Know : List of Percentage of Websites by Languages

Most web pages on the Internet are in English, with varying amounts of information available in many other languages. In April 2013, almost 55% of the most visited websites used English as their content language. Other top languages which are used at least in 2% of websites are RussianGermanSpanishChineseFrenchJapaneseArabic and Portuguese.

The list below shows the Estimates of the percentages of Web sites using various content languages as of 12 March 2014

Rank Language Percentage
1 English 55.7%
2 Russian 6.0%
3 German 6.0%
4 Japanese 5.0%
5 Spanish 4.6%
6 French 4.0%
7 Chinese 3.3%
8 Portuguese 2.3%
9 Italian 1.8%
10 Polish 1.7%
11 Turkish 1.3%
12 Dutch 1.3%
13 Arabic 0.8%
14 Persian 0.8%
15 Czech 0.7%
16 Swedish 0.6%
17 Indonesian 0.4%
18 Korean 0.4%
19 Vietnamese 0.4%
20 Romanian 0.4%
21 Greek 0.4%
22 Danish 0.3%
23 Hungarian 0.3%
24 Thai 0.3%
25 Finnish 0.2%
26 Slovak 0.2%
27 Bulgarian 0.2%
28 Norwegian 0.2%
29 Hebrew 0.1%
30 Lithuanian 0.1%
31 Croatian 0.1%
32 Bokmål 0.1%
33 Ukrainian 0.1%
34 Serbian 0.1%
35 Slovenian 0.1%
36 Catalan 0.1%

Note that these figures are based on the one million most visited web sites (e.g. 0.27% of the total web sites according to figures of December 2011), according to Alexa.com, and language is identified using only the home page of the sites in most cases. As a consequence, the figures show a significantly higher percentage for many languages (especially for English) as compared to the figures for all websites. The figures for all websites are unknown, but some sources estimate below 50% for English

The number of non-English pages is rapidly expanding. The use of English online increased by around 281% from 2001 to 2011, however this is far less than Spanish (743%), Chinese (1,277%), Russian (1,826%) or Arabic (2,501%) over the same period.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

Know : Water in Different Languages

 water
LANGUAGE TRANSLATION
AFRIKAANS water
ALBANIAN uji
ALSATIAN wàsser
APACHE
ARABIC mâa
ARMENIAN djour
AZERI su
BAMBARA gui
BASQUE ura
BELARUSIAN Вада (vada)
BENGALI jal
BERBER amane
BOBO zou
BOSNIAN voda
BRETON dour, deur
BULGARIAN voda
BURMESE yei
CATALAN aigua
CHECHEN hi
CHEROKEE ama
CHINESE (MANDARIN) 水 (shuǐ)
CORSICAN acqua
CROATIAN voda
CZECH voda
DANISH vand
DUTCH het water
ENGLISH water
ESPERANTO akvo
ESTONIAN vesi
FAROESE vatn
FINNISH vesi
FRENCH eau
FRISIAN wetter
FRIULAN aghe
GALICIAN auga
GALLO
GEORGIAN tskhali
GERMAN das Wasser
GREEK nero
GUARANÍ y
HAITIAN CREOLE dlo
HAWAIAN wai
HEBREW maim
HINDI paani
HUNGARIAN víz
ICELANDIC vatn
IGBO mmiri
INDONESIAN air
IRISH GAELIC uisce
ITALIAN acqua
JAPANESE mizu
KABYLIAN amane
KANNADA neeru
KHMER thuk
KINYARWANDA amazi
KOREAN mool
KURDISH av
LAO nam
LATIN aqua (ae, f)
LIGURIAN ægoa
LINGALA mayi
LITHUANIAN vanduo
LOW SAXON water
LUXEMBOURGEOIS waasser
MACEDONIAN вода (voda)
MALAGASY rano
MALAY air
MALAYALAM vellam
MALTESE ilma
MAORI wai
MAPUCHE (MAPUDUNGUN) ko
MARATHI paani
MONGOLIAN us (Ус)
MORÉ kôm
NAHUATL atl
NORMAN iâo
NORWEGIAN vann
OCCITAN aiga
ORIYA jala / paani
OSSETIAN дон
PAPIAMENTU awa
PERSIAN âb
POLISH woda
PORTUGUESE água
ROMANI pani
ROMANIAN apă
RUSSIAN voda
SARDINIAN abba (logudorese) / acua (campidanese)
SCOTTISH GAELIC uisge
SERBIAN voda
SESOTHO metsi
SHIMAORE magi
SHONA mvura
SINDHI panhi
SINHALA vatura (spoken) / jalaya (formal)
SLOVAK voda
SLOVENIAN voda
SOBOTA voda
SONINKÉ dji
SPANISH agua
SWAHILI maji
SWEDISH vatten
TAGALOG tubig
TAHITIAN pape
TAMIL taneer
TATAR su
TELUGU neeru
THAI น้ำ (nám)
TURKISH su
UDMURT vu
UKRAINIAN Вода (voda)
URDU pani
VENDA madi
VIETNAMESE nuoc
WALOON (“betchfessîs” spelling) aiwe
WELSH d^wr
WEST INDIAN CREOLE dlo
XHOSA amanzi
YIDDISH vasser
YORUBA omi
ZULU amanzi

