Know : List of People with or had Autism

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then regress. The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent in early childhood, typically before age three.

However, there are people who overcame or learned to live with Autism yet remain successful and an inspiration for all. Here is a list of people with or had Autism (collected from Internet if any factual error is there let us know)

50 Tyson – rapper and autism activist
Albert Einstein – Einstein had difficulty with social interactions, was very intelligent but had difficulty learning in school.
Alexis Wineman – The first Miss America contestant with autism to compete in the Miss Montana pageant.
Alonzo Clemons – American clay sculptor
Amadeus Mozart – Famous musician.
Amanda Baggs – advocate of rights for autistic people
Bhumi Jensen – grandson of Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand
Birger Sellin – German author
Christopher Knowles – American poet
Daniel Tammet – British autistic savant
Daryl Hannah – The actress talked to People Magazine about being diagnosed with autism as a child, and how it contributed to a fear of fame as an adult.
Derek Paravicini – blind British musician
Elisabeth Hughes – Author
Evgeny Kissin – Russian pianist
Gary Numan – Singer and songwriter
Henriett Seth F. – Hungarian autistic savant, poet, writer and artist
James Durbin – American Idol frontrunner
James Hobley – British dancer and 2011 Britain’s Got Talent finalist
James Henry Pullen – gifted British carpenter
Jason McElwain – high school basketball player
Jessica-Jane Applegate – Paralympic swimmer
Jonathan Jayne – contestant on American Idol
Jonathan Lerman – American artist
Leslie Lemke – blind American musician
Luca Brecel – Belgian professional snooker player.
Lucy Blackman – university educated author
Marty Balin – singer and songwriter with Jefferson Airplane and Jefferson Starship
Matthew Laborteaux – Actor
Matt Savage – U.S. jazz prodigy
Peter Tork – Musician
Richard Wawro – Scottish artist
Stephen Wiltshire – British architectural artist
Temple Grandin – The Colorado State University calls her “the most accomplished and well-known adult with autism in the world.”
Thristan Mendoza – Filipino marimba prodigy
Tito Mukhopadhyay – author, poet, and philosopher
Todd Hodgetts – Paralympic shot putter
Tony DeBlois – blind American musician
Vincent Philip D’Onofrio – (born June 30, 1959) is an American actor, director, film producer, writer, and singer.
Caiseal Mor – author, musician, and artist
Courtney Love – frontwoman of Hole
Dylan Scott Pierce – wildlife illustrator
Hikari Oe – Japanese composer
Jim Sinclair – autism rights activist
Michelle Dawson – autism researcher and autism rights activist
Temple Grandin – food animal handling systems designer and author
Advertisements

Food We Eat : List of Edible Seaweeds

Arame

Arame (Eisenia bicyclis, syn. Ecklonia bicyclis), sea oak is a species of kelp best known for its use in Japanese cuisine.


Badderlocks (Alaria esculenta)

dabberlocks

Alaria esculenta is an edible seaweed, also known as dabberlocks or badderlocks, or winged kelp. It is a traditional food along the coasts of the far north Atlantic Ocean. It may be eaten fresh or cooked in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland. It is the only one of twelve species of Alaria to occur in both Ireland and in the British Isles


Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus)

640px-Fucus_vesiculosus_Wales

Fucus vesiculosus, known by the common name bladder wrack or bladderwrack, is a seaweed found on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, also known by the common names black tang,rockweed, bladder fucus, sea oak, black tany, cut weed, dyers fucus, red fucus, and rock wrack. It was the original source of iodine, discovered in 1811, and was used extensively to treat goitre, a swelling of the thyroid gland related toiodine deficiency.


Carola (various species of Callophyllis)

Callophyllis is a red algae genus in the family Kallymeniaceae. Several species are exploited as edible seaweedsunder the common name carola, most commonly Callophyllis variegata.


Carrageen moss (Mastocarpus stellatus)

Mastocarpus stellatus

Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Cait (cats’ puff), carragheen, or false Irish moss, is a species of red algaeclosely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus. It is collected in Ireland and Scotland, together with Chondrus crispus asIrish moss, dried, and sold for cooking and as the basis for a drink reputed to ward off colds and flu.


Channelled wrack (Pelvetia canaliculata)

800px-Pelvetia_canaliculata

Pelvetia canaliculata, channelled wrack, is a very common brown alga (Phaeophyceae) found on the rocks of the upper shores of Europe. It is the only species remaining in the monotypic genus Pelvetia. In 1999, the other members of this genus were reclassified as Silvetia due to differences of oogonium structure and of nucleic acid sequences of the rDNA


Chlorella (Chlorella sp.)

chlorella

Chlorella is a genus of single-cell green algae belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. It is spherical in shape, about 2 to 10μm in diameter, and is without flagella. Chlorella contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and -b in its chloroplast. Many people believed Chlorella could serve as a potential source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency can, in theory, reach 8%, comparable with other highly efficient crops such as sugar cane.


