Know : List of Citrus Fruits

 

List of Citrus Fruits

Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance, partly due to flavonoids and limonoids (which in turn are terpenes) contained in the rind, and most are juice-laden. The juice contains a high quantity of citric acid giving them their characteristic sharp flavour. The genus is commercially important as many species are cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh, pressed for juice, or preserved in marmalades and pickles.

They are also good sources of vitamin C and flavonoids. The flavonoids include various flavanones and flavones. Citrus trees hybridise very readily – depending on the pollen source, plants grown from a Persian Lime‘s seeds can produce fruit similar to grapefruit. Thus all commercial citrus cultivation uses trees produced by grafting the desired fruiting cultivars onto rootstocks selected for disease resistance and hardiness.

Common
name(s)
Image Taxonomic
name/constituents
Amanatsu Citrus kawanonatsudaidai fruit.jpg Citrus natsudaidai
Balady citron
Israel citron
Braverman1.JPG Citrus medica
Bergamot orange Bergamotfruit.jpg Citrus bergamia
Bitter orange
Seville orange
Sour orange
Bigarade orange
Marmalade orange
Citrus aurantium.jpg Citrus × aurantium
Blood orange BloodOrange.jpg Citrus × sinensis
Buddha’s hand
Bushukan
Fingered citron
Buddhas hand 2.jpg Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis
Calamondin
Calamansi
Mixed Calamondin-Calamansi.jpg × Citrofortunella mitis
Cam sành CamSanh (9).JPG Citrus reticulata ×maxima
Citron Citrus medicus fruit.jpg Citrus medica
Yuzufruit.jpg Citrus subg. Papeda
Clementine Clementines whole, peeled, half and sectioned.jpg Citrus reticulata
Corsican citron
Desert Lime Citrus glauca bushes.jpg Citrus glauca
Etrog Etrog without Pitom.jpg Citrus medica
Finger lime Citrus australasica green fruit1.JPG Citrus australasica
Florentine citron Citrus medica
Grapefruit Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit, pink) white bg.jpg Citrus × paradisi
Greek citron Ordang multi.JPG Citrus medica
Hyuganatsu
Konatsu
Tosakonatsu
New Summer Orange
Hyuganatsu cut.jpg Citrus tamurana
Iyokan
Anadomikan
Iyokan on tree.jpg Citrus × iyo
Kabosu Kabosu.jpg Citrus sphaerocarpa
Kaffir lime Citrus hystrix dsc07772.jpg Citrus hystrix
Key lime Ripekeylime.jpg Citrus aurantiifolia
Kinnow Harvest Kinnow.jpg Citrus nobilis × Citrus deliciosa
Kiyomi Kiyomi.JPG Citrus unshiu × Citrus sinensis
Kumquat Quinotos.jpg Citrus japonica
Lemon Lemon.jpg Citrus limon
Lime Limes whole and halved.jpg
Mandarin orange
Mandarin
Mandarine
Mandarin Oranges (Citrus Reticulata).jpg Citrus reticulata
Meyer lemon Meyer Lemon.jpg Citrus × meyeri
Moroccan citron MoroccoEtrog.JPG Citrus medica
Myrtle-leaved orange tree Citrus myrtifolia 2.jpg Citrus myrtifolia
Orange
Sweet orange
OrangeBloss wb.jpg Citrus × sinensis
Oroblanco
Sweetie
Sweetie (Citrus).jpg Citrus grandis × C. Paradisi/Citrus maxima/Citrus grandis
Persian lime
Tahiti lime
Bearss lime
Limes.jpg Citrus × latifolia
Pomelo
Pummelo
Pommelo
Shaddock
Citrus grandis - Honey White.jpg Citrus maxima orCitrus grandis
Ponderosa lemon PonderosaLemon.jpg Citrus limon × medica
Rangpur
Lemandarin
Rangpur limette.jpg Citrus × limonia
Round lime
Australian lime
Australian round lime
Citrus australis
Satsuma
Cold hardy mandarin
Satsuma mandarin
Satsuma orange
Christmas orange
Tangerine
Citrus unshiu 20101127 c.jpg Citrus unshiu
Shangjuan
Ichang lemon
Ichangfruit.jpg Citrus ichangensis ×C. maxima
Shonan Gold 湘南ゴールド 結果状況2.JPG Citrus flaviculpus hort. ex Tanaka (Ōgonkan)× Citrus unshiu
Sudachi Sudachi.png Citrus sudachi
Sweet limetta
Mediterranean sweet lemon
Sweet lemon
Sweet lime
Citrus limetta.jpeg Citrus limetta
Taiwan tangerine
Flat lemon
Hirami lemon
Thin-skinned flat lemon
Shikwasa-1.jpg Citrus × depressa
Tangelo
Honeybell
Minneola fruit 3.jpg C. reticulata × C. maxima or × C. paradisi
Tangerine TangerineFruit.jpg Citrus tangerina
Tangor Photo ortanique.JPG C. reticulata × C. sinensis
Ugli fruit Ugli.jpg Citrus reticulata ×Citrus paradisi
Yuzu Yuzufruit.jpg Citrus ichangensis ×C. reticulata

