Know : Country wise % of Agricultural Land Area

Country name 2009 2010 2011
Afghanistan 58.1 58.1 58.1
Albania 43.8 43.8 43.8
Algeria 17.4 17.4 17.4
American Samoa 24.5 24.5 24.5
Andorra 42.3 42.8 43.2
Angola 46.8 46.8 46.8
Antigua and Barbuda 20.5 20.5 20.5
Argentina 52.4 53.6 53.9
Armenia 61.3 60.9 60.1
Aruba 11.1 11.1 11.1
Australia 53.2 51.9 53.3
Austria 38.4 38.4 34.8
Azerbaijan 57.6 57.7 57.7
Bahamas, The 1.4 1.5 1.5
Bahrain 11 11 11
Bangladesh 71 71 70.1
Barbados 37.2 32.6 34.9
Belarus 44 43.9 43.7
Belgium 45 44.8 44.2
Belize 6.8 6.9 6.9
Benin 29.3 30.1 30.4
Bermuda 14.8 14.8 14.8
Bhutan 13.5 13.5 13.5
Bolivia 34.1 34.1 34.2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 41.7 42 42.2
Botswana 45.7 45.6 45.6
Brazil 32.3 32.3 32.5
Brunei Darussalam 2.2 2.2 2.2
Bulgaria 46.3 46.5 46.9
Burkina Faso 43 44.1 43
Burundi 83.7 88.4 86.4
Cambodia 31.5 32 32
Cameroon 19.7 20.3 20.3
Canada 7 7 6.9
Cape Verde 18.6 18.6 18.6
Cayman Islands 11.3 11.3 11.3
Central African Republic 8.4 8.2 8.2
Chad 39.2 39.3 39.7
Chile 21.2 21.2 21.2
China 55.4 55.6 55.7
Colombia 38.3 38.3 39.5
Comoros 84.9 83.3 83.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. 11.4 11.4 11.4
Congo, Rep. 30.9 30.9 30.9
Costa Rica 36.2 36.8 36.8
Cote d’Ivoire 64.5 64.5 64.5
Croatia 23.2 23.8 23.7
Cuba 61.7 61.7 61.7
Cyprus 13.8 12.3 12.8
Czech Republic 54.9 54.8 54.8
Denmark 62.1 61.9 63.4
Djibouti 73.4 73.4 73.4
Dominica 32.7 34.7 34.7
Dominican Republic 50.6 50.6 50.6
Ecuador 30.3 30.2 29.6
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.7 3.7 3.7
El Salvador 74.5 73.8 73.9
Equatorial Guinea 10.9 10.8 10.8
Eritrea 75.2 75.2 75.2
Estonia 22 22.4 22.3
Ethiopia 34.5 35 35.7
Faeroe Islands 2.1 2.1 2.1
Fiji 23.4 23.4 23.4
Finland 7.6 7.5 7.5
France 53.4 53.2 53.1
French Polynesia 12.2 12.2 12.4
Gabon 20 20 20
Gambia, The 59.6 60.8 60.8
Georgia 36.4 35.5 35.5
Germany 48.4 47.9 48
Ghana 69.2 69.4 69.9
Greece 63.6 63.2 63.2
Greenland 0.6 0.6 0.6
Grenada 32.4 32.4 32.4
Guam 33.3 33.3 33.3
Guatemala 41 41 41
Guinea 58 58 58
Guinea-Bissau 57.3 58 58
Guyana 8.5 8.5 8.5
Haiti 65.2 64.2 64.2
Honduras 28.6 28.8 28.8
Hong Kong SAR, China
Hungary 63.9 59 59
Iceland 18.2 15.9 15.9
India 60.5 60.5 60.5
Indonesia 29.6 30.1 30.1
Iran, Islamic Rep. 29.8 29.9 30.1
Iraq 18.1 18.9 18.9
Ireland 60.8 66.3 66.1
Isle of Man 76.1 76.1 74.7
Israel 24.1 23.9 24.1
Italy 47.4 48.7 47.4
Jamaica 41.5 41.5 41.5
Japan 12.6 12.6 12.5
Jordan 11.5 11.3 11.3
Kazakhstan 77.2 77.3 77.5
Kenya 48.2 48.2 48.2
Kiribati 42 42 42
Korea, Dem. Rep. 21.2 21.2 21.2
Korea, Rep. 18.5 18.3 18.1
Kuwait 8.5 8.5 8.5
Kyrgyz Republic 55.4 55.3 55.3
Lao PDR 10.2 10.3 10.3
Latvia 29.5 29 29.2
Lebanon 64.8 62.6 62.4
Lesotho 77 76.6 76.2