Cochayuyo (Durvillaea antarctica)

800px-Durvillea_Stipe

In Chilean Cuisine, the Durvillaea antarctica (Quechua: cochayuyo : Cocha: Lake, and yuyo: weed) stem and holdfast, known as hulte is used for different recipes, like salads and stews. Durvillaea antarctica or Cochayuyo is a large, robust bull kelp species and the dominant seaweed in southernNew Zealand and Chile. D. antarctica has a circumpolar distribution between the latitudes of 29°S (in Chile) and 55°S (on Macquarie Island)


Dulse (Palmaria palmata)

308px-Palmeria_palmata

Dulse is a good source of minerals and vitamins compared with other vegetables, contains all trace elements needed by humans, and has a high protein content. Palmaria palmata, also called dulse, dillisk or dilsk (from Irish/Scottish Gaelic duileasc/duileasg), red dulse, sea lettuce flakes or creathnach, is a red alga (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata. It grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is a well-known snack food. In Iceland, where it is known as söl, it has been an important source of fibre throughout the centuries.


Ecklonia cava (Ecklonia cava)

800px-Brown_algae_hi

Ecklonia cava is an edible marine brown alga species found in the ocean off Japan and Korea.

It is used as a herbal remedy in the form of an extract called Seanol, a polyphenolic extract. Another phlorotannin-rich natural agent, Ventol, is also extracted from E. cava


Eucheuma ( Eucheuma spinosum, Eucheuma cottonii )

640px-Eucheuma_Farming

Eucheuma or Guso in the Philippines is a group of red seaweeds/seaplants representing the Tribe Eucheumatoideae used in the production of carrageenan, an important product used in cosmetics, food processing, and industrial uses, as well as a food source for those living in Indonesia and the Philippines. The farming of eucheuma has raised certain environmental issues, mostly centered on the ecology and biodiversity of coastal environments.


Gutweed (Enteromorpha intestinalis)

Ulva

Ulva intestinalis is a green alga in the phylum Chlorophyta, of the genus Ulva (sea lettuce), also known by the common namesgutweed and grass kelp. It can be found in Bering Sea near Alaska, Aleutian islands, Puget Sound, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Russia.[1] Besides this, places it can be found in Israel, and in such European countries as Azores, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Poland, and in such seas as the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea


Gelidiella (Gelidiella acerosa)

Gelidiella-acerosa-02

Gelidiella is a genus of red algae (phylum Rhodophyta). Worldwide there 22 other species of Gelidiella, mostly tropical and subtropical. Gelidiella and Gelidium are now both united into one order Gelidiales.


Gracilaria (Gracilaria edulis, Gracilaria corticata)

800px-Gracilaria2

Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans and various species of shellfish. Various species within the genus are cultivated among Asia, South America, Africa and OceaniaGracilaria is used as a food in Japanese, Hawaiian, and Filipino cuisine. In Japanese cuisine, it is called ogonori or ogo. In the Philippines, it is called gulamanand used to make gelatin, also called gulaman.


Hijiki or Hiziki (Sargassum fusiforme)

Hijiki

Hijiki is a brown sea vegetable growing wild on rocky coastlines around Japan, Korea, and China. Hijiki has been a part of the Japanese diet for centuries. Hijiki is rich in dietary fibre and essential minerals such as calcium, iron, and magnesium. According to Japanese folklore, hijiki aids health and beauty, and thick, black, lustrous hair is connected to regular consumption of small amounts of hijiki.


Hypnea order Gigartinales

Hypnea-pannosa-01

Hypnea is a red algal genus, and a well known carrageenophyte (plant producing polysaccharide carrageenan).


Irish moss (Chondrus crispus)

Chondrus_crispus

Chondrus crispus — commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, “little rock”) — is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. In its fresh condition this protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenish-yellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. The principal constituent is a mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan, which constitutes 55% of its weight. The organism also consists of nearly 10% protein and about 15% mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. When softened in water it has a sea-like odour and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jellywhen boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water.


Kombu (Saccharina japonica)

Kombu

Kombu is edible kelp from the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia.  Most kombu is from the species Saccharina japonica (Laminaria japonica), extensively cultivated on ropes in the seas of Japan and Korea. With the development of cultivation technology, over 90% of Japanese kombu is cultivated, mostly in Hokkaidō, but also as far south as the Seto Inland Sea.


