Can you read this Poem? :) Test your English

language-chaos1

This is a classic English poem containing about 800 of the worst irregularities in English spelling and pronunciation.  “The Chaos” is a poem written by Gerard Nolst Trenité (1870-1946).

Try reading this poem, get puzzled “What? Is English that weird?” 🙂 So it’s always better to keep it simple, whatever the language we use 🙂

Dearest creature in creation
Studying English pronunciation,
   I will teach you in my verse
   Sounds like corpse, corps, horse and worse.

I will keep you, Susy, busy,
Make your head with heat grow dizzy;
   Tear in eye, your dress you’ll tear;
   Queer, fair seer, hear my prayer.

Pray, console your loving poet,
Make my coat look new, dear, sew it!
   Just compare heart, hear and heard,
   Dies and diet, lord and word.

Sword and sward, retain and Britain
(Mind the latter how it’s written).
   Made has not the sound of bade,
   Saysaid, paypaid, laid but plaid.

Now I surely will not plague you
With such words as vague and ague,
   But be careful how you speak,
   Say: gush, bush, steak, streak, break, bleak ,

Previous, precious, fuchsia, via
Recipe, pipe, studding-sail, choir;
   Woven, oven, how and low,
   Script, receipt, shoe, poem, toe.

Say, expecting fraud and trickery:
Daughter, laughter and Terpsichore,
   Branch, ranch, measles, topsails, aisles,
   Missiles, similes, reviles.

Wholly, holly, signal, signing,
Same, examining, but mining,
   Scholar, vicar, and cigar,
   Solar, mica, war and far.

From “desire”: desirableadmirable from “admire”,
Lumber, plumber, bier, but brier,
   Topsham, brougham, renown, but known,
   Knowledge, done, lone, gone, none, tone,

One, anemone, Balmoral,
Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel.
   Gertrude, German, wind and wind,
   Beau, kind, kindred, queue, mankind,

Tortoise, turquoise, chamois-leather,
Reading, Reading, heathen, heather.
   This phonetic labyrinth
   Gives moss, gross, brook, brooch, ninth, plinth.

Have you ever yet endeavoured
To pronounce revered and severed,
   Demon, lemon, ghoul, foul, soul,
   Peter, petrol and patrol?

Billet does not end like ballet;
Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.
   Blood and flood are not like food,
   Nor is mould like should and would.

Banquet is not nearly parquet,
Which exactly rhymes with khaki.
   Discount, viscount, load and broad,
   Toward, to forward, to reward,

Ricocheted and crocheting, croquet?
Right! Your pronunciation’s OK.
   Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
   Friend and fiend, alive and live.

Is your r correct in higher?
Keats asserts it rhymes Thalia.
   Hugh, but hug, and hood, but hoot,
   Buoyant, minute, but minute.

Say abscission with precision,
Now: position and transition;
   Would it tally with my rhyme
   If I mentioned paradigm?

Twopence, threepence, tease are easy,
But cease, crease, grease and greasy?
   Cornice, nice, valise, revise,
   Rabies, but lullabies.

Of such puzzling words as nauseous,
Rhyming well with cautious, tortious,
   You’ll envelop lists, I hope,
   In a linen envelope.

Would you like some more? You’ll have it!
Affidavit, David, davit.
   To abjure, to perjure. Sheik
   Does not sound like Czech but ache.

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,
Rachel, loch, moustache, eleven.
   We say hallowed, but allowed,
   People, leopard, towed but vowed.

Mark the difference, moreover,
Between mover, plover, Dover.
   Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,
   Chalice, but police and lice,

Camel, constable, unstable,
Principle, disciple, label.
   Petal, penal, and canal,
   Wait, surmise, plait, promise, pal,

Suit, suite, ruin. Circuit, conduit
Rhyme with “shirk it” and “beyond it”,
   But it is not hard to tell
   Why it’s pall, mall, but Pall Mall.

Muscle, muscular, gaol, iron,
Timber, climber, bullion, lion,
   Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,
   Senator, spectator, mayor,

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour
Has the a of drachm and hammer.
   Pussy, hussy and possess,
   Desert, but desert, address.

Golf, wolf, countenance, lieutenants
Hoist in lieu of flags left pennants.
   Courier, courtier, tomb, bomb, comb,
   Cow, but Cowper, some and home.

Solder, soldier! Blood is thicker“,
Quoth he, “than liqueur or liquor“,
   Making, it is sad but true,
   In bravado, much ado.

Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
Neither does devour with clangour.
   Pilot, pivot, gaunt, but aunt,
   Font, front, wont, want, grand and grant.