Liberia 27.1 27.3 27.3
Libya 8.9 8.9 8.9
Liechtenstein 40.6 40.6 40.6
Lithuania 42.9 44.2 44.8
Luxembourg 50.5 50.6 50.6
Macao SAR, China
Macedonia, FYR 40.2 44.4 44.3
Madagascar 71.2 71.2 71.2
Malawi 58.1 59.2 59.2
Malaysia 24 24 24
Maldives 23.3 23.3 23.3
Mali 33.6 33.6 34.1
Malta 29.1 32.2 32.2
Marshall Islands 72.2 72.2 72.2
Mauritania 38.5 38.5 38.5
Mauritius 44.8 44.8 43.8
Mexico 52.9 53 53.1
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 30.1 30.1 30.1
Moldova 75.2 75 74.8
Mongolia 73.2 73.1 73.1
Montenegro 38.2 38.1 38.1
Morocco 67.2 67.2 67.5
Mozambique 62.8 62.8 62.8
Myanmar 19 19.2 19.2
Namibia 47.1 47.1 47.1
Nepal 29.7 29.7 29.7
Netherlands 56.8 56.6 56.2
New Caledonia 13.7 13.7 13.7
New Zealand 43.6 43.3 43.2
Nicaragua 42.8 42.8 42.8
Niger 34.6 34.6 34.6
Nigeria 81.5 83.7 83.7
Northern Mariana Islands 6.5 6.5 6.5
Norway 3.3 3.3 3.3
Oman 5.7 5.7 5.7
Pakistan 34.2 34.2 34.4
Palau 10.9 10.9 10.9
Panama 30.3 30.4 30.5
Papua New Guinea 2.6 2.6 2.6
Paraguay 52.6 52.8 52.8
Peru 16.8 16.8 16.8
Philippines 40.1 40.2 40.6
Poland 53 48 48.6
Portugal 40.8 40.2 39.8
Puerto Rico 21.4 21.4 21.4
Qatar 5.7 5.7 5.7
Romania 59.2 61.5 60.7
Russian Federation 13.2 13.1 13.1
Rwanda 77.4 77.8 77.8
Samoa 12.3 12.4 12.4
San Marino 16.7 16.7 16.7
Sao Tome and Principe 51 50.5 50.7
Saudi Arabia 80.7 80.6 80.6
Senegal 49.4 49.4 49.4
Serbia 57.8 57.7 57.9
Seychelles 6.5 6.5 6.5
Sierra Leone 47.8 48 48
Singapore 1 1.1 1
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovak Republic 40.1 40.4 40.1
Slovenia 23.2 24 22.8
Solomon Islands 3.3 3.3 3.3
Somalia 70.3 70.3 70.3
South Africa 80 79.9 79.4
South Sudan
Spain 56.1 55.2 55.2
Sri Lanka 40 41.8 41.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 21.2 21.9 23.1
St. Lucia 18 18 18
St. Martin (French part)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 25.6 25.6 25.6
Sudan 57.3 57.3 45.7
Suriname 0.5 0.5 0.5
Swaziland 71 71 71
Sweden 7.5 7.5 7.5
Switzerland 38.1 38.1 38.1
Syrian Arab Republic 75.7 75.7 75.5
Tajikistan 33.9 34.6 34.7
Tanzania 42 42.1 42.1
Thailand 40.9 41.2 41.2
Timor-Leste 25.2 24.5 24.2
Togo 66.6 68 68.4
Tonga 43.1 43.1 43.1
Trinidad and Tobago 10.5 10.5 10.5
Tunisia 63 64.6 64.8
Turkey 50.6 50.7 49.7
Turkmenistan 69.5 69.5 69.5
Turks and Caicos Islands 1.1 1.1 1.1
Tuvalu 60 60 60
Uganda 69.6 70.4 70.4
Ukraine 71.2 71.2 71.3
United Arab Emirates 4.7 4.8 4.8
United Kingdom 71.6 71.2 70.9
United States 45 44.9 45
Uruguay 83.5 82.1 82.2
Uzbekistan 62.6 62.7 62.7
Vanuatu 15.3 15.3 15.3
Venezuela, RB 24.1 24.1 24.1
Vietnam 33.2 34.7 35
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 11.4 11.4 11.4
West Bank and Gaza 49.7 41.3 43.3
Yemen, Rep. 44.4 44.7 44.4
Zambia 31.5 31.9 31.5
Zimbabwe 42.2 42.2 42.2

