Know : The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Do you know who decides which animal / plant species are threatened, which are extinct? Know about it. We must know how it works!

Red ListThe International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species

The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. 

Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology (the research division of the Zoological Society of London), the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and many Specialist Groups within the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC). Collectively, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List.

The goals of the Red List are

  • (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level,
  • (2) to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity,
  • (3) to influence national and international policy and decision-making, and
  • (4) to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity.

The IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years.

Categories

Red_List_Structure_of_Categories_1

Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups, set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.

  • Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining.
  • Extinct in the Wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range.
  • Critically Endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
  • Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild.
  • Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild.
  • Near Threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future.
  • Least Concern (LC) – Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
  • Data Deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction.
  • Not Evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term “threatened” is a grouping of three categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.

he percentage of species in several groups which are listed as critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable (in the order of color >> ) from on the 2007 IUCN Red List.

Criticism

In 1997, the IUCN Red List came under criticism on the grounds of secrecy (or at least poor documentation) surrounding the sources of data.

These allegations have led to efforts by the IUCN to improve its documentation and data quality, and to include peer reviews of taxa on the Red List. The list is also open to petitions against its classifications, on the basis of documentation or criteria. A Nature editorial defended the Red List’s relevance in October 2008.

It has been suggested that the IUCN Red List and similar works are prone to misuse by governments and other groups that draw possibly inappropriate conclusions on the state of the environment or to effect exploitation of natural resources.


Courtesy : Google, Wikipedia and IUCN


Read also 

AnimalsKnow : Life Span of Animals : List

Animais[1]Earth Our Home Too : List of 1500 Animals (click for facts/pictures)

Great-Indian-BustardEarth Our Home Too : List of endangered Animals in India

Documentary : Global Dimming

A BBC documentary about how unintentional increased reflectance due to man made pollution has actually hidden the effects of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A must see for all those aware of the risks of climate change and the need to take action to protect our planet!

Five Thoughts for You : It’s Awesome Out There

There is Our Solar System! Stunned? Read and then look how big the Universe is!

There is Our Solar System! Stunned? Read and then look how big the Universe is!

5. Journey on Straight lines:

Life travels in straight lines, there’s no point of return, we always leave the minutes, now we live in the moments and lead into the future with the memories! Life is no circle to come back again to a point we had lived once, so we call it as a timeline. What I share in these five thoughts are just a glimpse, it’s just about the worldly life, there is something far bigger and beyond! It’s Awesome out there!

4. Just Thoughts Everywhere:

We spend thoughts and earn thoughts, nothing more we do between the points of birth and death. Every pleasure and every pain we face are nothing but veiled thoughts. The tastes and senses too are thoughts powered by physical readability. Perceptions hold the key here with the thoughts

3. Built on Imaginations :

All the material possessions we crave for being rich and comfortable are just imaginations. Such ownership over anything is an earthy-subtle hallucination. We cannot own anything on this earth. We can just use anything in the NOW! We strongly decided to be in a world of dream prodigies. Every meanings defined by us to justify our actions, are just the best assertion we can do in this system. We are prisoners of this system of beliefs and prodigies.

2. The Story Tellers:

We evolved as a species so greatly and we create good stories all the time, to be in a comfort zone with our thoughts. We made gods, we changed gods, we say ‘No Gods’, we speak any story to match our existing. Look depths of our histories behind, as distant we can. We had survived fighting our own beliefs and thoughts, we survived our own causes and efforts.  But how far we can look back? Indeed nobody knew the Truth about us. Not even the greatest of the greatest human / scientists can tell us. We just tell stories of probabilities and permutations.

1. The Awesome Truth:

It’s an awesome system beyond our knowledge crafted to perfection. Whatever damage we cause, the system never collapses! It adapts! If needed it will clear us off altogether. Have you ever thought why the mosquitos are small unlike elephants? Provided their multiplication rates, what havoc it can cause if their sizes are a little bigger? Why a Whale suffers a lot to survive and can’t walk on the land? Why undetectable to naked eyes, those millimicro viruses can threaten us like demons! The dynamics and diversity of the system are awesome! We don’t know our sure pasts and sure futures! Realize the Now is the truth and that’s all we own.

– Words by Din

The Bigger Picture of where we belong! (Click to enlarge - Wait please its 4.5Mb)

The Bigger Picture of where we belong! (Click to enlarge – Wait please its 4.5Mb)

Image courtesy : Wikipedia

Know : The History of Life on Earth in one Page

Life on Earth Image Coutery : AEON

Life on Earth Image Courtesy : AEON

Time Event
4.6 billion years: The Sun formed from the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud. Most of the matter gathered in the center (Sun), while the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune).Sun was about 70% as bright as today.

Our solar system is currently orbiting at around 24,000–26,000 light-years from the galactic center of the Milky Way, completing one orbit in about 225–250 million years.

The distance of the Sun from Earth is approximately 149.6-million kilometers. At this average distance, light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds.

 

4.5 billion years: Earth collided with a planetoid the size of Mars. Fragments orbited Earth and formed the Moon.At this time, moon was orbiting at about 64,000 km from Earth. Earth did not yet have water.

 

3.9 billion years: Meteorites bombarded Earth bringing along water and other elements. The earth’s atmosphere became mostly carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and ammonia. 
3.8 billion years: The surface of Earth changed from molten to solid rock. Water started condensing in liquid form. Earth day was 15 hours long. 
3.6 billion years: First simple cells, oxygen producing bacteria. 
3.4 billion years: Stromatolites demonstrated photosynthesis; a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy. 
2.2 billion years: Organisms with mitochondria capable of aerobic respiration appeared. 
2.0 billion years: Meteor impact, 300 km crater in South Africa. 
1.8 billion years: Meteor impact, 250 km crater in Ontario, Canada. 
1.6 billion years: Complex single-cell life appeared. 
1.5 billion years: Organisms with complex cells containing nucleus appeared. 
1.2 billion years: Sexual reproduction appeared, increasing the rate of evolution. 
1.0 billion years: Multicellular life appeared. 
900 million years: Earth day was now 18 hours long. Moon was about 350,000 km from Earth.
650 million years: Snowball Earth, the entire Earth was covered in ice for many million years.Mass extinction of 70% of dominant sea plants.

 

590 million years: Meteor impact, 90 km crater in Acraman, South Australia. 
580 million years: Simple, soft-bodied organisms developed i.e. Jellyfish.The accumulation of atmospheric oxygen allowed the formation of the ozone layer. This blocked ultraviolet radiation, permitting the colonization of the land.

The ozone layer is found at approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 miles) above Earth, it absorbs 97–99% of the Sun’s medium-frequency ultraviolet light which potentially damages exposed life forms.

 

570 million years: Arthropods appeared, ancestors of insects. 
560 million years: Earliest fungi. 
530 million years: The fish appeared. Major diversification of living things in the oceans. 
443 million years: Mass extinction, 49% of life disappeared. 
434 million years: The first primitive plants moved onto land, having evolved from green algae living along the edges of lakes. They are accompanied by fungi, which may have aided the colonization of land through symbiosis.
410 million years: Fish developed teeth and jaws.Spiders, Centipedes appeared.

 

374 million years: Mass extinction, 70% of marine species disappeared. 
370 million years: First amphibians, ancestors of frogs, toads, etc… 
360 million years: Crabs appeared. 
363 million years: Insects roamed the land and would soon take to the skies; sharks swam the oceans as top predators, and vegetation covered the land, with seed-bearing plants and forests soon to flourish. 
340 million years: Diversification of amphibians. 
280 million years: Beetles appeared. 
320 million years Reptiles appeared. 
251 million years: Mass extinction event, up to 95% of ocean species and 70% land species lost
225 million years: First small dinosaurs appeared. 
220 million years: Forests dominated the land. 
201 million years: Mass extinction, 20% of all marine species killed; caused by oceanic anoxic event. 
200 million years Mammals appeared. 
150 million years: Birds appeared. 
130 million years Flowering plants evolved with structures that attract insects and other animals to spread pollen. This innovation causes a major burst of animal evolution through co-evolution. First freshwater pelomedusid turtles. 
110 million years: Crocodiles appeared. 
100 million years The first bees evolved. 
90 million years: Snakes appeared. 
80 million years: Ants appeared. 
68 million years: Tyrannosaurus rex, the largest terrestrial predator of North America thrived.
65 million years: Meteor impact, 170 km crater Chicxulub, Yucatan, Mexico.Mass extinction of 80-90% of marine species and 85% of land species.

Dinosaurs became extinct.
Mammals became dominant species. Rapid diversification in ants.

 

55 million years: Whale appeared. 
52 million years: Bats appeared. 
40 million years: Modern-type butterflies appeared. 
30 million years: Pigs and Cats appeared. 
25 million years: Deer appeared. 
20 million years: Giraffes, Hyenas, Bears appeared.Increase in bird diversity. 
15 million years: Kangaroo appeared. 
14 million years: The first great apes appeared.
10 million years: Grasslands and savannas established.Diversity in insects, especially ants and termites.

Horses increased in body size and developed high-crowned teeth.

Major diversification in grassland mammals and snakes.

 

5 million years: First tree sloths and hippopotami, diversification of grazing herbivores like zebras and elephants, large carnivorous mammals like lions and dogs, burrowing rodents, kangaroos, birds, and small carnivores, vultures increase in size, decrease in the number of perissodactyl mammals. 
4.4 million years: Appearance of Ardipithecus, an early Hominin Genus. 
4 million years: North and South America joined at the Isthmus of Panama. Animals and plants cross the new land bridge.Ocean currents changed in the newly isolated Atlantic Ocean. First modern elephants, giraffes, zebras, lions, rhinos and gazelles appear in the fossil record.

 

3.9 million years: Appearance of Australopithecus, Genus of Hominids. 
3.7 million years:  Australopithecus Hominids inhabited Eastern and Northern Africa. 
2.7 million years: Evolution of Paranthropus. 
2.4 million years: Homo Habilis appeared. 
2.1 million years: Yellowstone supervolcanic eruption. 
2 million years: Tool-making Humanoids emerged.Beginning of the Stone Age, lasted several million years.

 

1.7 million years: Homo Erectus first moved out of Africa. 
1.3 million years: Yellowstone supervolcanic eruption. 
1.2 million years: Evolution of Homo antecessor. The last members of Paranthropus died out. 
700,000 years: Human and Neanderthal lineages started to diverge genetically. 
640,000 years: Yellowstone supervolcanic eruption. 
600,000 years: Evolution of Homo Heidelbergensis. 
530,000 years: Development of speech in Homo Heidelbergensis. 
400,000 years: Hominids hunted with wooden spears and used stone cutting tools. 
370,000 years: Human ancestors and Neanderthals were fully separate populations. 
350,000 years: Evolution of Neanderthals. 
300,000 years: Hominids used controlled fires.Neanderthal man spread through Europe

 

200,000 years: Anatomically modern humans appeared in Africa. 
105,000 years: Stone age humans foraged for grass seeds such as sorghum. 
80,000 years: Non-African humans interbreed with Neanderthals. 
60,000 years: Oldest male ancestor of modern humans. 
40,000 years: Cro-Magnon man appeared in Europe. 
30,000 years: Neanderthals disappeared from fossil record.First domestic dogs.

 

15,000 years: Bering land bridge between Alaska and Siberia allowed human migration to America. 
12,000 years: Fired pottery invented. 
9,000 years: Metal smelting started. 
5,500 years: Invention of the wheel. 
5,300 years: The Bronze Age. 
5,000 years: Development of writing. 
4,500 years: Pyramids of Giza. 
3,300 years: The Iron Age. 
2,230 years: Archimedes advanced mathematics. 
250 years: Start of the Industrial Revolution. 
50 years: Space travel. 
Year 1957: Satellites orbited Earth. 
Year 1969 Human walked on the surface of the Moon.

 

Powerful Quote #21 : Oneness of Human

There was a serious debate people arguing about whose country’s the best.

I introduced myself “Well, I am just a human returning from Pandora, what say you guys? Are we still playing borders and countries games on our planet? Please Grow Up!” 🙂

-Words by Din

Portrait of a boy with the map of the world painted on his face.

Click to enlarge the image to full size…

Image Courstesy : Glogster

More thoughts here

WHO IS THE DADDY? EARTH OR HOMO-SAPIENS?