Laver (Porphyra laciniata/Porphyra umbilicalis)

640px-Porphyra_umbilicalis

Laver is an edible, littoral alga (seaweed). In Wales, laver is used for making laverbread, a traditional Welsh dish. Laver as food is also commonly found around the west coast of Britain and east coast of Ireland along the Irish Sea, where it is known as slake.


Limu Kala (Sargassum echinocarpum)

Sargassum_on_the_beach,_Cuba

Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species. Sargassum is also cultivated and cleaned for use as an herbal remedy. Many Chinese herbalists prescribe powderedSargassum in paper packets of 0.5 gram, to be dissolved in warm water and drunk as a tea.


Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus)

640px-Japanese_Mozuku

Cladosiphon okamuranus is a type of edible seaweed in the genus Cladosiphon, naturally found in Okinawa, Japan. Most of the mozuku now is farmed by locals, and sold to processing factories. The main use of mozuku is as food, and as source of one type of sulfated polysaccharide called Fucoidan to be used in cancer treatment aid health supplements.


Nori (Porphyra)

605px-Nori

Nori is the Japanese name for edible seaweed species of the red algae genus Porphyra, including P. yezoensis and P. tenera. Nori is familiar in the United States and other countries as an ingredient of sushi, being referred to as “nori” (as the Japanese do) or simply as seaweed. Finished products are made by a shredding and rack-drying process that resembles papermaking. Porphyra is also called laver in Wales and other English-speaking countries


Oarweed (Laminaria digitata)

640px-Laminaria

Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic OceanL digitata was traditionally used as a fertiliser and spread on the land. In the 18th century it was burnt to extract the potash it contained for use in the glass industry. In the 19th century it was used for the extraction of iodine. Both these uses died out when cheaper sources for these products became available. It is still used as an organic fertiliser but also for the extraction of alginic acid, the manufacture of toothpastes and cosmetics, and in the food industry for binding, thickening and moulding.


Ogonori (Gracilaria)

Ogo

Ogonori (Gracilaria spp.), also called ogo or sea moss, is a type of edible seaweed eaten along the coasts of Japan,Southeast Asia, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. Ogonori is typically eaten cold and is a source of the thickener agar.


Sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima)

Saccharina_11_600x450_saccharina

Saccharina latissima is a brown algae (class Phaeophyceae), of the family Laminariaceae. It is also known by the common names sea belt and Devil’s apron, due to its shape. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Seasouth to Galicia in Spain. It is not found in the Bay of Biscay but is common round the coasts of the British Isles. The species is found at sheltered rocky seabeds.


Sea grapes or green caviar (Caulerpa lentillifera)

640px-Umibudou_at_Miyakojima01s3s2850

Caulerpa lentillifera is one of the favored species of edible Caulerpa due to its soft and succulent texture. They are also known as sea grapes or green caviar. C. lentillifera is farmed in the Philippines, where it is locally called ar-arosep,lato,arosep or ar-arosip (as variant names), latok in the Malaysian state of Sabah, and in Okinawa where the plant is eaten fresh. C. lentillifera is usually eaten raw with vinegar, as a snack or in a salad. In the Philippines, after being washed in clean water, it is usually eaten raw as a salad, mixed with chopped raw onions and fresh tomatoes, and dressed with a blend of fish sauce or fish paste (locally called bagoong) and vinegar. It is known to be rich in iodine.


Sargassum (Sargassum cinetum, Sargassum vulgare, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum myriocysum)

Sargassum_weeds_closeup

Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species.


Sea lettuce (various species of the genus Ulva)

Sea Lettuce

The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world’s oceans. The type species within the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca, lactuca being Latin for “lettuce”. Sea lettuce is eaten by a number of different sea animals, including manatees and the sea slugs known as sea hares. Many species of sea lettuce are a food source for humans in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan (where this food is known as aosa). Sea lettuce as a food for humans is eaten raw in salads and cooked in soups. It is high in protein, soluble dietary fiber, and a variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iron.


Spiral wrack (Fucus spiralis)

Fucus Spiralis

Fucus spiralis is a species of seaweed, a brown alga (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae), living on the littoral shore of the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. It has the common names of spiral wrack and flat wrack.


Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima)

Spirulina

Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals. There are two species, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.

Arthrospira is cultivated worldwide; used as a dietary supplement as well as a whole food; and is also available in tablet, flake and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium and poultry industries


Thongweed (Himanthalia elongata)

640px-Zeespaghetti

Himanthalia elongata is a brown alga in the order Fucales, also known by the common names thongweed, sea thongand sea spaghetti. It is found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.


Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) & Hiromi (Undaria undarioides)

640px-Boiled_wakame

Wakame a sea vegetable, or edible seaweed. It has a subtly sweet flavour and is most often served in soups and salads. Sea-farmers have grown wakame in Japan from the Nara period. It has been nominated as among 100 of the world’s worst invasive species according to the Global Invasive Species Database.