Courtesy :

Know : List of Countries with no Armed Forces (Army)

no armyThis is a list of countries without armed forces. The term “country” is used in the sense of independent states; thus, it applies only to sovereign states and not dependencies (e.g., GuamNorthern Mariana IslandsBermuda), whose defense is the responsibility of another country or an army alternative. The term “armed forces” refers to any government-sponsored defense used to further the domestic and foreign policies of their respective government. Some of the countries listed, such as Iceland and Monaco, have no armies, but still have a non-police military force.

Many of the 21 countries listed here typically have had a long-standing agreement with a former occupying country; one example is the agreement between Monaco and France, which has existed for at least 300 years. The Compact of Free Association nations of the Marshall IslandsFederated States of Micronesia (FSM), and Palau have no say in their respective countries’ defense matters, and have little say in international relations. For example, when the FSM negotiated a defensive agreement with the United States, it did so from a weak position because it had grown heavily dependent on American assistance. Andorra has a small army, and can request defensive aid if necessary, while Iceland had a unique agreement with the United States that lasted until 2006, which required them to provide defense to Iceland when needed.

The remaining countries are responsible for their own defense, and operate either without any armed forces, or with limited armed forces. Some of the countries, such as Costa RicaHaiti, and Grenada, underwent a process of demilitarization. Other countries were formed without armed forces, such as Samoa over 50 years ago; the primary reason being that they were, or still are, under protection from another nation at their point of independence. All of the countries on this list are considered to be in a situation of “non-militarization.”

Japan is not included in this list because, while the country may officially have no military according to Article 9 of its Constitution, it does have the Japan Self-Defense Forces, a military force for national territory defense that may only be deployed outside Japan for UN peacekeeping missions

Countries with absolutely no military forces

Country Comments
 Andorra Andorra has no standing army but signed treaties with Spain and France for its protection. Its small volunteer army is purely ceremonial in function. The paramilitary GIPA (trained in counter-terrorism and hostage management) is part of the national police.
 Costa Rica The constitution has forbidden a standing military since 1949. It does have a public security force, whose role includes law enforcement and internal security. For this reason Costa Rica is the headquarters for the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and also the United Nations University for Peace.
 Grenada Has not had a standing army since 1983 because of an American-led invasion. The Royal Grenada Police Force maintains a paramilitary special service unit for internal security purposes. Defense is the responsibility of the Regional Security System.
 Kiribati Under the Constitution the only forces permitted are the police, which includes a Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance is equipped with small arms, and maintains one Pacific class patrol boat, the Teanoai. Defense assistance is provided by Australia and New Zealand under an informal agreement between the three countries.
 Liechtenstein Abolished its army in 1868 because it was deemed too costly. An army is only permitted in times of war, but that situation has never occurred. However, Liechtenstein maintains a police force and a SWAT team, equipped with small arms to carry out internal security duties.
 Marshall Islands Since the country’s foundation the only forces permitted are the police, which includes a Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance Unit is equipped with small arms, and maintains one Pacific class patrol boat, the Lomor. Under the Compact of Free Association, defense is the responsibility of the United States.
 Federated States of Micronesia Since the country’s foundation no military has been formed. The only forces permitted are the police, which maintain a Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance is equipped with small arms, and maintains one Pacific class patrol boat, theIndependence. Defense is the responsibility of the United States under the Compact of Free Association.
 Nauru Australia is responsible for Nauru’s defense under an informal agreement between the two countries. However, there is a relatively large armed police force, and an auxiliary police force for internal security.
 Palau Since the country’s foundation the only forces permitted are the police, which includes a 30-man Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance is equipped with small arms, and maintains one Pacific class patrol boat, the President H.I. Remeliik. Defense assistance is provided by the United States under the Compact of Free Association.
 Saint Lucia The Royal Saint Lucia Police maintain two small paramilitary forces consisting of 116 men and women, the Special Service Unit, and the Coast Guard, both units are responsible for internal security. Defense is the responsibility of Regional Security System.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force maintain two small paramilitary forces consisting of 94 men and women, called the Special Service Unit, and the Coast Guard, both units are responsible for internal security purposes. All Coastguard Commanders with the exception of Lieutenant Commander David Robin have been officers from the Royal Navy. Defense is the responsibility of Regional Security System.
 Samoa Since the country’s foundation no military has been formed, however, there is a small police force, and a Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance Unit is equipped with small arms, and maintains one Pacific class patrol boat, the Nafanua. In accordance to a 1962 Treaty of Friendship, New Zealand is responsible for defense.
 Solomon Islands Maintained a paramilitary force until a heavy ethnic conflict, in which Australia, New Zealand and other Pacific countries intervened to restore law and order. Since then no military has been maintained, however, there is a relatively large police force, and a Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance Unit is equipped with small arms, and maintains two Pacific class patrol boats, the Aukiand the Lata. Defense and policing assistance is the responsibility of the RAMSI.
 Tuvalu Since the country’s foundation no military has been formed, however, there is a small police force, and a Maritime Surveillance Unit for internal security. The Maritime Surveillance Unit is equipped with small arms, and maintains one Pacific class patrol boat, the Te Mataili.
  Vatican City Maintains a Gendarmerie Corps for internal policing. The Swiss Guard is a unit belonging to the Holy See, not the Vatican City State. There is no defense treaty with Italy, as it would violate the Vatican’s neutrality, but informally the Italian military protects Vatican City. The Palatine Guard and Noble Guard were abolished in 1970.

