Documentary : Know Portugal

Location of  Portugal  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (PortugueseRepública Portuguesa), is a unitary semi-presidential republic. It is located in South-Western Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula, and it is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, being bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. Aside from continental Portugal, the Portuguese Republic holds sovereignty over the Atlantic archipelagos of Azores and Madeira, which are autonomous regions of Portugal. The country is named after its second largest city, Porto, whose name derives from Latin “Portus” and Celtic “Cale”.

The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continually fought over and settled since prehistoric times. The Celts and the Romans, followed by the Visigothic and Suebian domination, and theMoorish invaders, who were eventually expelled during the Reconquista. Portugal by 1139 established itself as an independent kingdom from Galicia. In the 15th and 16th centuries, as the result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, Portugal expanded western influence and established the first global empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and military powers, and ultimately dividing the world with Spain.

The Portuguese Empire was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost 600 years, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau to China in 1999 (de facto) or the granting of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002 (de jure). The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories that are now part of 53 different sovereign states, leaving a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today (making it the sixth most spoken first language) and a number of Portuguese-based creoles. Portugal’s international status was greatly reduced during the 19th century, especially following the Independence of Brazil, its largest and most important colony. After 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstablePortuguese First Republic was established, itself being superseded by the “Estado Novo” right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. The revolution in 1974 also resulted in the independence of AngolaMozambiqueSão Tomé and PríncipeEast TimorCape Verde and Guinea-Bissau in 1975.

Portugal is considered a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards. It’s one of the world’s most globalized and peaceful nations. It is a member of the United NationsEuropean UnionEurozoneOECDNATOWTOSchengen Area, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level. Portugal also received international attention for being the first country in the world to fully decriminalize the usage of all drugs in 2001.


Courtesy : Expoza Travel via Youtube and Wikipedia

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Documentary : Know Holland

North and South Holland (in orange) shown together within the NetherlandsHolland is a region and former province located on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name Holland is also frequently used as a pars pro toto to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. This usage is generally accepted, but some individuals, particularly from the other parts of the Netherlands, dislike the use of “Holland” as a substitute for “the Netherlands”.

From the 10th to the 16th century, Holland proper was a unified political region within the Holy Roman Empire as a county ruled by the Counts of Holland. By the 17th century, Holland had risen to become a maritime and economic power, dominating the other provinces of the newly independent Dutch Republic.

Today, the former County of Holland roughly consists of the two Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland, which together include the Netherlands’ three largest cities: the capital city of Amsterdam; the seat of government of The Hague; and Rotterdam, home of Europe’s largest port


Courtesy : Expoza Travel via Youtube and Wikipedia

Documentary : Know France

FranceFrance officially the French Republic is a sovereign country in Western Europe that includes overseas regions and territoriesMetropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of only three countries (with Morocco and Spain) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Due to its shape, it is often referred to in French as l’Hexagone (“The Hexagon“).

France map

France is the largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the third-largest in Europe as a whole. With a total population of around 67 million, it is the third most-populous European country. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the nation’s largest city and the main cultural and commercial centre. The current Constitution of France, adopted by referendum on 4 October 1958, establishes the country as secular and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people. The nation’s ideals are expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, one of the world’s earliest documents on human rights, which was formulated during the seminal French Revolution of the late 18th century.

France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages. It possessed the second-largest colonial empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Throughout its long history, France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains prominent global centre of culture. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites, drawing around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world.

File:Armoiries république française.svgFrance remains a great power with significant culturaleconomicmilitary, and political influence in Europe and around the world. It has the world’s sixth-largest military budgetthird-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, and second-largest diplomatic corps, after the United States. Due to its overseas regions and territories throughout the world, France has the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France is a developed country and has the world’s fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of total household wealth, France is the wealthiest nation in Europe and fourth in the world.

French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, with the country performing well in international rankings of educationhealth carelife expectancy, civil liberties, and human development. France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. It is a member of numerous international institutions, includingFrancophonie, the G8G20NATOOECDWTO, and the Latin Union. France is a founding and leadingmember state of the European Union


Courtesy : Expoza Travel

Documentary : Know Chile

Chile mapChile, officially the Republic of Chile (SpanishRepública de Chile), is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan FernándezSalas y GómezDesventuradas, and Easter Island. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) ofAntarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

Chile’s northern desert contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.

Spain conquered and settled Chile in the mid-16th century effectively replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile but failed to conquer the independent Mapuche that inhabited south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile experienced significant economic and territorial growth ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d’état that overthrew Salvador Allende’s left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The dictatorship headed by Augusto Pinochet ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a centre-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.

Today, Chile is one of South America’s most stable and prosperous nations. It leads Latin American nations in human developmentcompetitivenessincome per capitaglobalizationstate of peaceeconomic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development. In May 2010, Chile became the first South American nation to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States


Some Quick Facts about Chile

  • Chile is the longest north-south trending country in the world at over 4,600 km in length, however on average it is just 150 km wide from west to east.
  • Found in the north of Chile, the Atacama Desert is the driest place on Earth, with an average rainfall of less than 0.05 mm a year.
  • Chileans call their country: país de poetas (country of poets), for good reason too, the country’s two Nobel Prize winners both won in Literature. Gabriela Mistral in 1945, and the country’s most famous poet, Pablo Neruda in 1971.
  • Chile is one of the most stable and prosperous nations in South America.
  • Tennis is Chile’s most successful sport, however, football (soccer) is Chile’s most popular sport, the country has played in the World Cup 8 times including hosting the 1962 event. The national sport of Chile is Rodeo which is still very popular in rural areas of the country.

 

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Courtesy: Wikipedia, Expoza Travel (via YouTube) and www.sciencekids.co.nz

Documentary : Know South Africa

South AfricaSouth Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. It has 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline that stretches along the South Atlantic and Indian oceans. To the north lie the neighbouring countries of NamibiaBotswana Zimbabwe    and; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; and within it lies Lesotho, an enclave surrounded by South African territory. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area, and with close to 53 million people, is the world’s 24th-most populous nation.

South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution‘s recognition of 11 official languages, which is among the highest number of any country in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: English and Afrikaans, the latter originating from Dutch and serving as the first language of most white and coloured South Africans. Though English is commonly used in public and commercial life, it is only the fourth most-spoken first language.

About 80 percent of South Africans are of black African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa‘s largest communities of EuropeanAsian, and multiracial ancestry. All ethnic and linguistic groups have political representation in the country’s constitutional democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s unique multicultural character has become integral to its national identity, as signified by the Rainbow Nation concept.

South Africa is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank, and is considered to be a newly industrialised country. Its economy is the largest and most developed in Africa, and the 28th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa, although poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. Nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence.

Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning “south”, is a colloquial name for South Africa.

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Courtesy : Expoza TravelHistory Channel (via YouTube) and Wikipedia

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