Angelique Kidjo Africa’s Grammy award-winning “premier diva”, who is politically outspoken and runs an education foundation
   
Lady Gaga Lady Gaga egg grammys Outlandish dresser, performer and politicised pop icon for the Twitter generation
   
Madonna Madonna The musical queen of reinvention – and still in the spotlight in her 50s on her own terms
   
Stella McCartney Stella McCartney The designer who has carved out her own successful career on her own merit, not just her connections
   
Mira Nair Mira-Nair--004 Film-maker behind The Namesake, Amelia and Monsoon Wedding, for which she became the first woman to win the Golden Lion at Cannes
   
Paula Rego paula rego Slade School of Art Turner prize nominated artist
   
Robyn Robyn Swedish electro-pop sensation who has topped the charts while keeping her clothes on
   
Cindy Sherman Cindy Sherman American artist and photographer, famed for her self-portraits in disguise, subverting notions of identity and gender
   
Patti Smith Patti Smith: Dream of Life The pioneering punk musician, poet and political activist broke through the male punk movement without chasing fame or money
   
Emma Thompson Emma Thompson Oscar-winning actor and human rights campaigner, recently working to raise awareness of sex trafficking
   
Rachel Whiteread Rachel Whiteread British artist who filled the Tate Turbine hall with boxes and took on Trafalgar Square’s fourth plinth
Xinran Xinran, author China’s first agony aunt broadcaster, and author of the Good Women of China
   
Business & trade unions
Carol Bartz Yahoo CEO Carol Bartz speaks during conference in San Francisco The first female CEO of a major software company, Yahoo
   
Andrea Jung Avon CEO Andrea Jung 11 years as chief executive of Avon make Jung the longest serving female head of a Fortune 500 company
   
Indra Nooyi Indra Nooyi PepsiCo’s boss is keen to help women – and other minorities – up the business ladder
   
Law
Louise Arbour louise arbour Human rights lawyer taking to task leaders from Kyrgyzstan to Sudan over abuses of power
   
Brenda Hale Brenda Hale, supreme court judge The first woman and youngest judge to become a law lord, Hale is currently the only female justice of the UK supreme court
   
Helena Kennedy  Helena Kennedy, human rights lawyer Human rights lawyer who originally worked on sex-discrimination cases before setting up Doughty Street chambers
   
Gareth Peirce Lawyer Gareth Pierce Lawyer whose battles against miscarriages of justice have changed legal history
   
Jayshree Satpute Jayshree Satpute Human rights advocate working to help poor women in India at risk of dying in childbirth
   
Sonia Sotomayor Judge Sonia Sotomayor Supreme court judge has used her experience of the real world in her rulings
   
Politics
Aung San Suu Kyi Aung San Suu Kyi in Yangon, Burma, November 2010 The Burmese pro-democracy leader who has inspired the world with her non-violent resistance to a brutal dictatorship
   
Michelle Bachelet The president of Chile, Michelle Bachelet Former president and defence minister of Chile who is now head of UN Women
   
Gro Harlem Brundtland Gro Harlem Brundtland A woman with a remarkable CV: former doctor, prime minister of Norway and director of the World Health Organisation
   
Hillary Clinton Hillary Clinton addresses the Munich security conference The US Secretary of State has outlasted her critics to become more popular than ever
   
Harriet Harman Harriet Harman. The woman who is deputy leader of the Labour party, shadow deputy prime minister and the first female solicitor general
   
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President of Liberia, responsible for significant debt relief and instigating the investigation of civil war crimes
   
Christine Lagarde Christine Lagarde French finance minister – the first woman appointed to that role in a G8 country
   
Angela Merkel Angela Merkel The Chancellor of Germany who is arguably the most influential female politician in the world
   
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, managing director of the World Bank The former finance director of Nigeria who is now a managing director of the World Bank
   
Dilma Rousseff Dilma Rousseff The teenage socialist guerilla withstood imprisonment and torture and went on to become the first female president of Brazil
   