Wakame fronds are green and have a subtly sweet flavour and satiny texture. The leaves should be cut into small pieces as they will expand during cooking.

In Japan and Europe, wakame is distributed either dried or salted, and used in soups (particularly miso soup), and salads (tofu salad), or often simply as a side dish to tofu and a salad vegetable like cucumber. These dishes are typically dressed with soy sauce and vinegar/rice vinegar.

Know : Top 60 Green Economy Countries

This 4th edition of the GGEI is an in-depth look at how 60 countries perform in the global green economy, as well as how expert practitioners rank this performance and ranks based on perception.

Global Green Economy Index

Performance Rank

SCORE

1 Sweden 68.1
2 Norway 65.9
3 Costa Rica 64.2
4 Germany 63.6
5 Denmark 63.2
6 Switzerland 63.1
7 Austria 63
8 Finland 62.9
9 Iceland 62.6
10 Spain 59.2
11 Ireland 59
12 New Zealand 58.8
13 France 56.4
14 Colombia 56.1
15 Portugal 55.8
16 Peru 55.8
17 Kenya 55.4
18 Brazil 55.3
19 Chile 55.1
20 United Kingdom 54.6
21 Netherlands 54.2
22 Uruguay 54.1
23 Mauritius 51.5
24 Zambia 51.3
25 Italy 51.2
26 Ethiopia 50.6
27 Rwanda 50.4
28 United States 50.1
29 Canada 49.6
30 Taiwan 47.5
31 Mexico 47.4
32 Philippines 47.2
33 Israel 47
34 South Africa 46.8
35 Malaysia 46.4
36 Tanzania 46.2
37 Australia 46.1
38 Czech Republic 46
39 South Korea 45.6
40 United Arab Emirates 45.6
41 Burkina Faso 45.2
42 Cambodia 44.9
43 Turkey 44.8
44 Japan 44.6
45 Thailand 44.5
46 Ghana 44.5
47 Belgium 44.1
48 Argentina 43.8
49 India 43.4
50 Slovakia 43
51 Panama 41.5
52 Morocco 41.5
53 Mozambique 41
54 Indonesia 40.3
55 China 40.1
56 Poland 37.1
57 Senegal 33.4
58 Qatar 33.3
59 Vietnam 32.2
60 Mongolia 29.5

India Green Rank

Climate Change Performance

The perception survey for the 2014 GGEI was conducted from June through August 2014, and polled targeted respondents on how they assessed national green performance on the four main dimensions of Leadership & Climate Change, Efficiency Sectors, Markets & Investment, and Environment & Natural Capital.

Perception Rank

SCORE

1 Germany 93.6
2 Denmark 92.8
3 Sweden 90.2
4 Norway 84.8
5 Netherlands 84
6 United States 76.2
7 Japan 72.4
8 United Kingdom 71.6
9 Finland 70.2
10 Switzerland 67.8
11 Australia 66.3
12 Canada 63
13 China 61.6
14 Costa Rica 60.4
15 Brazil 59.7
16 India 56.1
17 Austria 55.1
18 New Zealand 52
19 Iceland 49.1
20 France 48.5
21 Spain 46.7
22 South Africa 45.8
23 South Korea 44.1
24 Israel 41.1
25 United Arab Emirates 40.3
26 Kenya 40
27 Malaysia 39.3
28 Mexico 37.1
29 Italy 36.1
30 Belgium 36
31 Indonesia 35.3
32 Peru 35
33 Ireland 34.3
34 Mauritius 34
35 Chile 33.5
36 Tanzania 33.3
37 Ethiopia 33.1
38 Philippines 33
39 Morocco 32.6
40 Portugal 32.5
41 Colombia 31.6
42 Poland 31.5
43 Qatar 31.2
44 Turkey 31.2
45 Vietnam 31.1
46 Taiwan 30.7
47 Argentina 30.2
48 Rwanda 30.1
49 Zambia 30
50 Mozambique 29.8
51 Thailand 29.3
52 Czech Republic 29.2
53 Cambodia 28.9
54 Ghana 28.7
55 Burkina Faso 28.5
56 Slovakia 28.2
57 Mongolia 27.7
58 Uruguay 27.6
59 Panama 27.4
60 Senegal 27.3

Germany (perception) and Sweden (performance) top the 2014 GGEI, confirming a trend observed in prior editions of strong results by Germany and the Nordic states. Besides performing well on both the economic and environmental areas of the GGEI, these nations display consistent green leadership and receive global recognition for it.

Covered for the first time in this edition, Costa Rica performs extremely well, ranking third on the GGEI performance measure behind Sweden and Norway and receiving strong recognition on the perception survey, an impressive result for such a small country.

