Tribute : Helen Keller (1880-1968)

481px-Helen_KellerAHelen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the first deafblind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree. The story of how Keller’s teacher, Anne Sullivan, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate, has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and film The Miracle Worker. Her birthday on June 27 is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and was authorized at the federal level by presidential proclamation by President Jimmy Carter in 1980, the 100th anniversary of her birth.

A prolific author, Keller was well-travelled and outspoken in her convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of Americaand the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women’s suffragelabor rights, socialism, and other radical left causes. She was inducted into the Alabama Women’s Hall of Fame in 1971.

Keller wrote a total of 12 published books and several articles. 

When Keller visited Akita Prefecture in Japan in July 1937, she inquired about Hachikō, the famed Akita dog that had died in 1935. She told a Japanese person that she would like to have an Akita dog; one was given to her within a month, with the name of Kamikaze-go.

 Keller wrote in the Akita Journal:

If ever there was an angel in fur, it was Kamikaze. I know I shall never feel quite the same tenderness for any other pet. The Akita dog has all the qualities that appeal to me – he is gentle, companionable and trusty.

 

Posthumous honors

A preschool for the deaf and hard of hearing in Mysore, India, was originally named after Helen Keller by its founder K. K. Srinivasan. In 1999, Keller was listed in Gallup’s Most Widely Admired People of the 20th century.

USPS-issued stamp of Keller and Sullivan, 1980

In 2003, Alabama honored its native daughter on its state quarter.The Alabama state quarter is the only circulating US coin to feature braille. The Helen Keller Hospital in Sheffield, Alabama is dedicated to her.

There are streets named after Helen Keller in Zurich, Switzerland, in Getafe, Spain, in Lod, Israel, in Lisbon, Portugal and in Caen, France.

A stamp was issued in 1980 by the United States Postal Service depicting Keller and Sullivan, to mark the centennial of Keller’s birth.

On October 7, 2009, a bronze statue of Helen Keller was added to the National Statuary Hall Collection, as a replacement for the State of Alabama’s former 1908 statue of the education reformerJabez Lamar Monroe Curry. It is displayed in the United States Capitol Visitor Center and depicts Keller as a seven-year-old child standing at a water pump.

The statue represents the seminal moment in Keller’s life when she understood her first word: W-A-T-E-R, as signed into her hand by teacher Anne Sullivan. The pedestal base bears a quotation in raised Latin and braille letters: “The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched, they must be felt with the heart.” The statue is the first one of a person with a disability and of a child to be permanently displayed at the U.S. Capitol.

Johanna “Anne” Mansfield Sullivan Macy (April 14, 1866 – October 20, 1936), better known as Anne Sullivan, was an American teacher, best known for being the instructor and lifelong companion of Helen Keller. Anne Sullivan contracted an eye infection when she was eight years old which left her blind and without reading or writing skills.Anne received her education as a student of the Perkins School for the Blind where upon graduation she became a teacher to Helen Keller. Anne Sullivan was an exceptionally good teacher whose work is still recognized and spoken of today.


Courtesy : Wikipedia and Youtube (jancy and batangusboy)

Know : List of All Noble Prize Winners

Nobel_PrizeThe Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Each recipient, or “laureate”, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.

555 Nobel Prizes!

Between 1901 and 2012, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 555 times.

Nobel Prize Number of Prizes Number of Laureates Awarded to one Laureate Shared by two Laureates Shared by three Laureates
Physics 106 194 47 29 29
Chemistry 104 163 63 22 18
Medicine 103 201 38 31 33
Literature 105 109 100 4
Peace 93 100+24 62 28 2
Economic Sciences 44 71 22 16 5
Total: 555 862 332 130 87

Only 44 Nobel Prizes to Women!

Between 1901 and 2012 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 44 times to women. List of all female Nobel Laureates

List of all Noble Prize Laureates (Winners)

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

1901

Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy

1902

Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat

1903

Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer

1904

Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International

1905

Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner

1906

J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt

1907

Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault

1908

Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer

1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d’Estournelles de Constant

1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau

1911

Wilhelm Wien Marie Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried

1912

Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root

1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine

1914

Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány

None

None

1915

William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter

None

Romain Rolland

None

1916

None

None

None

Verner von Heidenstam

None

1917

Charles Glover Barkla

None

None

Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross

1918

Max Planck Fritz Haber

None

None

None

1919

Johannes Stark

None

Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson

1920

Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois

1921

Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy

None

Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange

1922

Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen

1923

Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats

None

1924

Manne Siegbahn

None

Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont

None

1925

James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

None

George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes

1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann

1927

Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde

1928

Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset

None

1929

Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg

1930

C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom

1931

None

Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler

1932

Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy

None

1933

Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac

None

Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell

1934

None

Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson

1935

James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann

None

Carl von Ossietzky

1936

Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O’Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1937

Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

1938

Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees

1939

Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää

None

1940

None

None

None

None

None

1941

None

None

None

None

None

1942

None

None

None

None

None

1943

Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy

None

None

1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross

1945

Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull

1946

Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott

1947

Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee

1948

Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot

None[B]

1949

Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr

1950

C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche

1951

John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux

1952

Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer

1953

Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall

1954

Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1955

Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness

None

1956

John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez

None

1957

Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson

1958

Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire

1959

Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker

1960

Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli

1961

Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld

1962

Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling

1963

Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies

1964

Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.

1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

1966

Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs

None

1967

Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias

None

1968

Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin

1969

Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen

1970

Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson

1971

Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets

1972

John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll

None

John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow

1973

Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief

1974

Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek

1975

Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans

1976

Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman

1977

Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade

1978

Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon

1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis

1980

James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein

1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui;
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry;
David H. Hubel;
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin

1982

Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström;
Bengt I. Samuelsson;
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal;
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler

1983

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu

1984

Carlo Rubbia;
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne;
Georges J. F. Köhler;
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone

1985

Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman;
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown;
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani

1986

Ernst Ruska;
Gerd Binnig;
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach;
Yuan T. Lee;
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen;
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan

1987

Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram;
Jean-Marie Lehn;
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow

1988

Leon M. Lederman;
Melvin Schwartz;
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer;
Robert Huber;
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black;
Gertrude B. Elion;
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais

1989

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman;
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop;
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo

1990

Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Henry Way Kendall;
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray;
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz;
Merton Miller;
William Forsyth Sharpe

1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher;
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase

1992

Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer;
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker

1993

Russell Alan Hulse;
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis;
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts;
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela;
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel;
Douglass North

1994

Bertram Brockhouse;
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman;
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat;
Shimon Peres;
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi;
John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Reinhard Selten

1995

Martin Lewis Perl;
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen;
Mario J. Molina;
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis;
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.

1996

David Lee;
Douglas Osheroff;
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Harry Kroto;
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty;
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees;
William Vickrey

1997

Steven Chu;
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer;
John E. Walker;
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton;
Myron Scholes

1998

Robert B. Laughlin;
Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn;
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott;
Louis Ignarro;
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume;
David Trimble
Amartya Sen

1999

Gerard ‘t Hooft;
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell

2000

Zhores Alferov;
Herbert Kroemer;
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger;
Alan MacDiarmid;
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson;
Paul Greengard;
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman;
Daniel McFadden

2001

Eric Allin Cornell;
Wolfgang Ketterle;
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles;
Ryōji Noyori;
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell;
Tim Hunt;
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof;
Michael Spence;
Joseph Stiglitz

2002

Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Masatoshi Koshiba;
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn;
Koichi Tanaka;
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner;
H. Robert Horvitz;
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman;
Vernon L. Smith

2003

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Vitaly Ginzburg;
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre;
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur;
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle;
Clive Granger

2004

David Gross;
Hugh David Politzer;
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover;
Avram Hershko;
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel;
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland;
Edward C. Prescott

2005

Roy J. Glauber;
John L. Hall;
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin;
Robert H. Grubbs;
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall;
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann;
Thomas Schelling

2006

John C. Mather;
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire;
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps

2007

Albert Fert;
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi;
Martin Evans;
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz;
Eric Maskin;
Roger Myerson

2008

Yoichiro Nambu;
Makoto Kobayashi;
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura;
Martin Chalfie;
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen;
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman

2009

Charles K. Kao;
Willard S. Boyle;
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Thomas A. Steitz;
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn;
Carol W. Greider;
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom;
Oliver E. Williamson

2010

Andre Geim;
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard Heck;
Ei-ichi Negishi;
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo[F] Peter A. Diamond;
Dale T. Mortensen;
Christopher A. Pissarides

2011

Saul Perlmutter;
Adam G. Riess;
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler;
Jules A. Hoffmann;
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Leymah Gbowee;
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent;
Christopher A. Sims

2012

Serge Haroche;
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka;
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon;
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth;
Lloyd S. Shapley

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

Courtesy & Sources : Wikipedia, Nobelprize.org