Documentary : Know Romania

Romania

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Romania (Roumania and Rumania) is a country located at the intersection of Central and Southeastern Europe, bordering on the Black Sea. Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south. At 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the eighth largest country of the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest population of the European Union with 20,121,641 people (20 October 2011). Its capital and largest city is Bucharest – the sixth largest city in the EU.

The United Principalities emerged when the territories of Moldavia and Wallachia were united under Prince Alexander Ioan Cuza in 1859. In 1866 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was called to the throne as the Ruling Prince of the Romanian Principate and in 1881 he was finally crowned as King Carol I the first monarch of the Kingdom of Romania. Independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on 9 May 1877, and was internationally recognised the following year. At the end of World War ITransylvaniaBukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania.

Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality. In summer 1940, a series of territorial disputes were resolved unfavorably to Romania, resulting in the loss of most of the territory gained in the wake of World War I. This caused the popularity of Romania’s government to plummet.World War II gave cause to the rise of a military dictatorship in Romania under far-right Marshal Ion Antonescu, who chose to fight on the side of the Axis powers from 1941 to 1944 in order to regain the provinces. After his removal, Romania switched sides in 1944 and joined the Allies. By the end of the war, some formerly Romanian northeastern territories were occupied by the Soviet Union, with Red Army units stationed on Romanian soil. In 1947 Romania forcibly became a People’s Republic (1947–1965) and a member of the Warsaw Pact. In 1965 Nicolae Ceauşescu became General Secretary of the Romanian Workers’ Party, and the harsh austerity measures, political repression, and cult of personality he implemented led to the Socialist Republic of Romania (1965–1989) becoming the most Stalinist police state in the Eastern bloc. Eventually his authoritarian government was toppled in December 1989 during the Romanian Revolution.

With the fall of the Iron Curtain, Romania began its transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy. After a decade of post-revolution economic problems and living-standards decline, extensive reforms fostered economic recovery. As of 2010, Romania is an upper-middle income country with a high Human Development Index. Romania joined NATO on 29 March 2004, and the European Union on 1 January 2007. It is also a member of the Latin UnionFrancophonieOSCEWTO,BSEC, United Nations, etc. Today, Romania is a unitary semi-presidential republic, in which the executive branch consists of thePresident and the Government.

Courtesy : Youtube, Wikipedia and ~ Bright Romeo ~

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Know : World Trade Organization (WTO)

Brief Overview:

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.

The result is assurance. Consumers and producers know that they can enjoy secure supplies and greater choice of the finished products, components, raw materials and services that they use. Producers and exporters know that foreign markets will remain open to them.

The result is also a more prosperous, peaceful and accountable economic world. Virtually all decisions in the WTO are taken by consensus among all member countries and they are ratified by members’ parliaments. Trade friction is channelled into the WTO’s dispute settlement process where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments, and how to ensure that countries’ trade policies conform with them. That way, the risk of disputes spilling over into political or military conflict is reduced.

By lowering trade barriers, the WTO’s system also breaks down other barriers between peoples and nations.

At the heart of the system — known as the multilateral trading system — are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations, and ratified in their parliaments. These agreements are the legal ground-rules for international commerce. Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing member countries important trade rights. They also bind governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits to everybody’s benefit.

The agreements were negotiated and signed by governments. But their purpose is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

The goal is to improve the welfare of the peoples of the 159 member states.

   Members,
   Members, dually represented by the European Union
   Observers
   Non-members

The History : 

The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995. One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War. So while the WTO is still young, the multilateral trading system that was originally set up under GATT is well over 50 years old. (click here to read the complete history)

In 2000, new talks started on agriculture and services. These have now been incorporated into a broader agenda launched at the fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001.

The work programme, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), adds negotiations and other work on non-agricultural tariffs, trade and environment, WTO rules such as anti-dumping and subsidies, investment, competition policy, trade facilitation, transparency in government procurement, intellectual property, and a range of issues raised by developing countries as difficulties they face in implementing the present WTO agreements.