Like in 2012, Copenhagen is the top green city as ranked by our survey of global experts, reinforcing the continued strength of the Danish green brand. Tracked for the first time this year, Vancouver and Singapore also rank in the top 10 of green cities.

Many of the fastest growing economies in the world rank poorly on the GGEI performance measure, highlighting an urgent need to reorient their economies to greener

growth pathways. Regionally, these countries are mostly in Africa (Ghana), the Gulf (Qatar, United Arab Emirates), and Asia (Cambodia, China, Thailand, Vietnam)

There are concerning results related to more developed countries as well – notably Australia, Japan, the Netherlands and the United States – where perceptions of their green economic performance dramatically exceed their actual performance on the GGEI. These countries appear to receive more credit than they deserve, an information gap that requires further exploration.

Despite its leadership founding the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), South Korea continues not to register as a green country brand on our survey and performs poorly, ranked 39th out of 60 on this year’s GGEI. Despite better perception results, Japan also performs poorly on the 2014 GGEI, ranked 44th out of 60.

While the United Kingdom performs adequately in most areas of the GGEI, it doesn’t excel on any one topic, possibly due to inconsistent political rhetoric and policy related to green economy there. While gradually improving in each successive GGEI edition, the UK still lags behind its northern European and Nordic competitors.

Five European nations – Austria, Iceland, Ireland, Portugal and Spain – reveal performance scores that exceed their perception ones significantly – signaling an urgent need for better strategic communications and information exchange of their green merits and associated investment opportunities.

The GGEI results reveal a similar observation for a variety of non-European states – including Ethiopia, Mauritius, Rwanda in Africa and Colombia, Chile and Peru in Latin America – again suggesting a need for these states to better position their green economies on the international stage.


Courtesy and Source : GGEI-Report 2014 by DUAL CITIZEN LLC

Disclaimer: All the rights of the data and the study belong to DUAL CITIZEN LLC. We have shared the info here for educational purposes only. We do not own any info above or the rights.


Know : List of Plants – A

Here is the list of plants with their Common Name, Botanical Name and Pictures

This post features all plants with common names starting with ‘A’

Alder – Alnus

Alder is particularly noted for its important symbiotic relationship with Frankia alni, an actinomycete, filamentous, nitrogen-fixing bacterium. This bacterium is found in root nodules, which may be as large as a human fist, with many small lobes, and light brown in colour. The bacterium absorbs nitrogen from the air and makes it available to the tree. Alder, in turn, provides the bacterium with sugars, which it produces through photosynthesis. As a result of this mutually beneficial relationship, alder improves the fertility of the soil where it grows, and as a pioneer species, it helps provide additional nitrogen for the successional species which follow.

Varieties 


AlmondPrunus amygdalus

The almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as the Indus. In India, it is known as badam. It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe and more recently transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States.


Ambrosia

This is an annual herb usually growing up to 2 meters tall, but known to reach 6 meters in rich, moist soils. The tough stems have woody bases and are branching or unbranched. This species is well known as a noxious weed, both in its native range and in areas where it is an introduced and ofteninvasive species. It is naturalized in some areas, and it is recorded as an adventive species in others. It grows in many types of disturbed habitat, such as roadsides, and in cultivated fields.


Amy root – Apocynum cannabinum

It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means “poisonous to dogs”. All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. The cannabinum in the scientific name and the common names Hemp Dogbane and Indian Hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant, rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug. A very strong and good quality fiber obtained from the bark is a flax substitute that does not shrink and retains its strength in water. It is used for making clothes,twine, bags, linen, paper, etc.The plant yields a latex which is a possible source of rubber.


Apple – Malus domestica

The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India andPoland.


Apple of Sodom – Solanum carolinense

hnettle“Horsenettle” is also written “horse nettle” or “horse-nettle”. These plants can be found growing in pastures, roadsides, railroad margins, and in disturbed areas and waste ground. They grow to about 1 m tall, but are typically shorter, existing as sub shrubs. Bumblebees pollinate the flowers of this species. Fruits are eaten by a variety of native animals, including Ring-necked pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, and Striped skunk. Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant


ApricotPrunus armeniaca

Although the apricot is native to a continental climate region with cold winters, it can grow in Mediterranean climates if enough cool winter weather allows a proper dormancy. A dry climate is good for fruit maturation. The tree is slightly more cold-hardy than the peach, tolerating winter temperatures as cold as −30 °C (−22 °F) or lower if healthy.


Arfaj – Rhanterium epapposum

Native to the deserts of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait where it is known locally as Arfaj . The Arfajplant consists of a complicated network of branches scattered with small thorny leaves and bright yellow flowers about 1.5 cm wide. The Arfaj flower is also the national flower of Kuwait.