Countries with no standing army, but having limited military forces

Country Comments
 Haiti The Haitian military was disbanded in June 1995, but rebels have demanded its re-establishment. The 9,000-strong Haitian National Police maintains some paramilitary units and a Coast Guard; these units are considered to be larger than what is required, considering the much smaller militaries of some neighboring countries. In April 2012, Haitian President Michel Martelly demanded the re-establishment of the Army, which he deems necessary for the stability of Haiti.
 Iceland Has not had a standing army since 1869, but is an active member of NATO. There was a defense agreement with the United States, which maintained an Iceland Defense Force and a military base in the country from 1951 to 2006. However, the US announced it would continue to provide for Iceland’s defense, but without permanently basing forces in the country; Naval Air Station Keflavikclosed in late 2006 after 55 years. Even though Iceland does not have a standing army, it still maintains a military expeditionary peacekeeping force, an air defense system, an extensive militarised coast guard, a police service, and a tactical police force. There are also agreements about military and other security operations with NorwayDenmark, and other NATO countries.
 Mauritius Mauritius has not had a standing army since 1968. All military, police, and security functions are carried out by 10,000 active duty personnel under the command of the Commissioner of Police. The 8,000 member National Police Force is responsible for domestic law enforcement. There is also a 1,500 member Special Mobile Force, and a 500 member National Coast Guard, which are both considered paramilitary units. Both units are equipped with small arms.
 Monaco Renounced its general military investment in the 17th century because the advancement in artillery technology had rendered it defenseless, but still self identifies as having limited military forces. Although defense is the responsibility of France, two small military units are maintained; one primarily protects the Prince, and judiciary, while the other is responsible for civil defense, and fire fighting. Both units are well trained and equipped with small arms. In addition to the military, an armed national police force is maintained for internal security purposes.
 Panama Abolished its army in 1990, which was confirmed by a unanimous parliamentary vote for constitutional change in 1994. ThePanamanian Public Forces, includes the National Police, National Borders Service, National Aeronaval Service, and Institutional Protection Service, which have some warfare capabilities.
 Vanuatu The Vanuatu Police Force maintain a paramilitary force, called the Vanuatu Mobile Force for internal security purposes. The Vanuatu Mobile Force is manned by almost 300 men and women, who are well equipped with small arms.

Courtesy : Wikipedia


Know : List of All Presidents and Prime Ministers (As on Dec 2013)