It does this by:
Administering trade agreements
Acting as a forum for trade negotiations
Settling trade disputes
Reviewing national trade policies
Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes
Cooperating with other international organizations

Organizational Structure

The WTO has about 150 members, accounting for about 95% of world trade. Around 30 others are negotiating membership.

Decisions are made by the entire membership. This is typically by consensus. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO, and was extremely rare under the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments.

The WTO’s top level decision-making body is the Ministerial Conference which meets at least once every two years.

Below this is the General Council (normally ambassadors and heads of delegation in Geneva, but sometimes officials sent from members’ capitals) which meets several times a year in the Geneva headquarters. The General Council also meets as the Trade Policy Review Body and the Dispute Settlement Body.

At the next level, the Goods Council, Services Council and Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Council report to the General Council.

Numerous specialized committees, working groups and working parties deal with the individual agreements and other areas such as the environment, development, membership applications and regional trade agreements.

Secretariat

The WTO Secretariat, based in Geneva, has around 600 staff and is headed by a director-general (Roberto Azevêdo). Its annual budget is roughly 160 million Swiss francs. It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Since decisions are taken by the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role that other inter-Secretariat, Genevanational bureaucracies are given.

The WTO agreements
How can you ensure that trade is as fair as possible, and as free as is practical? By negotiating rules and abiding by them. (Click here to read more about the WTO agreements)

The WTO is ‘rules-based’; its rules are negotiated agreements.

Overview: a navigational guide
Tariffs: more bindings and closer to zero
Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers
Standards and safety
Textiles: back in the mainstream
Services: rules for growth and investment
Intellectual property: protection and enforcement
Anti-dumping, subsidies, safeguards: contingencies, etc
Non-tariff barriers: red tape, etc
Plurilaterals: of minority interest
Trade policy reviews: ensuring transparency

10 benefits of the WTO trading system

From the money in our pockets and the goods and services that we use, to a more peaceful world — the WTO and the trading system offer a range of benefits, some well-known, others not so obvious.

1. The system helps promote peace
2. Disputes are handled constructively
3. Rules make life easier for all
4. Freer trade cuts the costs of living
5. It provides more choice of products and qualities
6. Trade raises incomes
7. Trade stimulates economic growth
8. The basic principles make life more efficient
9. Governments are shielded from lobbying
10. The system encourages good government

10 common misunderstandings about the WTO

Is it a dictatorial tool of the rich and powerful? Does it destroy jobs? Does it ignore the concerns of health, the environment and development?  Emphatically no. Criticisms of the WTO are often based on fundamental misunderstandings of the way the WTO works.

1. WTO dictates?
2. 
Blindly for trade?
3. 
Ignores development?
4. 
Anti-green?
5. 
Anti-health?
6. 
Wrecks jobs?
7. 
Small left out?
8. 
Tool of lobbies?
9. 
Weak forced to join?
10. 
Undemocratic?

____

Courtesy and Source : www.wto.org, Wikipedia and Google

Know : Basel Convention ( Treaty to prevent transfer of Hazardous Waste between Nations)

Basel_ConventionWhat is the Basel Convention?

The Basel Convention is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate.

The overarching objective of the Basel Convention is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes. Its scope of application covers a wide range of wastes defined as “hazardous wastes” based on their origin and/or composition and their characteristics, as well as two types of wastes defined as “other wastes” – household waste and incinerator ash.

The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, and entered into force on 5 May 1992. As of May 2013, 179 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention. Haiti and the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified (Making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it) it.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Nations that have signed and ratified the Basel Convention, along with nations that have signed but have not ratified the agreement. Rest not signed

When and Why it was formed?