Arizona sycamorePlatanus wrighitii

Sycamore is a name which is applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms


Arrowwood – Cornus florida


Ash – Fraxinus spp.

Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana, and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior), tough and verystrong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, hurleys and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.

It is also often used as material for electric guitar bodies and, less commonly, for acoustic guitar bodies, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Some Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters are made of ash, as an alternative to the darker sounding alder. They are also used for making drum shells. Interior joinery is another common user of both European Ash and White Ash. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. Ash is not used extensively outdoors due to the heartwood having a low durability to ground contact, meaning it will typically perish within five years.


Azolla – Azolla

As an additional benefit to its role as a paddy biofertilizer, Azolla spp. have been used to control mosquito larvae in rice fields. The plant grows in a thick mat on the surface of the water, making it more difficult for the larvae to reach the surface to breathe, effectively choking the larvae.

Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a “super-plant”, as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed – doubling its biomass every two to three days. The only known limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral.

Know : Countrywise Percentage of Arable Land

Arable land is land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

Non-arable land: Land which is unsuitable for arable farming usually has at least one of the following deficiencies: no source of fresh water; too hot (desert); too cold (Arctic); too rocky; too mountainous; too salty; too rainy; too snowy; too polluted; or too nutrient poor. Clouds may block the sunlight plants need for photosynthesis, reducing productivity. Starvation and nomadism often exists on marginally arable land. Non-arable land is sometimes called wasteland, badlands,worthless or no man’s land.

A permanent crop is one produced from plants which last for many seasons, rather than being replanted after each harvest. Traditionally, “arable land” included any land suitable for the growing of crops, even if it was actually being used for the production of permanent crops such as grapesor peaches. Modern agriculture—particularly organizations such as the CIA and FAO—prefer the term of art permanent cropland to describe such “cultivable land” that is not being used for annually-harvested crops such as staple grains. In such usage, permanent cropland is a form of “agricultural land” that includes grasslandsand shrublands used to grow grape vines or coffee; orchards used to grow fruit or olives; and forested plantations used to grow nuts or rubber. It does not include, however, tree farms intended to be used for wood or timber.