Member states and observers of the United Nations

State Head of state Head of government
 Albania President – Bujar Nishani Prime Minister – Edi Rama
 Algeria President – Abdelaziz Bouteflika Prime Minister – Abdelmalek Sellal
 Andorra Episcopal Co-Prince – Joan Enric Vives Sicília
Representative – Josep Maria Mauri
French Co-Prince – François Hollande
Representative – Sylvie Hubac
Head of Government – Antoni Martí
 Antigua and Barbuda Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Louise Lake-Tack
Prime Minister – Baldwin Spencer
 Armenia President – Serzh Sargsyan Prime Minister – Tigran Sargsyan
 Australia Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Quentin Bryce
Prime Minister – Tony Abbott
 Austria Federal President – Heinz Fischer Federal Chancellor – Werner Faymann
 Azerbaijan President – İlham Əliyev Prime Minister – Artur Rəsizade
 Bahamas Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Arthur Foulkes
Prime Minister – Perry Christie
 Bahrain King – Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Prime Minister – Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa
 Bangladesh President – Abdul Hamid Prime Minister – Sheikh Hasina
 Barbados Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Elliott Belgrave
Prime Minister – Freundel Stuart
 Belarus President – Alexander Lukashenko Prime Minister – Mikhail Myasnikovich
 Belgium King – Philippe Prime Minister – Elio Di Rupo
 Belize Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Colville Young
Prime Minister – Dean Barrow
 Bhutan King – Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Prime Minister – Tshering Tobgay
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Željko Komšić (Chairman)
Bakir Izetbegović (Member)
Nebojša Radmanović (Member)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Vjekoslav Bevanda
 Bulgaria President – Rosen Plevneliev Prime Minister – Plamen Oresharski
 Burkina Faso President – Blaise Compaoré Prime Minister – Luc-Adolphe Tiao
 Cambodia King – Norodom Sihamoni Prime Minister – Hun Sen
 Cameroon President – Paul Biya Prime Minister – Philémon Yang
 Canada Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor General – David Johnston
Prime Minister – Stephen Harper
 Cape Verde President – Jorge Carlos Fonseca Prime Minister – José Maria Neves
 Central African Republic President – Michel Djotodia Prime Minister – Nicolas Tiangaye
 Chad President – Idriss Déby Prime Minister – Kalzeubet Pahimi Deubet
 China President – Xi Jinping Premier of the State Council – Li Keqiang
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the President – Joseph Kabila Prime Minister – Augustin Matata Ponyo
 Congo, Republic of the
 Costa Rica
 Croatia President – Ivo Josipović President of the Government – Zoran Milanović
 Czech Republic President – Miloš Zeman Prime Minister – Jiří Rusnok
Prime Minister-designate – Bohuslav Sobotka
 Denmark Queen – Margrethe II Prime Minister – Helle Thorning-Schmidt
 Djibouti President – Ismaïl Omar Guelleh Prime Minister – Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed
 Dominica President – Charles Savarin Prime Minister – Roosevelt Skerrit
 Dominican Republic
 East Timor President – Taur Matan Ruak Prime Minister – Xanana Gusmão
 Egypt Acting President – Adly Mansour Acting Prime Minister – Hazem Al Beblawi
 El Salvador
 Equatorial Guinea President – Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Prime Minister – Vicente Ehate Tomi
 Estonia President – Toomas Hendrik Ilves Prime Minister – Andrus Ansip
 Ethiopia President – Mulatu Teshome Prime Minister – Hailemariam Desalegn
 Fiji President – Epeli Nailatikau Acting Prime Minister – Frank Bainimarama
 Finland President – Sauli Niinistö Prime Minister – Jyrki Katainen
 France President – François Hollande Prime Minister – Jean-Marc Ayrault
 Gabon President – Ali Bongo Ondimba Prime Minister – Raymond Ndong Sima
 Gambia, The
 Georgia President – Giorgi Margvelashvili Prime Minister – Irakli Garibashvili
 Germany Federal President – Joachim Gauck Federal Chancellor – Angela Merkel
 Greece President – Karolos Papoulias Prime Minister – Antonis Samaras
 Grenada Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Cécile La Grenade
Prime Minister – Keith Mitchell
 Guinea President – Alpha Condé Prime Minister – Mohamed Said Fofana
 Guinea-Bissau Acting President – Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo Acting Prime Minister – Rui Duarte de Barros
 Guyana President – Donald Ramotar Prime Minister – Sam Hinds
 Haiti President – Michel Martelly Prime Minister – Laurent Lamothe
 Hungary President – János Áder Prime Minister – Viktor Orbán
 Iceland President – Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson Prime Minister – Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson
 India President – Pranab Mukherjee Prime Minister – Manmohan Singh
 Iraq President – Jalal Talabani Prime Minister – Nouri al-Maliki
 Ireland President – Michael D. Higgins Taoiseach – Enda Kenny
 Israel President – Shimon Peres Prime Minister – Benjamin Netanyahu
 Italy President – Giorgio Napolitano President of the Council of Ministers – Enrico Letta
 Ivory Coast President – Alassane Ouattara Prime Minister – Daniel Kablan Duncan
 Jamaica Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Patrick Allen
Prime Minister – Portia Simpson-Miller
 Japan Emperor – Akihito Prime Minister – Shinzō Abe
 Jordan King – Abdullah II Prime Minister – Abdullah Ensour
 Kazakhstan President – Nursultan Nazarbayev Prime Minister – Serik Akhmetov
 Kuwait Emir – Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Prime Minister – Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
 Kyrgyzstan President – Almazbek Atambayev Prime Minister – Zhantoro Satybaldiyev
 Laos President – Choummaly Sayasone Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Thongsing Thammavong
 Latvia President – Andris Bērziņš Prime Minister – Vacant
 Lebanon President – Michel Suleiman President of the Council of Ministers – Najib Mikati
President-designate of the Council of Ministers – Tammam Salam
 Lesotho King – Letsie III Prime Minister – Tom Thabane