Know : Romance Languages : List, Origin, Current Status

The Romance languages (more accurately the Romanic languages), are a group of languages known also as Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages, and are descended from Vulgar Latin. They form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family. The five most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish (410 million), Portuguese (220 million), French (75 million), Italian (60 million), and Romanian (25 million). The larger have many non-native speakers; this is especially the case for French, which is in widespread use throughout Central and West Africa and the Maghreb region.

The Romance languages developed from Latin in the sixth to ninth centuries. Today, there are more than 800 million native speakers worldwide, mainly in Europe and the Americas and many smaller regions scattered throughout the world, as well as large numbers of non-native speakers, and widespread use as lingua franca. Because of the difficulty of imposing boundaries on a continuum, there are various counts of the Romance languages; Dalby lists 23 based on mutual intelligibility:

GalicianPortugueseSpanishAsturian-LeoneseAragoneseCatalanGasconProvençalGallo-WallonFrenchFranco-Provençal,  Romansh,  Ladin,  Friulian,  Venetian,  Lombard,  Corsican, ItalianNeapolitanSicilianSardinianDalmatianIstro-RomanianAromanian, and Daco-Romanian.

In several of these cases, more than one variety has been standardized, and is therefore considered a distinct language in the popular conception; this is true for example with Asturian and Leonese as well as Napolitan and Sicilian.

Origins

romance language origin

Romance languages are the continuation of Vulgar Latin, the popular and colloquial sociolect of Latin spoken by soldiers, settlers and merchants of the Roman Empire, as distinguished from the Classical form of the language spoken by the Roman upper classes, the form in which the language was generally written. Between 350 BC and AD 150, the expansion of the Empire, together with its administrative and educational policies, made Latin the dominant native language in continental Western Europe. Latin also exerted a strong influence in southeastern Britainthe Roman province of Africa, and the Balkans north of the Jireček Line.

During the Empire’s decline, and after its fragmentation and collapse in the fifth century, varieties of Latin began to diverge within each local area at an accelerated rate and eventually evolved into a continuum of recognizably different typologies. The overseas empires established by PortugalSpain, and France from the fifteenth century onward spread their languages to the other continents to such an extent that about two-thirds of all Romance language speakers today live outside Europe.

Despite other influences (e.g. substratum from pre-Roman languages, especially Continental Celtic languages; and superstratum from later Germanic or Slavic invasions), the phonologymorphology, and lexicon of all Romance languages are overwhelmingly evolved forms of Vulgar Latin. However, there are some notable differences between today’s Romance languages and their Roman ancestor. With only one or two exceptions, Romance languages have lost the declension system of Latin and, as a result, have SVO sentence structure and make extensive use of prepositions.

Romance Languages in Europe

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Romance Languages – World

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Lexical and grammatical similarities among the Romance languages, and between Latin and each of them, are apparent from the following examples having the same meaning:

English: She always closes the window before she dines.