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher in 1983 Like her or loathe her, Britain’s first female prime minister made her way in a man’s world and changed the way we think of women politicians
   
Science & medicine
Hawa Abdi Dr. Hawa Abdi One of Somalia’s first female gynaecologists, Hawa Abdi now uses her own money to run a small hospital
   
Jocelyn Bell Burnell bell burnell Astrophysicist who discovered the first pulsar and was the first female president of the Institute of Physics
   
Athene Donald Athene Donald An expert in the structure of “soft” matter, Donald researches unconventional areas for a physicist – such as revolutionary treatments for Alzheimer’s
   
Fabiola Gianotti Fabiola Gianotti, particle physicist Physicist leading the team working on the Large Hadron Collider at Cern
   
Jane Goodall KISSING TESS Primatologist and environmental campaigner, who has conducted groundbreaking work on chimpanzees and shortened the gap between our species
   
Molly Stevens Molly Stevens Professor of Biomedical Materials and Regenerative Medicine, Imperial College London
   
Susan Wicklund Susan Wicklund Abortion provider Susan Wicklund has been forced to carry a gun and wear a bullet-proof vest to protect herself from protesters at her clinic in Montana
   
Sport & adventure
Rebecca Adlington rebecca adlington 100 top women Double Olympic gold swimmer aiming to increase her tally in 2012
   
Arlene Blum arlene blum Mountaineer Arlene Blum was the first American woman to attempt Mount Everest
   
Karren Brady Karren Brady The vice-chairman of West Ham United football club who became a champion of working women on The Apprentice
   
Eileen Collins Eileen Collins US astronaut who was the first female pilot of a space shuttle and the first female shuttle commander
   
Cathy Freeman Oly W 400m The first Aboriginal athlete to win an Olympic medal
   
Tanni Grey-Thompson Athletics - Dame Tanni Grey Thompson Press Conference - Sportcity Britain’s greatest Paralympian, changed the perception of Paralympic sport for ever
   
Kelly Holmes Sprinter Kelly Holmes The first British Olympian to win a double gold
   
Ellen MacArthur ellen macarthur top 100 women Sailor who completed solo circumnavigation race, the Vendée Globe, then broke the non-stop solo world record
   
Martina Navratilova martina navratilova 100 women One of the all-time greats of women’s tennis and gay-rights campaigner
   
Hope Powell hope powell top 100 women England women’s football manager who, this year, takes the team to the World Cup for the second time
   
Caster Semenya  caster semenya top 100 women Young athlete who overcame global gender taunts to win world championship
   
Venus Williams venus williams top 100 women First black woman tennis player to be world number one in the modern era
   
Technology
Martha Lane Fox martha lane fox 100 women Entrepreneur who founded lastminute.com and is leading the government’s campaign to get people online
   
Juliana Rotich Juliana Rotich A prolific blogger who founded Ushahidi.com as a means to uncover violence and crisis areas around the world
   
Television
Cerrie Burnell Cerrie Burnell TV presenter tackling prejudices of disability head on
   
   
Rachel Maddow rachel maddow top 100 women The only openly gay American to host a primetime news show
   
Miriam O’Reilly Miriam O'Reilly Television presenter who was the first to win a claim of age discrimation against the BBC after being dropped from Countryfile
   
Oprah Winfrey Oprah Winfrey The talkshow host, actress and philanthropist is not satisfied with having conquered the US and is now taking on the whole world
   
Victoria Wood Victoria Wood Bafta-winning comedian and writer, finding humour in everyday women’s lives
   
Writing & Academia
Maya Angelou Maya Angelou Writer, academic and activist, who chronicled the African American experience in literature
   
Margaret Atwood  Margaret Atwood Novelist behind The Handmaid’s Tale, a cautionary story of a world without feminism
   
Judith Butler Judith Butler Superstar academic whose influential work Gender Trouble changed the way we conceptualise gender
   