 Libya Chairman of the General National Congress – Nouri Abusahmain Prime Minister – Ali Zeidan
 Liechtenstein Prince – Hans-Adam II
Prince-Regent – Alois
Head of Government – Adrian Hasler
 Lithuania President – Dalia Grybauskaitė Prime Minister – Algirdas Butkevičius
 Luxembourg Grand Duke – Henri Prime Minister – Xavier Bettel
 Macedonia President – Gjorge Ivanov Prime Minister – Nikola Gruevski
 Madagascar President of the High Authority of Transition – Andry Rajoelina Prime Minister – Omer Beriziky
 Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong – Abdul Halim of Kedah Prime Minister – Najib Razak
 Mali President – Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta Prime Minister – Oumar Tatam Ly
 Malta President – George Abela Prime Minister – Joseph Muscat
 Marshall Islands
 Mauritania President – Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz Prime Minister – Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf
 Mauritius President – Kailash Purryag Prime Minister – Navin Ramgoolam
 Moldova President – Nicolae Timofti Prime Minister – Iurie Leancă
 Monaco Prince – Albert II Minister of State – Michel Roger
 Mongolia President – Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Prime Minister – Norovyn Altankhuyag
 Montenegro President – Filip Vujanović Prime Minister – Milo Đukanović
 Morocco King – Mohammed VI Prime Minister – Abdelilah Benkirane
 Mozambique President – Armando Guebuza Prime Minister – Alberto Vaquina
 Namibia President – Hifikepunye Pohamba Prime Minister – Hage Geingob
   Nepal President – Ram Baran Yadav Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Khil Raj Regmi
 Netherlands King – Willem-Alexander Prime Minister – Mark Rutte
 New Zealand Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Jerry Mateparae
Prime Minister – John Key
 Niger President – Mahamadou Issoufou Prime Minister – Brigi Rafini
 North Korea
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly –
Kim Yong-nam[2]
Premier of the Cabinet – Pak Pong-ju
 Norway King – Harald V Prime Minister – Erna Solberg
 Pakistan President – Mamnoon Hussain Prime Minister – Nawaz Sharif
 Palestine[3] President – Mahmoud Abbas Prime Minister – Rami Hamdallah
 Papua New Guinea Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Michael Ogio
Prime Minister – Peter O’Neill
 Peru President – Ollanta Humala President of the Council of Ministers – César Villanueva
 Poland President – Bronisław Komorowski Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Donald Tusk
 Portugal President – Aníbal Cavaco Silva Prime Minister – Pedro Passos Coelho
 Qatar Emir – Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Prime Minister – Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
 Romania President – Traian Băsescu Prime Minister – Victor Ponta
 Russia President – Vladimir Putin Chairman of the Government – Dmitry Medvedev
 Rwanda President – Paul Kagame Prime Minister – Pierre Habumuremyi
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Edmund Lawrence
Prime Minister – Denzil Douglas
 Saint Lucia Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Pearlette Louisy
Prime Minister – Kenny Anthony
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Frederick Ballantyne
Prime Minister – Ralph Gonsalves
 Samoa O le Ao o le Malo – Tufuga Efi Prime Minister – Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi
 San Marino
 São Tomé and Príncipe President – Manuel Pinto da Costa Prime Minister – Gabriel Costa
 Saudi Arabia
 Senegal President – Macky Sall Prime Minister – Aminata Touré
 Serbia President – Tomislav Nikolić Prime Minister – Ivica Dačić
 Sierra Leone
 Singapore President – Tony Tan Prime Minister – Lee Hsien Loong
 Slovakia President – Ivan Gašparovič Prime Minister – Robert Fico
 Slovenia President – Borut Pahor Prime Minister – Alenka Bratušek
 Solomon Islands Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Frank Kabui
Prime Minister – Gordon Darcy Lilo
 Somalia President – Hassan Sheikh Mohamud Prime Minister – Abdi Farah Shirdon
 South Africa
 South Korea President – Park Geun-hye Prime Minister – Jung Hong-won
 South Sudan
 Spain King – Juan Carlos I President of the Government – Mariano Rajoy
 Sri Lanka President – Mahinda Rajapaksa Prime Minister – D. M. Jayaratne
 Swaziland King – Mswati III Prime Minister – Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini
 Sweden King – Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister – Fredrik Reinfeldt
 Syria President – Bashar al-Assad Prime Minister – Wael Nader Al-Halqi
 Tajikistan President – Emomalii Rahmon Prime Minister – Kokhir Rasulzoda
 Tanzania President – Jakaya Kikwete Prime Minister – Mizengo Pinda
 Thailand King – Bhumibol Adulyadej Prime Minister – Yingluck Shinawatra
 Togo President – Faure Gnassingbé Prime Minister – Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu
 Tonga King – Tupou VI Prime Minister – Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō
 Trinidad and Tobago President – Anthony Carmona Prime Minister – Kamla Persad-Bissessar
 Tunisia President – Moncef Marzouki Prime Minister – Ali Laarayedh
 Turkey President – Abdullah Gül Prime Minister – Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
 Tuvalu Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Iakoba Italeli
Prime Minister – Enele Sopoaga
 Uganda President – Yoweri Museveni Prime Minister – Amama Mbabazi
 Ukraine President – Viktor Yanukovych Prime Minister – Mykola Azarov
 United Arab Emirates President – Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Prime Minister – Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
 United Kingdom Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1] Prime Minister – David Cameron
 United States
 Uzbekistan President – Islam Karimov Prime Minister – Shavkat Mirziyoyev
 Vanuatu President – Iolu Abil Prime Minister – Moana Carcasses Kalosil
  Vatican City Sovereign – Pope Francis President of the Governorate – Giuseppe Bertello
 Vietnam President – Trương Tấn Sang Prime Minister – Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
 Yemen President – Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi Prime Minister – Mohammed Basindawa