More…

Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C, which prevents scurvy. Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. An early sign of scurvy is fatigue. If ignored, later symptoms are bleeding and bruising easily. British sailors were given a ration of citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent the onset of scurvy, hence the British nickname of Limey.

Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of plants. Limes and lemons as well as oranges and grapefruits are among the highest in this level.

After consumption, the peel is sometimes used as a facial cleanser. A peel of lemons or orange is commonly used as a means to moisten medical cannabis when stored with it.

Before the development of fermentation-based processes, lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid.

Citrus fruit intake is associated with a reduced risk of stomach cancer.Also, citrus fruit juices, such as orange, lime and lemon, may be useful for lowering the risk of specific types of kidney stones.

Grapefruit is another fruit juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers.

Lemons have the highest concentration of citrate of any citrus fruit, and daily consumption of lemonade has been shown to decrease the rate of stone formation.

Food We Eat : List of Varieties of Mangoes

Mango varities

Worldwide, hundreds of mango cultivars exist. In mango orchards, multiple cultivars are often grown together to improve cross-pollination. Two of the most important cultivars are the Chaunsa, which is particularly common in Pakistan, and the Tommy Atkins, which dominates the world export trade because it can be easily transported and has a good shelf-life, although it is reputed to not have the same flavor as that of a chaunsa.

The International Mango Festival, held annually in Delhi, India during early summer, is a two-day festival showcasing mangoes. It has been held since 1987. More than 550 varieties and cultivars of mango are featured in the festival for visitors to view and taste. Among these are alphonso, mallika, amrapali, himsagar, malda, balia, chorasya, dhaman, dhoon, fazia, gelchia, nigarin kheria, ruchika and shamasi. 

The following are among the more widely grown mango cultivars, listed by the country in which they were selected or are most extensively cultivated