Arable_land_percent_world

Arable_land_percent_world

Country / Region Area (km²) Arable Land % Permanent Crops  Arable Land (km²)
European Union* 7708000 25%  2.75 1920063
United States 9826675 16.29%  0.26% 1600765
India 3287590 47.87%  3.74% 1573769
Russia 17098242 7.11%  0.1% 1215685
China 9615767 11.62%  1.53% 1117352
Brazil 8515767 8.45%  0.83% 719582
Australia 7692024 6.16%  0.05% 473829
Canada 9889000 4.30%  0.49% 425227
Argentina 2780400 13.68%  0.36% 380359
Nigeria 923768 38.97%  3.46% 359992
Ukraine 603628 53.85%  1.48% 325054
Mexico 1964375 12.98%  1.36% 254976
Kazakhstan 2717300 8.82%  0.03% 239666
Indonesia 1904556 12.34%  10.5% 235022
France 675417 33.45%  1.86% 225927
Pakistan 803940 26.02%  1.05% 209185
Turkey 780580 26.21%  3.94% 204590
Iran 1648000 10.05%  1.08% 165624
Thailand 514000 30.71%  8.77% 157849
Niger 1267000 11.79%  0.05% 149379
Ethiopia 1127127 13.19%  1.01% 148668
Sudan 1861484 6.76%  0.07% 125836
Spain 504781 24.75%  9.29% 124933
South Africa 1219912 9.87%  0.34% 120405
Germany 357021 33.25%  0.56% 118709
Tanzania 947303 12.25%  1.79% 116045
Poland 312685 35.49%  1.25% 110972
Myanmar 678500 15.94%  2.16% 108153
Romania 237500 37.73%  1.86% 89609
Morocco 446550 17.79%  2.6% 79441
Bangladesh 147570 52.97%  6.25% 78168
Afghanistan 647500 11.95%  0.18% 77376
Algeria 2381740 3.15%  0.38% 75025
Mali 1240000 5.53%  0.1% 68572
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2345410 2.90%  0.32% 68017
Italy 301230 22.57%  8.37% 67988
Uganda 241038 27.94%  9.11% 67346
Vietnam 329560 19.64% 11.18% 64726
Cameroon 475440 13.04%  2.94% 61997
United Kingdom 243610 24.88%  0.18% 60610
Rwanda 126338 46.32%  9.49% 58520
Burkina Faso 274200 20.79%  0.24% 57006
Belarus 207600 26.63%  0.59% 55284
Kenya 581309 9.48%  1.12% 55108
Philippines 300000 18.00% 17.33% 54000
Mozambique 801590 6.51%  0.25% 52184
Chad 1284000 3.82%  0.02% 49049
Ghana 238540 20.12% 11.74% 47994
Syria 185180 24.90%  5.69% 46110
Hungary 93030 47.24%  1.97% 43947
Uzbekistan 447400 9.61%  0.8% 42995
Japan 377835 11.26%  0.81% 42544
Angola 1246700 3.29%  0.23% 41016
Zimbabwe 390580 10.49%  0.31% 40972
Iraq 437072 9.19%  0.48% 40167
Cambodia 181035 22.09%  0.86% 39991
Paraguay 406750 9.59%  0.22% 39007
Senegal 196190 19.57%  0.28% 38394
Bolivia 1098580 3.49%  0.2% 38340
Peru 1285220 2.84%  0.66% 36500
Malawi 118480 30.38%  1.1% 35994
Madagascar 587040 5.96%  1.02% 34988
Zambia 752614 4.52%  0.05% 34018
Serbia 88361 37.28%  3.41% 32941
Cuba 100860 32.31%  3.55% 32588
Bulgaria 110910 29.28%  1.44% 32474
Czech Republic 78867 40.12%  0.96% 31641
Saudi Arabia 2149690 1.45%  0.11% 31171
Ivory Coast 322460 8.99% 13.65% 28989
Egypt 1001450 2.87%  0.79% 28742
Guinea 245857 11.59%  2.81% 28495
Tunisia 163610 17.35% 14.63% 28386
Sweden 449964 5.80%  0.02% 26098
Venezuela 912050 2.85%  0.71% 25993
Benin 112620 22.48%  2.61% 25317
Togo 56785 44.20%  3.7% 25099
Greece 131940 18.95%  8.73% 25003
Denmark 43094 57.99%  0.09% 24990
Nepal 147181 16.00%  0.8% 23549
North Korea 120540 19.08%  1.7% 22999
Finland 337030 6.65%  0.01% 22412
Colombia 1197411 1.84%  1.66% 22032
Lithuania 65201 33.48%  0.47% 21829
Turkmenistan 488100 3.89%  0.12% 18987
Nicaragua 129494 14.57%  1.76% 18867
Azerbaijan 86600 21.78%  2.62% 18861
Moldova 33843 53.47%  8.77% 18096
Uruguay 176220 10.25%  0.22% 18063
Central African Republic 622984 2.89%  0.13% 18004
Malaysia 329750 5.44% 17.49% 17938
Libya 1759540 0.99%  0.19% 17419
Guatemala 108890 13.78%  8.68% 15005
South Korea 98480 14.93%  2.06% 14703
Laos 236800 5.91%  0.42% 13995
Slovakia 48845 28.36%  0.41% 13852
Austria 83858 16.25%  0.77% 13627
Chile 756950 1.74%  0.6% 13171
Ecuador 283560 4.51%  5.38% 12789
Kyrgyzstan 198500 6.38%  0.37% 12664
Sri Lanka 65611 18.29% 14.94% 12000
Yemen 527970 2.20%  0.55% 11615
Latvia 64589 17.96%  0.11% 11600
Sierra Leone 72740 15.33%  1.88% 11151
Somalia 637657 1.73%  0.05% 11031
Ireland 71273 15.11%  0.01% 10769