States recognised by at least one United Nations member

State Head of state Head of government
 Abkhazia President – Alexander Ankvab Prime Minister – Leonid Lakerbaia
 Cook Islands[n 2] Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Queen’s Representative – Tom John Marsters
Prime Minister – Henry Puna
 Kosovo President – Atifete Jahjaga Prime Minister – Hashim Thaçi
 Niue[n 2] Queen – Elizabeth II[n 1]
Governor-General – Jerry Mateparae
Premier – Toke Talagi
 Northern Cyprus President – Derviş Eroğlu Prime Minister – Özkan Yorgancıoğlu
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic President – Mohamed Abdelaziz Prime Minister – Abdelkader Taleb Omar
 South Ossetia President – Leonid Tibilov Prime Minister – Rostislav Khugayev
 Syria (Syrian National Coalition) President – Ahmad Jarba Prime Minister – Ahmad Saleh Touma
 Taiwan President – Ma Ying-jeou President of the Executive Yuan – Jiang Yi-huah

States not recognised by any United Nations members

This list encompasses the leaders of geo-political entities that lack significant international recognition. The degree of control these entities exert over their claimed territories may vary.

State Head of State Head of Government
 Nagorno-Karabakh President – Bako Sahakyan Prime Minister – Arayik Harutyunyan
 Transnistria President – Yevgeny Shevchuk Prime Minister – Tatiana Turanskaya

Know : World Trade Organization (WTO)

Brief Overview:

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.

The result is assurance. Consumers and producers know that they can enjoy secure supplies and greater choice of the finished products, components, raw materials and services that they use. Producers and exporters know that foreign markets will remain open to them.

The result is also a more prosperous, peaceful and accountable economic world. Virtually all decisions in the WTO are taken by consensus among all member countries and they are ratified by members’ parliaments. Trade friction is channelled into the WTO’s dispute settlement process where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments, and how to ensure that countries’ trade policies conform with them. That way, the risk of disputes spilling over into political or military conflict is reduced.

By lowering trade barriers, the WTO’s system also breaks down other barriers between peoples and nations.

At the heart of the system — known as the multilateral trading system — are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations, and ratified in their parliaments. These agreements are the legal ground-rules for international commerce. Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing member countries important trade rights. They also bind governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits to everybody’s benefit.

The agreements were negotiated and signed by governments. But their purpose is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

The goal is to improve the welfare of the peoples of the 159 member states.

   Members, dually represented by the European Union

The History : 

The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995. One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War. So while the WTO is still young, the multilateral trading system that was originally set up under GATT is well over 50 years old. (click here to read the complete history)

In 2000, new talks started on agriculture and services. These have now been incorporated into a broader agenda launched at the fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001.

The work programme, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), adds negotiations and other work on non-agricultural tariffs, trade and environment, WTO rules such as anti-dumping and subsidies, investment, competition policy, trade facilitation, transparency in government procurement, intellectual property, and a range of issues raised by developing countries as difficulties they face in implementing the present WTO agreements.

It does this by:
Administering trade agreements
Acting as a forum for trade negotiations
Settling trade disputes
Reviewing national trade policies
Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes
Cooperating with other international organizations

Organizational Structure

The WTO has about 150 members, accounting for about 95% of world trade. Around 30 others are negotiating membership.

Decisions are made by the entire membership. This is typically by consensus. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO, and was extremely rare under the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments.

The WTO’s top level decision-making body is the Ministerial Conference which meets at least once every two years.

Below this is the General Council (normally ambassadors and heads of delegation in Geneva, but sometimes officials sent from members’ capitals) which meets several times a year in the Geneva headquarters. The General Council also meets as the Trade Policy Review Body and the Dispute Settlement Body.

At the next level, the Goods Council, Services Council and Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Council report to the General Council.