Common
name(s)
Image Origin / Region
Alampur Baneshan Mango AlampurBaneshan Asit fs.jpg India, United States
Alice Mango Alice Asit fs.jpg United States
Alphonso Alphonso mango.jpg Pakistan, Ecuador,Egypt, India, Sudan,United States
Amrapali  . India
Anderson Mango Anderson Asit fs8.jpg United States
Angie Angie mango.jpg United States
Anwar Ratol  . Punjab (Pakistan)
Ataulfo Ataulfo mango.jpg Ecuador, Mexico
Bailey’s Marvel Mango BaileysMarvel Asit fs8.jpg United States
Banganapalle GntMango.jpg Pakistan , Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Bennet Alphonso Mango BennetAlphonso Asit fs.jpg United States
Beverly Beverly mango.JPG United States
Bombay Mango Bombay Asit ftg.jpg India, Nepal, United States
Brahm Kai Meu Mango BrahmKaiMeu Asit fs.jpg United States
Brooks Mango Brooks Asit fs8.jpg Australia, United States
Carrie Mango Carrie Asit fs8.jpg United States
Chaunsa Chaunsa.JPG Pakistan
Chok anan Pakistan,Bangladesh, India,Thailand
Cogshall Mango02 CS HD CS Asit.jpg United States
Cushman Mango Cushman Asit fs8.jpg United States
Dasheri  . Pakistan, India,Nepal
Dot Mango Dot Asit fs8.jpg United States
Duncan Mango Duncan Asit fs8.jpg United States
Earlygold Earlygold mango.JPG United States
Edward Mango Edward Asit fs8.jpg United States
Eldon Mango Eldon Asit fs8.jpg United States
Emerald  . United States
Fajri Kalan  . Pakistan
Fairchild  . United States
Fascell Mango Fascell2 Asit fs.jpg United States
Florigon Mango Florigon Asit fs8.jpg United States
Ford Mango Ford Asit fs8.jpg United States
Gary Gary mango.JPG United States
Glenn Mango Glenn Asit fs8.jpg Italy, United States
Gold Nugget Mango ATAULFO GOLD NUGGET Asit.jpg United States
Golden Lippens  . United States
Graham Mango Graham Asit fs8.jpg United States
Haden Haden mango.jpg Australia, Brazil,Costa Rica,Ecuador,Guatemala,Honduras, Mexico,United States
Hatcher  . United States
Himsagar Mango Himsagar Asit ftg.jpg Bangladesh, India
Ice Cream  . United States
Irwin Mango Irwin Asit fs8.jpg Australia, Costa Rica, United States,Taiwan, Japan(Okinawa)
Ivory Mango IVORY Asit fs.JPG China
Jakarta Mango Jakarta Asit ftg.jpg United States
Jean Ellen Jean Ellen mango.JPG United States
Julie  . Ecuador, United States
Kalepad  . Andhra Pradesh, India
Keitt Mango ATAULFO KEITT Asit.jpg Australia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Italy,United States
Kensington Pride Mango Kensington Asit ftg.jpg Australia, Italy,United States
Kent Mango Kent Asit fs8.jpg Australia, Ecuador,Guatemala,Honduras, Israel,Italy, Mexico, United States
Lakshmanbhog  .
Lancetilla Mango Lancetilla Asit fs8.jpg Honduras, United States
Langra Vikramshila Agrovet 2 Langra Mango farm, Mathurapur, Bhagalpur Bihar.JPG Pakistan, India
Lippens Mango Lippens Asit fs8.jpg United States
Mallika Mango Mallika Asit fs.jpg India, Nepal, United States
Manilita  . United States
Muhammad Wala  . Pakistan
Mulgoba Mango Mulgoba Asit fs8.jpg India, United States
Neelam  . Pakistan
Osteen Mango Osteen Asit ftg.jpg Italy, United States
Palmer Mango Palmer Asit fs8.jpg Australia, Brazil,United States
Parvin Parvin mango.JPG United States
Rosigold Rosigold mango.JPG United States
Ruby Mango Ruby Asit fs8.jpg United States
Saigon Mango Saigon Asit ftg.jpg United States
Saharni  . Pakistan
Sammar Bahisht  . Pakistan, India
Sensation Mango Sensation Asit fs.jpg United States
Shan-e-Khuda Shan-e-khuda.jpeg Pakistan
Sindhri Sindhri Mango.JPG Pakistan
Sophie Fry Mango SophieFry Asit fs8.jpg United States
Southern Blush  . United States
Spirit of ’76  . United States
Springfels Mango Springfels Asit fs8.jpg United States
Sunset Sunset mango fruit.jpg United States
Tommy Atkins Mango TommyAtkins05 Asit.jpg Brazil, Costa Rica,Ecuador,Guatemala,Honduras, Israel,Italy, Mexico, United States, Venezuela
Torbert  . United States
Totapuri Mango Sandersha Asit fs8.jpg India
Valencia Pride Mango VALENCIA PRIDE ATAULFO VALENCIA PRIDE Asit.jpg United States
Van Dyke Mango VanDyke Asit fs8.jpg Italy, United States
Young  . United States
Zill Mango Zill Asit fs8.jpg United States

Courtesy : Wikipedia

 

Know : List of Foods’ Storage Periods

 

Food-storage-shelf-items

Proper food storage helps maintain food quality by retaining flavor, color, texture and nutrients, while reducing the chance of contracting a food-borne illness. Foods can be classified into three groups.

  • Perishable foods include meat, poultry, fish, milk, eggs and many raw fruits and vegetables. All cooked foods are considered perishable foods. To store these foods for any length of time, perishable foods need to be held at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. If refrigerated, perishable foods should be used within several days.
  • Semi-perishable foods, if properly stored and handled, may remain unspoiled for six months to about one year. Flour, grain products, dried fruits and dry mixes are considered semi-perishable.
  • Staple, or non-perishable, foods such as sugar, dried beans, spices and canned goods do not spoil unless they are handled carelessly. These foods will lose quality, however, if stored over a long time, even if stored under ideal conditions.

There is no exact method to determine how long a food will maintain quality and be safe to eat, because many conditions affect the quality. The storage life of foods is affected by the:

  • freshness of the food when it reached the grocery store
  • length of time and the temperature at which it was held before purchase
  • temperature of your food storage areas
  • humidity level in your food storage areas
  • type of storage container or packaging the food is stored in
  • characteristics of the food item

 

Storage Periods for Retaining Food Quality
Food Room Temperature Refrigerator Freezer at 0°F
Milk/Milk Products
Milk 1 week 1 month
Butter 2 weeks 12 months
Canned or dry milk (unopened) 6 months
Cottage cheese 1 week 3 months
Cream 1-2 weeks
Ice cream 2-3 weeks
Margarine 1 month 12 months
Natural cheese 1 month 4-6 months
Processed cheese 1 month 4-6 months
Sour cream, buttermilk, cream cheese 2 weeks Not recommended
Yogurt 1 month
Meat
Fresh roasts, steaks, chops 3-4 days 2-3 months
Fresh livers, hearts, kidneys, other variety meats 1-2 days 3-4 months
Fresh ground meat, stew meat 1-2 days 3-4 months
Cured pork and lunch meat 1 week Not recommended
Cooked meat, gravies made with meat stock 2-3 days 2-3 months
Canned meat 1 year
Meat pies, stews, casseroles, meat salads 2-3 days 3 months
Hotdogs 1 week (opened) 2 weeks (unopened) 1-2 months
Bacon 7 days 1 month
Sausage, raw from pork, beef, turkey 1-2 days 1-2 months
Hard sausage-pepperoni, jerky sticks 2-3 weeks 1-2 months
Poultry/Eggs
Fresh poultry 2 days 6-8 months
Cooked poultry 2-3 days 6 months
Poultry stuffing 1 day
Poultry pies, stews, creamed dishes, gravies 1 day 6 months
Poultry salads 1 day
Eggs 2-4 weeks 1 year
Raw yolk, whites 2-4 days 1 year
Hardcooked eggs 1 week Not recommended
Liquid pasteurized eggs or egg substitutes 10 days (unopened) 3 days (opened) 1 year (unopened)
Egg-containing products: custards, custard sauces, puddings, custard-filled pastries or cakes 1-2 days Not recommended
Puddings, canned 1-2 days (opened)
Fish/Seafood
Fresh fish 1-2 days 3-6 months
Cooked fish 3-4 days 1 month
Fish salad 1 day
Smoked fish 10 days 4-5 weeks
Canned fish 1 year Not recommended
Dried or pickled fish 3-4 weeks
Clams, oyster (shucked) and scallops 7-9 days
Crab 7 days 2 months
Shrimp 3-5 days 6-12 months
Lobster (shelled or unshelled) 3-7 days 6-12 months
Wild Game
Venison 3-5 days 3-4 months
Rabbit, squirrel 1-2 days 12 months
Wild duck, pheasant, goose(whole) 1-2 days 6 months
Fruits
Apples Until ripe 1 month
Citrus fruits 2-6 weeks
Grapes 1-3 weeks
Melons, most varieties 1 week
Peaches, nectarines 2-3 weeks
Pears (mature but not fully ripe) 1-3 months
Pineapple, ripe 1 week
Other fresh fruit Until ripe 3-5 days 9-12 months
