848 million Indians do not have access to clean drinking water and toilets. States like Orissa and West Bengal have the highest number of people without access to sanitation facilities. India’s poor sanitary predicament costs the country 54 billion dollars annually.
The consumption of unsafe water coupled with unsanitary living conditions, leads to contraction of water borne diseases such as typhoid, diarrhea, SARS and Hepatitis A. Diarrhea alone kills 1600 Indians every day.
In order to understand the intertwining of water, sanitation and hygiene, and therefore the biggest problem these pose to India, one must understand the lopsided development in the nation. Not all parts of India have clean sewage facilities. In fact, nearly 80 percent of sewage from Indian cities flows into clean water systems. To add to this problem, nearly 300 million of India’s 1.2 billion people, defecate openly, leading to extreme contamination of water and improper (to say the least) disposal of feces. It is the amalgamation of these problems and little to no awareness on the treatment of unsafe water (such as boiling it), which leads to the contraction of several diseases and an increase in malnutrition amongst children.
– Excerpts from chaiwithlakshmi.in Read more
You will do anything when you feel thirsty, whatever it takes to drink water. Same happens when we try to achieve things in our life. Only the thirst for achieving differentiates one another.
– Words by Din
Here is the average price of 1.5 liter of drinking water in 122 countries (in USD, INR and EUR)
What is your opinion about the sales of bottled drinking water? Please comment, your few seconds spend to comment can help to give insights to students and please share this with your friends using Facebook / Twitter buttons below. Thank you.
|Bosnia And Herzegovina||0.68||42.67||0.51|
|Papua New Guinea||1.83||114.80||1.37|
|United Arab Emirates||0.54||34.16||0.41|
The water in a raindrop is one of the cleanest sources of water available. Rainwater can absorb gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide from the atmosphere. It can also capture soot and other microscopic particulates as it falls through the sky. Nevertheless, rainwater is almost 100% pure water before it reaches the ground.
Rainwater is soft water and leaves no limescale; washing clothes and hair in soft water requires less detergent and so reduces water pollution from these compounds. Plants LOVE rainwater. It doesn’t contain chlorine, which is carcinogenic.
Water is made “hard” by dissolving calcium or magnesium ions, neither of which is present in rain water (at least, not until it runs over calcium or magnesium containing compounds on the Earth’s surface). Pure water is considered the universal solvent; it can absorb or dissolve contaminants from almost anything it comes into contact with. That is why it is especially important to design and operate your system so that the rainwater picks up as few contaminants as possible before you consume it.
Although rainwater can be contaminated by absorbing airborne chemicals, most of the chemicals present in harvested rainwater is introduced during collection, treatment, and distribution. By properly designing and operating your rainwater harvesting system, you can minimize your exposure to a variety of chemical contaminants that include organic chemicals, such as volatile and synthetic organics, and inorganic chemicals, such as minerals and metals.
Chemical composition of rain water : Rainwater gets its compositions largely by dissolving particulate materials in the atmosphere (upper troposphere) when droplets of water nucleate on atmospheric particulates, and secondarily by dissolving gasses from the atmosphere.
Rainwater compositions vary geographically. In open ocean and coastal areas they have a salt content essentially like that of sea water (same ionic proportions but much more dilute) plus CO2 as bicarbonate anion (acidic pH).
Terrestrial rain compositions vary significantly from place to place because the regional geology can greatly affect the types of particulates that get added to the atmosphere. Likewise, sources of gaseous acids (SO3, NO2) and bases (NH3) vary as a function of biome factors and anthopogenic land use practices. Each of these gasses can be added in varying proportions from natural and non natural input sources (non-natural sources of SO3 and NO2 far outweigh natural ones). Particulate load to the atmosphere can also be greatly affected by human activities.
Finally, local climate (especially the amount of precipitation in one area compared to another) will affect the solute concentrations in terrestrial rainwaters. The result is highly variable compositions, so there isn’t one simple formula.
Humans are over-consuming natural resources at an unsustainable rate. Around 3.5 planets Earth would be needed to sustain a global population achieving the current lifestyle of the average European or North American.
The total volume of water on Earth is about 1.4 billion km³. The volume of freshwater resources is around 35 million km³, or about 2.5 percent of the total volume.
Of these freshwater resources, about 24 million km³ or 70 percent is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in mountainous regions, the Antarctic and Arctic regions.
Around 30 percent of the world’s freshwater is stored underground in the form of groundwater (shallow and deep groundwater basins up to 2000 metres, soil moisture, swamp water and permafrost). This constitutes about 97 percent of all the freshwater that is potentially available for human use.
Freshwater lakes and rivers contain an estimated 105000 km³ or around 0.3 percent of the world’s freshwater.
The Earth’s atmosphere contains approximately 13,000 km³ of water.
The total usable freshwater supply for ecosystems and humans is about 200 000 km³ of water – less than 1 percent of all freshwater resources.
Water scarcity already affects almost every continent and more than 40 percent of the people on our planet. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world’s population could be living under water stressed conditions.
In 2030, 47% of world population will be living in areas of high water stress. Most population growth will occur in developing countries, mainly in regions that are already experiencing water stress and in areas with limited access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities.
Water resource management impacts almost all aspects of the economy, in particular, health, food production and security, domestic water supply and sanitation, energy, industry and environmental sustainability.
Sources and Courtesy: UNEP, World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) , FAO, 2012 , WWDR, 2012, http://www.unwater.org
- Averting conflict over water (japantimes.co.jp)
- Paradox of Water Crisis (propelsteps.wordpress.com)
- The Looming Threat of Water Scarcity (thethinkingtamil.com)
- Rain Water Harvesting (lohitdacha.wordpress.com)
- Searching for reliable global water data (unconventionalenergy.blogs.ihs.com)
- Water supply and conservation in Yemen (mideastissues.com)
- More than 500 million people might face increasing water scarcity (phys.org)