Latin (Ea) semper antequam cenat fenestram claudit.
Aragonese (Ella) zarra siempre a finestra antes de cenar.
Aromanian (Ea/Nâsa) încljidi/nkidi totna firida ninti di tsinâ.
Asturian (Ella) pieslla siempres la ventana enantes de cenar.
Bergamasque (Lé) la sèra sèmper sö la finèstra prima de senà.
Bolognese (Lî) la sèra sänper la fnèstra prémma ed dsnèr.
Catalan (Ella) sempre tanca la finestra abans de sopar.
Corsican (Ella/Edda) chjode sempre u purtellu nanzu di cenà.
Emilian (Lē) la sèra sèmpar sù la fnèstra prima ad snàr.
Extremaduran (Ella) afecha siempri la ventana antis de cenal.
Franco-Provençal (Le) sarre toltin/tojor la fenétra avan de goutâ/dinar/sopar.
French Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner/souper.
Friulan (Jê) e siere simpri il barcon prin di cenâ.
Galician (Ela) pecha/fecha sempre a fiestra/xanela antes de cear.
Italian (Ella/Lei) chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare.
Judaeo-Spanish Eya serra syempre la ventana antes de senar.
Ladin (Ëra) stlüj dagnora la finestra impröma de cenè. (badiot) (Ëila) stluj for l viere dan maië da cëina (gherdëina)
Leonese (Eilla) pecha siempre la ventana primeiru de cenare.
Ligurian (Le) a saera sempre u barcun primma de cenà.
Lombard(west.) (Lee) la sara sù semper la finestra primma de disnà/scenà.
Magoua (Elle) à fàrm toujour là fnèt àvan k’à manj.
Mauritian Creole Li touzur pou ferm lafnet avan (li) manze.
Milanese (Le) la sara semper sü la finestra prima de disnà.
Mirandese (Eilha) cerra siempre la bentana/jinela atrás de jantar.
Mozarabic Ella cloudet sempre la fainestra abante da cenare. (reconstructed)
Neapolitan Essa nzerra sempe ‘a fenesta primma ‘e magnà.
Norman Lli barre tréjous la crouésie devaunt de daîner.
Occitan (Ela) barra sempre/totjorn la fenèstra abans de sopar.
Picard Ale frunme tojours l’ creusèe édvint éd souper.
Piedmontese Chila a sara sèmper la fnestra dnans ëd fé sin-a/dnans ëd siné.
Portuguese Ela fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar/cear.
Romanian Ea închide totdeauna fereastra înainte de cinare.
Romansh Ella clauda/serra adina la fanestra avant ch’ella tschainia.
Sardinian Issa sèrrat sémper/sémpri sa bentàna innantis de chenàre/cenài.
Sassarese Edda sarra sempri lu balchoni primma di zinà.
Sicilian Idda chiui sempri la finestra prima di pistiari/manciari.
Spanish (Ella) siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar.
Umbrian Essa chjude sempre la finestra prima de cena’.
Venetian Eła ła sara/sera sempre ła fenestra vanti de xenàr/disnar.
Walloon Ele sere todi li finiesse divant di soper.

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia and Google

Know : What is Your Language’s Word Order?

In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.  SOV is the most common type (followed by subject–verb–object; the two types account for more than 75% of natural languages with a preferred order). 

Word Order

Source : Frequency distribution of word order in languages surveyed by Russell S. Tomlin in 1980s.

Languages that have SOV structure:

Ainu,  Akkadian,  Amharic,  Armenian,  Assamese,  Aymara, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Burushaski, Dogon languages,  Elamite,  Ancient Greek,  Hindi, Hittite,  Hopi, Hungarian, Ijoid languages, Itelmen, Japanese, Kazakh, Korean,Kurdish, Classical Latin, Manchu, Mande languages,  Marathi, Mongolian,  Navajo, Nepali,  Newari,  Nivkh,  Nobiin,  Pāli,  Pashto,  Persian, Punjabi, Quechua,  Sanskrit, Senufo languages,  Seri,  Sicilian,  Sindhi,  Sinhalese  and  most  other  Indo-Iranian languages,  Somali and  virtually all other Cushitic languages, Sumerian, Tagalog, Tibetanand nearly all other Tibeto-Burman languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and all other Dravidian languages, Tigrinya, Turkic languages, Turkish, Urdu, Yukaghir, and virtually all Caucasian languages.

Languages that have SVO structure:

Albanian, Arabic, Assyrian (VSO and VOS are also followed, depending on the person), Berber, Bulgarian, Chinese, English, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Ganda, Greek, Hausa, Hebrew, Italian, Javanese, Kashmiri, Khmer, Latvian, Macedonian, Polish, Portuguese, Quiche, Romanian, Rotuman, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swahili, Thai, Vietnamese, Yoruba and Zulu are examples of languages that can follow an SVO pattern

Languages that have VSO structure:

Semitic languages (including Arabic, Classical Hebrew, and Ge’ez (Classical Ethiopic) (dead language)), and Celtic languages (including Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, and Breton).

Other families where all or many of languages are VSO include the following

  • the Afroasiatic languages (including the Berber languages and the Egyptian language)
  • the Mayan languages (including Classic Maya)
  • the Otomanguean languages (including Zapotec languages and Mixtecan languages)
  • the Salishan languages
  • the Austronesian languages (including Tagalog, Cebuano, Hawaiian, Pangasinan, Māori, Malagasy, and Tongan).

Both the Spanish and Greek language resemble Semitic languages such as Arabic in allowing for both VSO and SVO structures: e.g. “Jesús vino el jueves” / Vino Jesús el jueves, “Tu madre dice que no vayas”/”dice tu madre que no vayas”. In Spanish, the only restriction on the VSO form is for the object to require a definite or indefinite article in the sentence

Languages that have VOS structure:

 Austronesian languages (such as Malagasy, Old Javanese, Toba Batak and Fijian) andMayan languages (such as Tzotzil). However, these have either (mixed) ergative or Austronesian alignment, and as such do not have a subject as it has been traditionally defined. Among languages with true subjects, in Hadza the word order VOS is extremely common, but is not the default, which is VSO

Languages that have OVS / OSV structure:

Object–verb–subject (OVS) or object–verb–agent (OVA) is a rare permutation of word order. OVS denotes the sequence object–verb–subject in unmarked expressions: Oranges ate SamThorns have roses. While the passive voice in English may appear to be in the OVS order, this is not an accurate description. In an active voice sentence, for example Sam ate the oranges, the grammatical subject, Sam, is the ‘agent’, who is acting on the ‘patient,’the oranges, which are the object of the verb ate. In the passive voice, The oranges were eaten by Sam, the order is reversed so that patient is followed by verb, followed by agent. However, the oranges become the subject of the verbwere eaten which is modified by the prepositional phrase by Sam which expresses the agent, maintaining the usual subject–verb–(object) order.

Star Wars franchise creator George Lucas attributed to his fictional character Yoda a native language featuring OSV grammatical order, as reflected in the character’s instinctive application of the OSV template to English vocabulary in generating statements such as “Your father he is, but defeat him you must.”

Know : Languages List and their Writing direction

Language direction

This is an index of the all the writing systems on this site arranged by the direction in which they are written. Some writing systems can be written in a number of different directions, others were originally written in various directions but eventually settled on one direction.

Why some writing systems are written in one direction, and others in other directions is a bit of a mystery. It might have something to do with the writing surfaces and implements originally used, fashion, the handedness of the creators of the writing systems, or other factors.