Canned fruit 1 year 2-4 days (opened)
Dried fruit 6 months 2-4 days (cooked)
Fruit juice concentrates 1 year
Canned fruit juices 1 year 3-4 days (opened)
Vegetables
Asparagus 2-3 days
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, green peas, green onions, lima beans, rhubarb, greens, summer squash, mushrooms 3-5 days
Cabbage, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, snap beans, lettuce, peppers, tomatoes 1 week
Carrots, beets, parsnips, radishes, turnips 2 weeks
Corn 1 day
White potatoes, sweet potatoes, winter squash, rutabagas, dry onions 1 week (several months at 50-60°F)
Canned or dried vegetables 1 year 1-4 days (opened/cooked)
Cereal Products
Flour, white 1 year
Flour, whole or wheat 6-8 months 1 year
Rice, white 2 years
Rice, brown 6 months
Ready-to-eat cereals 1 year
Uncooked cereals 1 year
Pasta 1 year
Corn meal 1 year
Bakery Goods
Breads, baked with no preservatives 2-3 weeks 2-3 months
Breads, quick, baked 2 months
Cake, angel 6-12 months
Cake, baked, frosted 1 month
Cake, baked, unfrosted 2-4 months
Cakes, batter 1 month
Cakes, fruit 6-12 months
Cinnamon rolls, partially baked 2 months
Cookies, baked, homemade 2-3 weeks 6-12 months
Cookies, dough 1-2 days 3 months
Cookies, packaged 2 months 12-18 months
Crackers 2 months
Doughnuts, unfrosted 2-4 months
Muffins, baked 6-12 months
Pies, fruit 2-3 days (baked) 1-2 days (unbaked) 6-8 months (baked) 2-4 months (unbaked)
Pies, pumpkin or chiffon 2-3 days 1-2 months
Rolls and bread, unbaked 2-3 weeks 1 month
Waffles 1 month
Mixes/Packaged Foods
Biscuit, brownie, muffin mix 9 months
Cake mixes 6-9 months
Casserole mix 9-12 months
Cookies, homemade 2-3 weeks
Cookies, packaged 2 months
Crackers 3 months
Croutons and bread crumbs 6 months 6 months 1 year
Frosting, canned 3 months
Frosting, mix 8 months
Hot roll mix 18 months
Pancake mix 6-9 months
Piecrust, mix 6-9 months
Potatoes, instant 6-12 months
Rice mixes 6 months
Sauce and gravy mixes 6-12 months
Soup mixes 12 months
Toaster pastries 2-3 months
Other Foods
Baking powder 18 months
Baking soda 2 years
Chocolate syrup 2 years (unopened) 6 months (opened)
Cocoa mixes 8 months
Coffee, lighteners (dry) 9 months (unopened) 6 months (opened)
Cornstarch 18 months
Gelatin 18 months
Pectin 1 year
Salad dressings, bottled 12 months (unopened) 1-3 months (opened) Not recommended
Sugar, brown 18 months
Sugar, confectioners’ 18 months
Sugar, granulated 2 years
Vinegar 2 years (unopened) 1 year (opened)
Cheese, parmesan, grated 10 months (unopened) 2 months (opened)
Coconut, shredded 12 months (unopened) 6 months (opened)
Imitation bacon bits, etc. 4 months
Peas, beans, dried 12 months
Popcorn 2 years
Whipped topping, dry 12 months
Yeast, dry Expiration date on package
Honey, jams, syrups, molasses 1 year
Nuts, unshelled 6 months
Nuts, shelled 6 months
Peanut butter 6 months (unopened) 2 months (opened)
Chocolate 1 year
Coffee 1 year (unopened) 2-4 weeks (opened)
Coffee, instant 6 months (unopened) 2 months (opened)
Pudding mixes 1 year
Shortening, solid 8 months
Vegetable oils 1-3 months
Tea, bags or loose 1 year
Tea, instant 1 year
Soft drinks 3 months
Bouillon products 1 year
Mayonnaise 10-12 weeks Not recommended
Spices, Herbs, Condiments, Extracts
Catsup, chili sauce 12 months (unopened) 1 month (opened)
Mustard, prepared yellow (refrigerate 2 years (unopened) for longer storage) 6-8 months (opened)
Spices, whole 1-2 years
Spices, ground 6 months
Herbs 6 months
Herb/spice blends 2 years (unopened) 12 months (opened)
Other extracts 12 months

Exclusive Cupboard Storage Chart
• Store foods in cool cabinets and away from appliances which produce heat.
• Many staples and canned foods have a relatively long shelf life, but buy only what you can expect to use within the time recommended in the chart. Date food packages and use the oldest first. Foods stored for longer than recommended times or beyond date on the package may change quality, color and flavor.
• Buy fresh-looking packages. Dusty cans or torn labels can indicate old stock. Do not purchase dented or bulging cans.

Cupboard Storage Cupboard Storage2

Courtesy & Credits : UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA–LINCOLN &  North Dakota State University

Excerpts from original articles by


 

Know : List of Largest Producers of Vegetables and Fruits

Here are the lists of top two vegetables and fruits producing countries.

Note: Not all the vegetables and fruits are listed.

Vegetables

 

Vegetable Largest Producer Second Largest Producer
Dry Bean  India  Brazil
Onion and Garlic  China  India
Cabbage  China  India
Green Bean  China  Indonesia
Chick peas  India  Pakistan
Pulses  India  Mozambique
Cauliflowers and Broccoli  China  India
Brinjal  China  India
Potato  China  India
Tomato  China  United States
Spinach  China  United States
Cassava  Nigeria  Thailand
Soybean  United States  Brazil
Carrot  China  Russia
Cucumber  China  Iran

Fruits

Fruit Largest Producer Second Largest Producer
Apricot  Turkey  Iran
Banana  India  China
Mango  India  China
Coconut  Philippines  Indonesia
Sugar cane  Brazil  India
Grapes  China  Italy
Oranges  Brazil  United States
Papaya  India  Brazil
Peach  China  Italy
Apple  China  United States
Pineapples  Philippines  Thailand
Almond  United States  Spain
Sweet Potato  China  Tanzania
Lemon  Mexico  India
Raspberry  Russia  Poland
Stone fruits  Iran  China
Strawberry  United States  Spain
Blueberry  United States  Canada
Kiwifruit  Italy  New Zealand
Currant  Russia  Poland
Date  Egypt  Saudi Arabia
Cherry  Turkey  United States
Avocado  Mexico  Chile
Watermelon  China  Iran

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia

 

 


Blank Space invite

Do you write short stories? Now it’s time to get published and inspire the world. Know more about Blank Space where you can submit your short stories for free for publishing. Drop a mail to publish@propelsteps.com for registering and more details.


More Stories (Click here to see all stories on our blog)


Explore our blog 🙂

Recent Posts Inspirational Stories Powerful Quotes Words by Din Know Facts Stats Info Ecological Preservation
Talents We Appreciate Documentary Videos Ethics and Morals Family and Love Health and Nutrition NEWS Stuffs
Career and Profession Personality Insights Culture and People Science and Technology Picture Speaks Smile Please 🙂

Know : Fruit Waxing and Safe-Consuming of Waxed Fruits

Fruit waxing is the process of covering fruits (and in some cases vegetables) with the artificial waxing material. Natural wax is removed first, usually by washing. Waxing materials may be either natural or petroleum-based.

The primary reasons for waxing are to prevent water loss (making up for the removal in washings of the natural waxes in fruits that have them, particularly citrus, but also, for example, apples) and thus retard shrinkage and spoilage, and to improve appearance. Dyes may be added to further enhance appearance, and sometimes fungicides. 

How to be Careful in consuming Artificially Waxed Apples?

Wax Coated ApplesIt is a fact that apple fruits are coated with wax, but the wax that is generally used is edible one and is safe to consume. However, some unscrupulous producers can coat apples with petroleum-based waxes that are harmful for human health.