With the tightening of environmental laws (for example, RCRA) in developing nations in the 1970s, disposal costs for hazardous waste rose dramatically. At the same time, globalization of shipping made a transboundary movement of waste more accessible, and many LDCs were desperate for foreign currency. Consequently, the trade in hazardous waste, particularly LDCs, grew rapidly.

One of the incidents which led to the creation of the Basel Convention was the Khian Sea waste disposal incident, in which a ship carrying incinerator ash from the city of Philadelphia in the United States dumped half of its load on a beach in Haiti before being forced away. It sailed for many months, changing its name several times. Unable to unload the cargo in any port, the crew was believed to have dumped much of it at sea.

Another is the 1988 Koko case in which 5 ships transported 8,000 barrels of hazardous waste from Italy to the small town of Koko in Nigeria in exchange for $100 monthly rent which was paid to a Nigerian for the use of his farmland.

These practices have been deemed “Toxic Colonialism” by many developing countries.

Export of E-Waste

Export of E-Waste

Only around 4% of hazardous wastes that come from OECD [Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries are actually shipped across international borders. These wastes include, among others, chemical waste, radioactive waste, municipal solid waste, asbestos, incinerator ash, and old tires. Of internationally shipped waste that comes from developed countries, more than half is shipped for recovery and the remainder for final disposal.

Increased trade in recyclable materials has led to an increase in a market for used products such as computers. This market is valued in billions of dollars. At issue is the distinction when used computers stop being a “commodity” and become a “waste”.

As of 2013, there are 180 parties(countries) to the treaty. The UN member states that are not party to the treaty are Angola, Burma, East Timor, Fiji, Grenada, Haiti, São Tomé and Príncipe,San Marino, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Tuvalu, United States, and Vanuatu.

Country wise details on Status of RatificationsCountry ContactsAgreementsImports / Export RestrictionsNationalDefinitionsNationalLegislationNationalReporting and Country Fact Sheets can be downloaded from the respective links from their site. (Click on the respective link)

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia and http://www.basel.int/

Know : List of All Noble Prize Winners

Nobel_PrizeThe Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Each recipient, or “laureate”, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.

555 Nobel Prizes!

Between 1901 and 2012, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 555 times.

Nobel Prize Number of Prizes Number of Laureates Awarded to one Laureate Shared by two Laureates Shared by three Laureates
Physics 106 194 47 29 29
Chemistry 104 163 63 22 18
Medicine 103 201 38 31 33
Literature 105 109 100 4
Peace 93 100+24 62 28 2
Economic Sciences 44 71 22 16 5
Total: 555 862 332 130 87

Only 44 Nobel Prizes to Women!

Between 1901 and 2012 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 44 times to women. List of all female Nobel Laureates

List of all Noble Prize Laureates (Winners)

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

1901

Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy

1902

Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat

1903

Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer

1904

Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International

1905

Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner

1906

J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt

1907

Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault

1908

Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer

1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d’Estournelles de Constant

1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau

1911

Wilhelm Wien Marie Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried

1912

Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root

1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine

1914

Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány

None

None

1915

William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter

None

Romain Rolland

None

1916

None

None

None

Verner von Heidenstam

None

1917

Charles Glover Barkla

None

None

Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross

1918

Max Planck Fritz Haber

None

None

None

1919

Johannes Stark

None

Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson

1920

Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois

1921

Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy

None

Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange

1922

Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen

1923

Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats

None

1924

Manne Siegbahn

None

Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont

None

1925

James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

None

George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes

1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann

1927

Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde

1928

Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset

None

1929

Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg

1930

C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom

1931

None

Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler

1932

Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy

None

1933

Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac

None

Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell

1934

None

Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson

1935

James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann

None

Carl von Ossietzky

1936

Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O’Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1937

Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

1938

Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees

1939

Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää

None

1940

None

None

None

None

None

1941

None

None

None

None

None

1942

None

None

None

None

None

1943

Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy

None

None

1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross

1945

Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull

1946

Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott

1947

Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee

1948

Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot

None[B]

1949

Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr

1950

C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche

1951

John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux

1952

Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer

1953

Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall

1954

Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1955

Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness

None

1956

John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez

None

1957

Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson

1958

Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire

1959

Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker

1960

Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli

1961

Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld

1962

Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling

1963

Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies

1964

Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.