Numerous specialized committees, working groups and working parties deal with the individual agreements and other areas such as the environment, development, membership applications and regional trade agreements.


The WTO Secretariat, based in Geneva, has around 600 staff and is headed by a director-general (Roberto Azevêdo). Its annual budget is roughly 160 million Swiss francs. It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Since decisions are taken by the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role that other inter-Secretariat, Genevanational bureaucracies are given.

The WTO agreements
How can you ensure that trade is as fair as possible, and as free as is practical? By negotiating rules and abiding by them. (Click here to read more about the WTO agreements)

The WTO is ‘rules-based’; its rules are negotiated agreements.

Overview: a navigational guide
Tariffs: more bindings and closer to zero
Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers
Standards and safety
Textiles: back in the mainstream
Services: rules for growth and investment
Intellectual property: protection and enforcement
Anti-dumping, subsidies, safeguards: contingencies, etc
Non-tariff barriers: red tape, etc
Plurilaterals: of minority interest
Trade policy reviews: ensuring transparency

10 benefits of the WTO trading system

From the money in our pockets and the goods and services that we use, to a more peaceful world — the WTO and the trading system offer a range of benefits, some well-known, others not so obvious.

1. The system helps promote peace
2. Disputes are handled constructively
3. Rules make life easier for all
4. Freer trade cuts the costs of living
5. It provides more choice of products and qualities
6. Trade raises incomes
7. Trade stimulates economic growth
8. The basic principles make life more efficient
9. Governments are shielded from lobbying
10. The system encourages good government

10 common misunderstandings about the WTO

Is it a dictatorial tool of the rich and powerful? Does it destroy jobs? Does it ignore the concerns of health, the environment and development?  Emphatically no. Criticisms of the WTO are often based on fundamental misunderstandings of the way the WTO works.

1. WTO dictates?
Blindly for trade?
Ignores development?
Wrecks jobs?
Small left out?
Tool of lobbies?
Weak forced to join?


Courtesy and Source :, Wikipedia and Google

Know : Basel Convention ( Treaty to prevent transfer of Hazardous Waste between Nations)

Basel_ConventionWhat is the Basel Convention?

The Basel Convention is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate.

The overarching objective of the Basel Convention is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes. Its scope of application covers a wide range of wastes defined as “hazardous wastes” based on their origin and/or composition and their characteristics, as well as two types of wastes defined as “other wastes” – household waste and incinerator ash.

The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, and entered into force on 5 May 1992. As of May 2013, 179 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention. Haiti and the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified (Making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it) it.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Nations that have signed and ratified the Basel Convention, along with nations that have signed but have not ratified the agreement. Rest not signed

When and Why it was formed?

With the tightening of environmental laws (for example, RCRA) in developing nations in the 1970s, disposal costs for hazardous waste rose dramatically. At the same time, globalization of shipping made a transboundary movement of waste more accessible, and many LDCs were desperate for foreign currency. Consequently, the trade in hazardous waste, particularly LDCs, grew rapidly.

One of the incidents which led to the creation of the Basel Convention was the Khian Sea waste disposal incident, in which a ship carrying incinerator ash from the city of Philadelphia in the United States dumped half of its load on a beach in Haiti before being forced away. It sailed for many months, changing its name several times. Unable to unload the cargo in any port, the crew was believed to have dumped much of it at sea.

Another is the 1988 Koko case in which 5 ships transported 8,000 barrels of hazardous waste from Italy to the small town of Koko in Nigeria in exchange for $100 monthly rent which was paid to a Nigerian for the use of his farmland.

These practices have been deemed “Toxic Colonialism” by many developing countries.

Export of E-Waste

Export of E-Waste

Only around 4% of hazardous wastes that come from OECD [Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries are actually shipped across international borders. These wastes include, among others, chemical waste, radioactive waste, municipal solid waste, asbestos, incinerator ash, and old tires. Of internationally shipped waste that comes from developed countries, more than half is shipped for recovery and the remainder for final disposal.

Increased trade in recyclable materials has led to an increase in a market for used products such as computers. This market is valued in billions of dollars. At issue is the distinction when used computers stop being a “commodity” and become a “waste”.

As of 2013, there are 180 parties(countries) to the treaty. The UN member states that are not party to the treaty are Angola, Burma, East Timor, Fiji, Grenada, Haiti, São Tomé and Príncipe,San Marino, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Tuvalu, United States, and Vanuatu.

Country wise details on Status of RatificationsCountry ContactsAgreementsImports / Export RestrictionsNationalDefinitionsNationalLegislationNationalReporting and Country Fact Sheets can be downloaded from the respective links from their site. (Click on the respective link)

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia and