Arame (Eisenia bicyclis, syn. Ecklonia bicyclis), sea oak is a species of kelp best known for its use in Japanese cuisine.
Badderlocks (Alaria esculenta)
Alaria esculenta is an edible seaweed, also known as dabberlocks or badderlocks, or winged kelp. It is a traditional food along the coasts of the far north Atlantic Ocean. It may be eaten fresh or cooked in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland. It is the only one of twelve species of Alaria to occur in both Ireland and in the British Isles
Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus)
Fucus vesiculosus, known by the common name bladder wrack or bladderwrack, is a seaweed found on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, also known by the common names black tang,rockweed, bladder fucus, sea oak, black tany, cut weed, dyers fucus, red fucus, and rock wrack. It was the original source of iodine, discovered in 1811, and was used extensively to treat goitre, a swelling of the thyroid gland related toiodine deficiency.
Carola (various species of Callophyllis)
Callophyllis is a red algae genus in the family Kallymeniaceae. Several species are exploited as edible seaweedsunder the common name carola, most commonly Callophyllis variegata.
Carrageen moss (Mastocarpus stellatus)
Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Cait (cats’ puff), carragheen, or false Irish moss, is a species of red algaeclosely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus. It is collected in Ireland and Scotland, together with Chondrus crispus asIrish moss, dried, and sold for cooking and as the basis for a drink reputed to ward off colds and flu.
Channelled wrack (Pelvetia canaliculata)
Pelvetia canaliculata, channelled wrack, is a very common brown alga (Phaeophyceae) found on the rocks of the upper shores of Europe. It is the only species remaining in the monotypic genus Pelvetia. In 1999, the other members of this genus were reclassified as Silvetia due to differences of oogonium structure and of nucleic acid sequences of the rDNA
Chlorella (Chlorella sp.)
Chlorella is a genus of single-cell green algae belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. It is spherical in shape, about 2 to 10μm in diameter, and is without flagella. Chlorella contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and -b in its chloroplast. Many people believed Chlorella could serve as a potential source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency can, in theory, reach 8%, comparable with other highly efficient crops such as sugar cane.
Cochayuyo (Durvillaea antarctica)
In Chilean Cuisine, the Durvillaea antarctica (Quechua: cochayuyo : Cocha: Lake, and yuyo: weed) stem and holdfast, known as hulte is used for different recipes, like salads and stews. Durvillaea antarctica or Cochayuyo is a large, robust bull kelp species and the dominant seaweed in southernNew Zealand and Chile. D. antarctica has a circumpolar distribution between the latitudes of 29°S (in Chile) and 55°S (on Macquarie Island)
Dulse (Palmaria palmata)
Dulse is a good source of minerals and vitamins compared with other vegetables, contains all trace elements needed by humans, and has a high protein content. Palmaria palmata, also called dulse, dillisk or dilsk (from Irish/Scottish Gaelic duileasc/duileasg), red dulse, sea lettuce flakes or creathnach, is a red alga (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata. It grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is a well-known snack food. In Iceland, where it is known as söl, it has been an important source of fibre throughout the centuries.
Ecklonia cava (Ecklonia cava)
Ecklonia cava is an edible marine brown alga species found in the ocean off Japan and Korea.
It is used as a herbal remedy in the form of an extract called Seanol, a polyphenolic extract. Another phlorotannin-rich natural agent, Ventol, is also extracted from E. cava
Eucheuma ( Eucheuma spinosum, Eucheuma cottonii )
Eucheuma or Guso in the Philippines is a group of red seaweeds/seaplants representing the Tribe Eucheumatoideae used in the production of carrageenan, an important product used in cosmetics, food processing, and industrial uses, as well as a food source for those living in Indonesia and the Philippines. The farming of eucheuma has raised certain environmental issues, mostly centered on the ecology and biodiversity of coastal environments.
Gutweed (Enteromorpha intestinalis)
Ulva intestinalis is a green alga in the phylum Chlorophyta, of the genus Ulva (sea lettuce), also known by the common namesgutweed and grass kelp. It can be found in Bering Sea near Alaska, Aleutian islands, Puget Sound, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Russia. Besides this, places it can be found in Israel, and in such European countries as Azores, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Poland, and in such seas as the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea
Gelidiella (Gelidiella acerosa)
Gelidiella is a genus of red algae (phylum Rhodophyta). Worldwide there 22 other species of Gelidiella, mostly tropical and subtropical. Gelidiella and Gelidium are now both united into one order Gelidiales.
Gracilaria (Gracilaria edulis, Gracilaria corticata)
Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans and various species of shellfish. Various species within the genus are cultivated among Asia, South America, Africa and Oceania. Gracilaria is used as a food in Japanese, Hawaiian, and Filipino cuisine. In Japanese cuisine, it is called ogonori or ogo. In the Philippines, it is called gulamanand used to make gelatin, also called gulaman.
Hijiki or Hiziki (Sargassum fusiforme)
Hijiki is a brown sea vegetable growing wild on rocky coastlines around Japan, Korea, and China. Hijiki has been a part of the Japanese diet for centuries. Hijiki is rich in dietary fibre and essential minerals such as calcium, iron, and magnesium. According to Japanese folklore, hijiki aids health and beauty, and thick, black, lustrous hair is connected to regular consumption of small amounts of hijiki.
Hypnea order Gigartinales
Hypnea is a red algal genus, and a well known carrageenophyte (plant producing polysaccharide carrageenan).
Irish moss (Chondrus crispus)
Chondrus crispus — commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, “little rock”) — is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. In its fresh condition this protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenish-yellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. The principal constituent is a mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan, which constitutes 55% of its weight. The organism also consists of nearly 10% protein and about 15% mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. When softened in water it has a sea-like odour and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jellywhen boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water.
Kombu (Saccharina japonica)
Kombu is edible kelp from the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia. Most kombu is from the species Saccharina japonica (Laminaria japonica), extensively cultivated on ropes in the seas of Japan and Korea. With the development of cultivation technology, over 90% of Japanese kombu is cultivated, mostly in Hokkaidō, but also as far south as the Seto Inland Sea.
Laver (Porphyra laciniata/Porphyra umbilicalis)
Laver is an edible, littoral alga (seaweed). In Wales, laver is used for making laverbread, a traditional Welsh dish. Laver as food is also commonly found around the west coast of Britain and east coast of Ireland along the Irish Sea, where it is known as slake.
Limu Kala (Sargassum echinocarpum)
Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species. Sargassum is also cultivated and cleaned for use as an herbal remedy. Many Chinese herbalists prescribe powderedSargassum in paper packets of 0.5 gram, to be dissolved in warm water and drunk as a tea.
Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus)
Cladosiphon okamuranus is a type of edible seaweed in the genus Cladosiphon, naturally found in Okinawa, Japan. Most of the mozuku now is farmed by locals, and sold to processing factories. The main use of mozuku is as food, and as source of one type of sulfated polysaccharide called Fucoidan to be used in cancer treatment aid health supplements.
Nori is the Japanese name for edible seaweed species of the red algae genus Porphyra, including P. yezoensis and P. tenera. Nori is familiar in the United States and other countries as an ingredient of sushi, being referred to as “nori” (as the Japanese do) or simply as seaweed. Finished products are made by a shredding and rack-drying process that resembles papermaking. Porphyra is also called laver in Wales and other English-speaking countries
Oarweed (Laminaria digitata)
Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean. L digitata was traditionally used as a fertiliser and spread on the land. In the 18th century it was burnt to extract the potash it contained for use in the glass industry. In the 19th century it was used for the extraction of iodine. Both these uses died out when cheaper sources for these products became available. It is still used as an organic fertiliser but also for the extraction of alginic acid, the manufacture of toothpastes and cosmetics, and in the food industry for binding, thickening and moulding.
Ogonori (Gracilaria spp.), also called ogo or sea moss, is a type of edible seaweed eaten along the coasts of Japan,Southeast Asia, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. Ogonori is typically eaten cold and is a source of the thickener agar.
Sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima)
Saccharina latissima is a brown algae (class Phaeophyceae), of the family Laminariaceae. It is also known by the common names sea belt and Devil’s apron, due to its shape. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Seasouth to Galicia in Spain. It is not found in the Bay of Biscay but is common round the coasts of the British Isles. The species is found at sheltered rocky seabeds.
Sea grapes or green caviar (Caulerpa lentillifera)
Caulerpa lentillifera is one of the favored species of edible Caulerpa due to its soft and succulent texture. They are also known as sea grapes or green caviar. C. lentillifera is farmed in the Philippines, where it is locally called ar-arosep,lato,arosep or ar-arosip (as variant names), latok in the Malaysian state of Sabah, and in Okinawa where the plant is eaten fresh. C. lentillifera is usually eaten raw with vinegar, as a snack or in a salad. In the Philippines, after being washed in clean water, it is usually eaten raw as a salad, mixed with chopped raw onions and fresh tomatoes, and dressed with a blend of fish sauce or fish paste (locally called bagoong) and vinegar. It is known to be rich in iodine.
Sargassum (Sargassum cinetum, Sargassum vulgare, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum myriocysum)
Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species.
Sea lettuce (various species of the genus Ulva)
The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world’s oceans. The type species within the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca, lactuca being Latin for “lettuce”. Sea lettuce is eaten by a number of different sea animals, including manatees and the sea slugs known as sea hares. Many species of sea lettuce are a food source for humans in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan (where this food is known as aosa). Sea lettuce as a food for humans is eaten raw in salads and cooked in soups. It is high in protein, soluble dietary fiber, and a variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iron.
Spiral wrack (Fucus spiralis)
Fucus spiralis is a species of seaweed, a brown alga (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae), living on the littoral shore of the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. It has the common names of spiral wrack and flat wrack.
Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima)
Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals. There are two species, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.
Arthrospira is cultivated worldwide; used as a dietary supplement as well as a whole food; and is also available in tablet, flake and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium and poultry industries
Thongweed (Himanthalia elongata)
Himanthalia elongata is a brown alga in the order Fucales, also known by the common names thongweed, sea thongand sea spaghetti. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.
Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) & Hiromi (Undaria undarioides)
Wakame a sea vegetable, or edible seaweed. It has a subtly sweet flavour and is most often served in soups and salads. Sea-farmers have grown wakame in Japan from the Nara period. It has been nominated as among 100 of the world’s worst invasive species according to the Global Invasive Species Database.
Wakame fronds are green and have a subtly sweet flavour and satiny texture. The leaves should be cut into small pieces as they will expand during cooking.
In Japan and Europe, wakame is distributed either dried or salted, and used in soups (particularly miso soup), and salads (tofu salad), or often simply as a side dish to tofu and a salad vegetable like cucumber. These dishes are typically dressed with soy sauce and vinegar/rice vinegar.