Directions

  • Left to right, horizontal
  • Right to left, horizontal
  • Left to right, vertical, top to bottom
  • Right to left, vertical, top to bottom
  • Left to right, vertical, bottom to top
  • Right to left, vertical, bottom to top
  • Boustrophedon
  • Variable


Example of Armenian written from left to right

Left to right, horizontal

The following writing systems are written from left to right in horizontal lines:

  1. Ahom
  2. Angelic
  3. Armenian
  4. Balinese
  5. Bassa (Vah)
  6. Beitha Kukju,Benjamin Franklin’s Phonetic Alphabet
  7. Bengali
  8. Blackfoot,Blissymbolics
  9. Brahmi
  10. Buhid
  11. Burmese
  12. Carrier
  13. Celtiberian
  14. Cham,Cherokee
  15. Chinese
  16. Coptic
  17. Cree
  18. Cyrillic
  19. Dehong Dai/Tai Le,Deseret
  20. Devanagari
  21. Dhives Akuru
  22. Elbasan
  23. Ethiopic
  24. Fraser
  25. Georgian (Asomtavruli)
  26. Georgian (Nuskhuri)
  27. Georgian (Mkhedruli)
  28. Glagolitic
  29. Gothic
  30. Grantha
  31. Greek
  32. Gujarati
  33. Gurmukhi (Punjabi),Hmong
  34. Iberian (Southern)
  35. International Phonetic Alphabet
  36. Inuktitut
  37. Irish Uncial
  38. Javanese
  39. Jenticha,Kannada
  40. Kayah Li
  41. Khitan
  42. Khmer
  43. Korean
  44. Kpelle
  45. Kulitan
  46. Jurchen
  47. Lanna
  48. Lao
  49. Latin
  50. Lepcha
  51. Limbu,Linear A
  52. Linear B
  53. Loma
  54. Lontara/Makasar
  55. Malachim
  56. Malayalam
  57. Manpuri
  58. Mayan
  59. Modi
  60. Mongolian Horizontal Square Script
  61. Naxi
  62. Ndjuká
  63. Ogham
  64. Ojibwe
  65. Old Church Slavonic
  66. Old Permic
  67. Oriya,Passing the River
  68. Pitman Initial Teaching Alphabet
  69. Pollard Miao
  70. Quikscript/Read Alphabet
  71. Ranjana,Redjang
  72. Runic
  73. Santali
  74. Sharda
  75. Shavian
  76. Shorthand
  77. Siddham
  78. Sinhala
  79. Solresol Somali
  80. Sorang Sompeng
  81. Sourashtra
  82. Soyombo
  83. Sundanese
  84. Sutton SignWriting
  85. Syloti Nagri
  86. Tagalog
  87. Tagbanwa
  88. Tai Dam
  89. Tai Lue
  90. Tamil
  91. Telugu
  92. Thai
  93. Theban
  94. Tibetan
  95. Tikamuli
  96. Todhri
  97. Tocharian
  98. Ugaritic
  99. Unifon
  100. Vai
  101. Varang Kshiti
  102. Visible Speech
  103. Yi


Example of Etruscan written from right to leftRight to left, horizontal

The following writing systems are written from right to left in horizontal lines:

 

  1. Ancient Berber
  2.  Ancient Egyptian (Demotic)
  3.  Ancient Egyptian (Hieratic)
  4. Ancient Egyptian (Hieroglyphic)
  5.  Aramaic
  6.  Arabic*
  7.  Avestan
  8.  Chinese **
  9. Cypriot
  10.  Enochian
  11.  Etruscan
  12.  Hebrew
  13.  Iberian (Northern)
  14.  Kharosthi
  15. Linear B
  16.  Old Italic
  17.  Orkhon
  18.  Mandaic
  19.  Mende
  20.  Meroïtic (Cursive)
  21.  Middle Persian
  22.  Nabataean
  23.  N’Ko
  24.  Parthian
  25.  Phoenician
  26.  Proto-Elamite
  27.  Psalter
  28.  Sabaean
  29.  Samaritan
  30.  Sogdian
  31. Tifinagh
  32.  Syriac
  33.  South Arabian
  34.  Thaana

*In Arabic numerals are written from left to right.

** In vertical Chinese texts the headings are sometimes written horizontally from right to left across the tops of the columns (see below). This direction is also occasionally used on shop signs.