Carol Ann Duffy  Carol Anne Duffy First tipped for the job 10 years earlier, she finally became the first female poet laureate in 2009
   
Eve Ensler Eve Ensler Playwright and activist, most famed for her taboo-busting play, The Vagina Monologues
   
Susan Faludi Susan Faludi Social historian, political analyst, and fact checker extraordinaire, who has challenged the mainstream consensus about women’s status
   
Germaine Greer Author Germaine Greer poses for photographers during a media launch in Melbourne Academic and feminist commentator who bulldozed her way into women’s minds
   
Shere Hite Shere Hite, feminist writer Feminist sex researcher who debunked the myth that most women were able to have orgasms through intercourse alone
   
Lynda La Plante Lynda La Plante top 100 women Screenwriter responsible for Prime Suspect, a brilliant vision of a woman in a man’s workplace
   
Doris Lessing Doris Lessing novelist top 100 women Novelist celebrated as writing a pioneering work of female emancipation, then spent half a century trying to shake off the status of ‘feminist icon’
   
Onora O’Neill Onora O'Neill Cambridge philosopher and crossbench peer who addresses issues including freedom of speech and stem-cell research
   
JK Rowling JK Rowling Author of the Harry Potter series, inspiring young readers and improving literacy levels in the process
   
Arundhati Roy Arundhati Roy Booker prize-winning author and one of India’s most important polemicists
   
Marjane Satrapi Marjane Satrapi Graphic novelist behind Persepolis, an autobiographical account of an Iranian youth
   
Jessica Valenti Jessica Valenti at home Pioneering blogger whose online activism dragged feminism into the 21st century
   
Alice Walker Alice Walker Lifelong political and social activist whose novel The Color Purple won the Pulitzer prize
   
Mary Warnock Baroness Mary Warnock Philosopher and writer, who has shaped government policies and is an outspoken supporter of legalised euthanasia
   

Courtesy : theguardian.com

Know : List of All Noble Prize Winners

Nobel_PrizeThe Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Each recipient, or “laureate”, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.

555 Nobel Prizes!

Between 1901 and 2012, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 555 times.

Nobel Prize Number of Prizes Number of Laureates Awarded to one Laureate Shared by two Laureates Shared by three Laureates
Physics 106 194 47 29 29
Chemistry 104 163 63 22 18
Medicine 103 201 38 31 33
Literature 105 109 100 4
Peace 93 100+24 62 28 2
Economic Sciences 44 71 22 16 5
Total: 555 862 332 130 87

Only 44 Nobel Prizes to Women!

Between 1901 and 2012 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 44 times to women. List of all female Nobel Laureates

List of all Noble Prize Laureates (Winners)

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

1901

Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy

1902

Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat

1903

Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer

1904

Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International

1905

Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner

1906

J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt

1907

Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault

1908

Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer

1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d’Estournelles de Constant

1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau

1911

Wilhelm Wien Marie Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried

1912

Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root

1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine

1914

Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány

None

None

1915

William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter

None

Romain Rolland

None

1916

None

None

None

Verner von Heidenstam

None

1917

Charles Glover Barkla

None

None

Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross

1918

Max Planck Fritz Haber

None

None

None

1919

Johannes Stark

None

Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson

1920

Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois

1921

Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy

None

Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange

1922

Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen

1923

Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats

None

1924

Manne Siegbahn

None

Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont

None

1925

James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

None

George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes

1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann

1927

Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde

1928

Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset

None

1929

Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg

1930

C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom

1931

None

Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler

1932

Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy

None

1933

Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac

None

Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell

1934

None

Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson

1935

James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann

None

Carl von Ossietzky

1936

Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O’Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1937

Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

1938

Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees

1939

Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää

None

1940

None

None

None

None

None

1941

None

None

None

None

None

1942

None

None

None

None

None

1943

Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy

None

None

1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross

1945

Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull

1946

Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott

1947

Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee

1948

Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot

None[B]

1949

Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr

1950

C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche

1951

John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux

1952

Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer

1953

Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall

1954

Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1955

Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness

None

1956

John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez

None

1957

Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson

1958

Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire

1959

Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker

1960

Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli

1961

Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld

1962

Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling

1963

Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies

1964

Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.