1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

1966

Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs

None

1967

Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias

None

1968

Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin

1969

Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen

1970

Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson

1971

Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets

1972

John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll

None

John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow

1973

Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief

1974

Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek

1975

Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans

1976

Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman

1977

Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade

1978

Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon

1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis

1980

James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein

1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui;
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry;
David H. Hubel;
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin

1982

Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström;
Bengt I. Samuelsson;
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal;
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler

1983

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu

1984

Carlo Rubbia;
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne;
Georges J. F. Köhler;
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone

1985

Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman;
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown;
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani

1986

Ernst Ruska;
Gerd Binnig;
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach;
Yuan T. Lee;
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen;
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan

1987

Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram;
Jean-Marie Lehn;
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow

1988

Leon M. Lederman;
Melvin Schwartz;
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer;
Robert Huber;
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black;
Gertrude B. Elion;
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais

1989

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman;
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop;
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo

1990

Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Henry Way Kendall;
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray;
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz;
Merton Miller;
William Forsyth Sharpe

1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher;
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase

1992

Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer;
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker

1993

Russell Alan Hulse;
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis;
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts;
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela;
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel;
Douglass North

1994

Bertram Brockhouse;
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman;
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat;
Shimon Peres;
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi;
John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Reinhard Selten

1995

Martin Lewis Perl;
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen;
Mario J. Molina;
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis;
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.

1996

David Lee;
Douglas Osheroff;
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Harry Kroto;
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty;
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees;
William Vickrey

1997

Steven Chu;
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer;
John E. Walker;
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton;
Myron Scholes

1998

Robert B. Laughlin;
Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn;
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott;
Louis Ignarro;
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume;
David Trimble
Amartya Sen

1999

Gerard ‘t Hooft;
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell

2000

Zhores Alferov;
Herbert Kroemer;
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger;
Alan MacDiarmid;
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson;
Paul Greengard;
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman;
Daniel McFadden

2001

Eric Allin Cornell;
Wolfgang Ketterle;
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles;
Ryōji Noyori;
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell;
Tim Hunt;
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof;
Michael Spence;
Joseph Stiglitz

2002

Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Masatoshi Koshiba;
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn;
Koichi Tanaka;
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner;
H. Robert Horvitz;
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman;
Vernon L. Smith

2003

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Vitaly Ginzburg;
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre;
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur;
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle;
Clive Granger

2004

David Gross;
Hugh David Politzer;
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover;
Avram Hershko;
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel;
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland;
Edward C. Prescott

2005

Roy J. Glauber;
John L. Hall;
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin;
Robert H. Grubbs;
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall;
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann;
Thomas Schelling

2006

John C. Mather;
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire;
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps

2007

Albert Fert;
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi;
Martin Evans;
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz;
Eric Maskin;
Roger Myerson

2008

Yoichiro Nambu;
Makoto Kobayashi;
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura;
Martin Chalfie;
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen;
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman

2009

Charles K. Kao;
Willard S. Boyle;
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Thomas A. Steitz;
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn;
Carol W. Greider;
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom;
Oliver E. Williamson

2010

Andre Geim;
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard Heck;
Ei-ichi Negishi;
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo[F] Peter A. Diamond;
Dale T. Mortensen;
Christopher A. Pissarides

2011

Saul Perlmutter;
Adam G. Riess;
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler;
Jules A. Hoffmann;
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Leymah Gbowee;
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent;
Christopher A. Sims

2012

Serge Haroche;
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka;
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon;
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth;
Lloyd S. Shapley

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

Courtesy & Sources : Wikipedia, Nobelprize.org