Example of Mongolian written from left to right in vertical linesLeft to right, vertical, top to bottom

The following writing systems are written from left to right in vertical lines running from top to bottom:

  1. Old Elamite
  2. Manchu
  3. Mongolian
  4. Oirat Clear Script
  5. Phags-pa
  6. Sogdian,
  7. Sutton SignWriting
  8. Uyghur

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Example of Mongolian written from left to right in vertical linesRight to left, vertical, top to bottom

The following writing systems are written from right to left in vertical lines running from top to bottom:

  1. Chinese
  2. Chữ-nôm,
  3. Japanese
  4. Korean,
  5. Kulitan
  6. Meroïtic (Hieroglyphic script),
  7. Nushu
  8. Tangut (Hsihsia)

Notes

Until the 1980s Korean was usually written from right to left in vertical columns. Since then writing from left to right in horizontal lines has become popular, and today the majority of texts are written horizontally.

Chinese is often written vertically in Taiwan, while in China and Singapore it is usually written horizontally.

Vertical and horizontal texts are both used in Japan


Sample of Left to right, vertical, bottom to top writing in Hanunó'oLeft to right, vertical, bottom to top

The following writing systems are written from right to left in vertical lines running from bottom to top:

  1. Batak
  2. Hanuno’o
  3. Tagbanwa

Note

Tagbanwa is traditionally written in vertical columns running from bottom to top and from left to right, however it is read from left to right in horizontal lines.


Right to left, vertical, bottom to top in Ancient Berber (Punic)Right to left, vertical, bottom to top

The Ancient Berber developed from the Phoenician script and like Phoenician, was originally written from right to left in horizontal lines, but became more commonly written from bottom to top in vertical columns running from right to left.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Example of Hungarian Runes written in boustrophedon styleBoustrophedon

The following writing systems are written in horizontal lines running alternatively from right to left then left to right. This is called Boustrophedon, which comes from the Greek βους (bous) “ox” +στρεφειν (strefein) “to turn”, because it resembles the path an ox makes when plowing field, turning at the end of each row to return in the opposite direction.

Székely-Hungarian Rovás (Hungarian Runes)Linear BRongo Rongo,Sabaean


Variable

Ancient Egyptian (Hieroglyphic)

The Ancient Egytian Hieroglyphic script was written in any direction the was convenient: horizontally from right to left or left to right or vertically from top to bottom. The arrangement of the glyphs was partly determined by aesthetic considerations. When written horizontally, you can tell the direction of a piece of writing by looking at the way the animals and people are facing: they look towards the beginning of the line.

Example of Egyptian Hieroglyphic writing

Source: http://hieroglyphs.net

Example of Chinese written horizontally and verticallyChinese

Chinese can be written from right to left in vertical columns, left to right in horizontal lines, or occasionally right to left in horizontal lines. In Taiwan it is often written vertically, while in China and Singapore it is usually written horizontally. In newspapers and magazines with vertical text, some of the headlines and titles are written horizontally right to left across the top of the main text.

Etruscan

Etruscan was sometimes written in boustrophedon fashion and sometimes from right to left in horizontal lines.

Japanese

Japanese can be written from right to left in vertical columns or left to right in horizontal lines. Horizontal writing was first used during the Meiji Period (1868-1912) in Western language dictionaries of Japanese. Today both orientations are used.

Example of Ogham writingKorean

Until the 1980s Korean was usually written from right to left in vertical columns. Since then writing from left to right in horizontal lines has become popular, and today the majority of texts are written horizontally.

Ogham

When inscribed on stones, Ogham was written around the edge starting at the bottom left and running upwards then back down the other side. In manuscripts it was written horizontally running from left to right.

Orkhon

Orkhon was written mainly from right to left in horizontal lines, though some inscriptions are written vertically with the letters rotated by 90º. When written vertically, it read from bottom to top and right to left.

 

Example of Mayan writing

Mayan

In inscriptions, Mayan was written in paired columns zigzagging downwards from left to right. Any faces on the glyphs generally look towards the beginning of the line, as with Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Elsewhere it was usually written horizontally from left to right

The image on the left shows a Mayan inscription from the museum at Tonina in Chiapas, Mexico.

 

 

 

 

 

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Source :  http://www.omniglot.com 

Courtesy : Omniglot is a wonderful site which serves as an encyclopedia of world languages. You could find almost every possible information about languages there. We convey our gratitude for their great and  impeccable services.

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