Apples have natural wax coating on their surface, you can observe this when you pluck an apple from a tree and rub it with your hands. The whitish kind of powder that sticks to your palms is the natural wax on the surface of apple fruit. Likewise, when you scratch an artificially waxed apple, you will see a thin layer peeling off.

Apples are coated with wax for several reasons, like preservation, reduce loss of water, increase visual freshness and of course, replace the natural wax, because cleaning and processing of apples results in the loss of natural wax coat. This practice is very common, especially in supermarkets. Thin layer of wax is coated on apples, either by dipping, brushing or spraying with edible waxes like Carnauba or Shellac that are completely safe to consume and are not harmful. This edible wax is not digested, but is passed out through the digestive system.

On the other hand, some unscrupulous producers use the harmful petroleum-based waxes for coating of apples. If an apple looks very glossy and shiny, it is to be suspected. To avoid harmful wax coat, it is advisable to buy apples from markets and places where apples are grown. The chances that the farmers have not waxed apples will be good here. It is also a better idea to buy the dull apples that are fresh, without any kind of artificial coating.

More importantly, it is always a good practice to clean apples with lukewarm water thoroughly before eating. Also, you may use a paper towel with some vinegar (acetic acid) to wipe the apple before washing. Another obvious way to avoid harmful wax of apple fruits is to remove the entire peel, but you might lose on certain vitamins and also the crispiness of the peel. You can share and spread this health awareness about waxed apples. – (Courtesy: HoaxorFact.com)

Waxing Materials

The waxing materials used depend to some extent on regulations in the country of production and/or export; both natural waxes (sugar-cane, carnaubashellac, resinor) or petroleum-based waxes (usually proprietary formulae) are used. Wax may be applied in a volatile petroleum-based solvent but is now more commonly applied via a water-based emulsion. Blended paraffin waxes applied as an oil or paste are often used on vegetables. Brand names for waxes include Tal-Prolong, Semper-fresh, Frutox, Waxol, Fruit and vegetable kleen and Decco Luter

Know : Glazing Agent:

glazing agent is a natural or synthetic substance that provides a waxy, homogeneous, coating to prevent water loss and provide other surface protection for the substance.

Differences between natural and synthetic glazing agents : 

Natural

Natural glazing agents have been found present, most often in plants or insects. In nature, the agents are used to keep the moisture in the specimen, but science has harnessed this characteristic by turning it into a glazing agent that acts as a coating. This glazing agent is made up of a substance that is classified as a wax. A natural wax is chemically defined as an ester with a very long hydrocarbon chain that also includes a long chain alcohol. However, in a wax there have been many different chemical structures that can be included in a definition of a wax, such as: wax esters, sterol esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and sterols.

Examples are:

Synthetic

Science has produced similar glazing agents that mimic their natural counterparts. These components are added in different proportions to achieve the most optimal glazing agent for a product. These products range from things in the cosmetic, automobile and food industry.

  • Some of the characteristics that are looked for in all of the above industries are:

1. Preservation- It refers to the glazing agent to be able to protect the product from degrading and water loss. The characteristic can lead to a longer shelf life for a food or the longevity of a car without rusting.

2. Stability- It is important for the glazing agent itself to maintain its integrity if under any pressure or heat.

3. Uniform viscosity- This ensures for a stronger protective coating because it can be applied to the product as a homogeneous layer.

4. Industrial reproduction- This is important because most glazing agents are used on commercial goods and therefore large quantities of glazing agent may be needed.

There are different variations of glazing agents, depending on the product, but they are all designed for the same purpose.

Fruits were waxed to cause fermentation as early as the 12th or the 13th century; commercial producers began waxing citrus to extend shelf life in the 1920s and 1930s. Aesthetics—consumer preference for shiny fruit—has since become the main reason. 

In addition to fruit, some vegetables can usefully be waxed, such as cassava; vegetables commonly waxed include cucumbers, swedes or rutabagas and green tomatoes. A distinction may be made between storage wax, pack-out wax (for immediate sale) and high-shine wax (for optimum attractiveness)


Courtesy : Wikipedia and HoaxorFact