1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

1966

Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs

None

1967

Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias

None

1968

Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin

1969

Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen

1970

Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson

1971

Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets

1972

John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll

None

John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow

1973

Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief

1974

Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek

1975

Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans

1976

Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman

1977

Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade

1978

Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon

1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis

1980

James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein

1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui;
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry;
David H. Hubel;
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin

1982

Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström;
Bengt I. Samuelsson;
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal;
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler

1983

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu

1984

Carlo Rubbia;
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne;
Georges J. F. Köhler;
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone

1985

Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman;
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown;
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani

1986

Ernst Ruska;
Gerd Binnig;
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach;
Yuan T. Lee;
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen;
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan

1987

Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram;
Jean-Marie Lehn;
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow

1988

Leon M. Lederman;
Melvin Schwartz;
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer;
Robert Huber;
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black;
Gertrude B. Elion;
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais

1989

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman;
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop;
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo

1990

Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Henry Way Kendall;
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray;
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz;
Merton Miller;
William Forsyth Sharpe

1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher;
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase

1992

Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer;
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker

1993

Russell Alan Hulse;
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis;
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts;
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela;
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel;
Douglass North

1994

Bertram Brockhouse;
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman;
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat;
Shimon Peres;
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi;
John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Reinhard Selten

1995

Martin Lewis Perl;
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen;
Mario J. Molina;
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis;
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.

1996

David Lee;
Douglas Osheroff;
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Harry Kroto;
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty;
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees;
William Vickrey

1997

Steven Chu;
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer;
John E. Walker;
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton;
Myron Scholes

1998

Robert B. Laughlin;
Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn;
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott;
Louis Ignarro;
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume;
David Trimble
Amartya Sen

1999

Gerard ‘t Hooft;
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell

2000

Zhores Alferov;
Herbert Kroemer;
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger;
Alan MacDiarmid;
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson;
Paul Greengard;
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman;
Daniel McFadden

2001

Eric Allin Cornell;
Wolfgang Ketterle;
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles;
Ryōji Noyori;
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell;
Tim Hunt;
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof;
Michael Spence;
Joseph Stiglitz

2002

Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Masatoshi Koshiba;
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn;
Koichi Tanaka;
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner;
H. Robert Horvitz;
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman;
Vernon L. Smith

2003

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Vitaly Ginzburg;
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre;
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur;
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle;
Clive Granger

2004

David Gross;
Hugh David Politzer;
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover;
Avram Hershko;
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel;
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland;
Edward C. Prescott

2005

Roy J. Glauber;
John L. Hall;
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin;
Robert H. Grubbs;
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall;
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann;
Thomas Schelling

2006

John C. Mather;
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire;
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps

2007

Albert Fert;
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi;
Martin Evans;
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz;
Eric Maskin;
Roger Myerson

2008

Yoichiro Nambu;
Makoto Kobayashi;
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura;
Martin Chalfie;
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen;
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman

2009

Charles K. Kao;
Willard S. Boyle;
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Thomas A. Steitz;
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn;
Carol W. Greider;
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom;
Oliver E. Williamson

2010

Andre Geim;
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard Heck;
Ei-ichi Negishi;
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo[F] Peter A. Diamond;
Dale T. Mortensen;
Christopher A. Pissarides

2011

Saul Perlmutter;
Adam G. Riess;
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler;
Jules A. Hoffmann;
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Leymah Gbowee;
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent;
Christopher A. Sims

2012

Serge Haroche;
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka;
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon;
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth;
Lloyd S. Shapley

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

Courtesy & Sources : Wikipedia, Nobelprize.org