Portugal 88267 11.88%  7.71% 10486
Netherlands 41526 25.08%  0.88% 10415
Honduras 112090 9.07%  3.91% 10167
Bosnia and Herzegovina 51129 19.63%  1.99% 10037
Haiti 27750 36.04% 10.09% 10001
Burundi 27834 33.06% 14.37% 9202
Croatia 56542 15.85%  1.47% 8962
Belgium 32545 27.06%  0.72% 8807
Taiwan 36193 24%  1% 8686
Tajikistan 143100 5.96%  0.91% 8529
Norway 324220 2.52%  0.01% 8170
Dominican Republic 48730 16.44%  9.25% 8011
Namibia 825418 0.97%  0.01% 8007
Eritrea 121320 5.87%  0.02% 7121
El Salvador 21040 31.61% 10.93% 6651
Estonia 45226 13.97%  0.13% 6318
Albania 28748 21.63%  2.57% 6218
Mongolia 1565000 0.39%  0% 6104
Panama 78201 7.16%  2.51% 5599
Republic of the Congo 342000 1.46%  0.18% 4993
New Zealand 269190 1.76%  0.27% 4738
Mauritania 1030700 0.44%  0.01% 4535
The Gambia 11300 39.82%  0.44% 4500
Liberia 111370 4.04%  1.62% 4499
Armenia 29800 14.47%  1.8% 4312
Guyana 214970 1.95%  0.13% 4192
China 35980 11.62%  1.53% 4181
Georgia 69701 5.94%  1.65% 4140
Macedonia 25333 16.10%  1.36% 4079
Switzerland 41210 9.80%  0.57% 4039
Israel 26990 13.68%  3.69% 3692
Gabon 267667 1.21%  0.64% 3239
Lesotho 30355 10.14%  0.13% 3078
Papua New Guinea 462840 0.65%  1.51% 3008
Guinea-Bissau 36120 8.30%  6.92% 2998
Botswana 600370 0.45%  0% 2702
Costa Rica 51100 4.89%  6.46% 2499
Jordan 92300 1.97%  0.95% 1818
Swaziland 17363 10.08%  0.86% 1750
Montenegro 13812 12.45%  1.16% 1720
Slovenia 20253 8.31%  1.33% 1683
Fiji 18270 9.17%  4.65% 1675
East Timor 15007 10.09%  4.03% 1514
Equatorial Guinea 28051 4.63%  2.5% 1299
Iceland 103000 1.19%  0% 1226
Jamaica 10990 10.92%  9.1% 1200
Bhutan 47000 2.49%  0.46% 1170
Lebanon 10452 10.72% 12.06% 1120
Comoros 2170 44.06% 31.17% 956
Cyprus 9250 9.06%  3.54% 838
Belize 22966 3.27%  1.39% 751
Mauritius 1860 38.24%  1.96% 711
Luxembourg 2586 23.90%  0.58% 618
Puerto Rico 9104 6.76%  4.51% 615
Suriname 163270 0.36%  0.04% 588
United Arab Emirates 82880 0.61%  0.5% 506
Cape Verde 4033 11.66%  0.74% 470
West Bank 5640 7.39% 10.96% 417
Oman 309500 0.10%  0.12% 310
Isle of Man 572 43.86%  0% 251
Trinidad and Tobago 5128 4.87%  4.29% 250
Vanuatu 12200 1.64% 10.25% 200
Solomon Islands 28450 0.62%  2.25% 176
Tonga 748 21.33% 14.67% 160
Qatar 11437 1.21%  0.17% 138
Barbados 430 27.91%  2.33% 120
Kuwait 17820 0.62%  0.28% 110
São Tomé and Príncipe 1001 9.06% 40.62% 91
Bahamas 13940 0.65%  0.29% 91
Malta 316 28.12%  4.06% 89
Samoa 2860 2.82%  7.75% 81
New Caledonia 18576 0.38%  0.27% 71
Dominica 754 8.00%  24% 60
Hong Kong 1104 5.05%  1.01% 56
Western Sahara 266000 0.02%  0% 53
Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 19.23%  0.38% 50
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 389 12.82%  7.69% 50
Curacao 444 10%  0% 44
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha 394 10.26%  0% 40
Antigua and Barbuda 442 9.09%  2.27% 40
Liechtenstein 160 21.88%  0% 35
Faroe Islands 1399 2.15%  0% 30
Saint Lucia 620 4.84% 11.29% 30
Brunei 5770 0.52%  0.87% 30
Maldives 300 10.00%  10% 30
Grenada 340 8.82% 20.59% 30
French Polynesia 4167 0.68%  6.28% 28
Gaza Strip 360 7.39% 10.96% 27
Andorra 468 5.32%  0% 25
Aruba 193 11.11%  0% 21
Montserrat 102 20%  0% 20
Marshall Islands 181 11.11% 44.44% 20
Micronesia 702 2.86% 24.29% 20
Cook Islands 240 8.33%  4.17% 20
Djibouti 22000 0.09%  0% 20
American Samoa 199 9.50%  15% 19
Kiribati 717 2.47% 39.51% 18
Bahrain 665 1.79%  3.95% 12
Northern Mariana Islands 475 2.17%  2.17% 10
San Marino 61 16.67%  0% 10
Wallis and Futuna 142 7.14% 35.71% 10
Guam 541 1.85% 16.67% 10
Niue 260 3.85% 11.54% 10
Palau 458 2.17%  4.35% 10
Seychelles 455 2.17%  4.35% 10
Bermuda 53 14.80%  0% 8
Turks and Caicos Islands 616 1.05%  0% 6
Singapore 693 0.89%  0.14% 6
Greenland 2166086 0%  0% 0
Tuvalu 26 0.00%  60% 0
Nauru 21 0.00%  20% 0
Gibraltar 7 0%  0% 0
Monaco 2 0.00%  1% 0
Vatican City 0 0.00%  0% 0
World 510072000 10.43%  1.15% 53200510

Courtesy & Source: Wikipedia and The World Factbook