Arsenic, specific, scenic,
Relic, rhetoric, hygienic.
   Gooseberry, goose, and close, but close,
   Paradise, rise, rose, and dose.

Say inveigh, neigh, but inveigle,
Make the latter rhyme with eagle.
   Mind! Meandering but mean,
   Valentine and magazine.

And I bet you, dear, a penny,
You say mani-(fold) like many,
   Which is wrong. Say rapier, pier,
   Tier (one who ties), but tier.

Arch, archangel; pray, does erring
Rhyme with herring or with stirring?
   Prison, bison, treasure trove,
   Treason, hover, cover, cove,

Perseverance, severance. Ribald
Rhymes (but piebald doesn’t) with nibbled.
   Phaeton, paean, gnat, ghat, gnaw,
   Lien, psychic, shone, bone, pshaw.

Don’t be down, my own, but rough it,
And distinguish buffet, buffet;
   Brood, stood, roof, rook, school, wool, boon,
   Worcester, Boleyn, to impugn.

Say in sounds correct and sterling
Hearse, hear, hearken, year and yearling.
   Evil, devil, mezzotint,
   Mind the z! (A gentle hint.)

Now you need not pay attention
To such sounds as I don’t mention,
   Sounds like pores, pause, pours and paws,
   Rhyming with the pronoun yours;

Nor are proper names included,
Though I often heard, as you did,
   Funny rhymes to unicorn,
   Yes, you know them, Vaughan and Strachan.

No, my maiden, coy and comely,
I don’t want to speak of Cholmondeley.
   No. Yet Froude compared with proud
   Is no better than McLeod.

But mind trivial and vial,
Tripod, menial, denial,
   Troll and trolley, realm and ream,
   Schedule, mischief, schism, and scheme.

Argil, gill, Argyll, gill. Surely
May be made to rhyme with Raleigh,
   But you’re not supposed to say
   Piquet rhymes with sobriquet.

Had this invalid invalid
Worthless documents? How pallid,
   How uncouth he, couchant, looked,
   When for Portsmouth I had booked!

Zeus, Thebes, Thales, Aphrodite,
Paramour, enamoured, flighty,
   Episodes, antipodes,
   Acquiesce, and obsequies.

Please don’t monkey with the geyser,
Don’t peel ‘taters with my razor,
   Rather say in accents pure:
   Nature, stature and mature.

Pious, impious, limb, climb, glumly,
Worsted, worsted, crumbly, dumbly,
   Conquer, conquest, vase, phase, fan,
   Wan, sedan and artisan.

The th will surely trouble you
More than r, ch or w.
   Say then these phonetic gems:
   Thomas, thyme, Theresa, Thames.

Thompson, Chatham, Waltham, Streatham,
There are more but I forget ’em
   Wait! I’ve got it: Anthony,
   Lighten your anxiety.

The archaic word albeit
Does not rhyme with eight-you see it;
   With and forthwith, one has voice,
   One has not, you make your choice.

Shoes, goes, does *. Now first say: finger;
Then say: singer, ginger, linger.
   Real, zeal, mauve, gauze and gauge,
   Marriage, foliage, mirage, age,

Hero, heron, query, very,
Parry, tarry fury, bury,
   Dost, lost, post, and doth, cloth, loth,
   Job, Job, blossom, bosom, oath.

Faugh, oppugnant, keen oppugners,
Bowing, bowing, banjo-tuners
   Holm you know, but noes, canoes,
   Puisne, truism, use, to use?

Though the difference seems little,
We say actual, but victual,
   Seat, sweat, chaste, caste, Leigh, eight, height,
   Put, nut, granite, and unite.

Reefer does not rhyme with deafer,
Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
   Dull, bull, Geoffrey, George, ate, late,
   Hint, pint, senate, but sedate.

Gaelic, Arabic, pacific,
Science, conscience, scientific;
   Tour, but our, dour, succour, four,
   Gas, alas, and Arkansas.

Say manoeuvre, yacht and vomit,
Next omit, which differs from it
   Bona fide, alibi
   Gyrate, dowry and awry.

Sea, idea, guinea, area,
Psalm, Maria, but malaria.
   Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean,
   Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien with Italian,
Dandelion with battalion,
   Rally with ally; yea, ye,
   Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, key, quay!

Say aver, but ever, fever,
Neither, leisure, skein, receiver.
   Never guess-it is not safe,
   We say calves, valves, half, but Ralf.

Starry, granary, canary,
Crevice, but device, and eyrie,
   Face, but preface, then grimace,
   Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.

Bass, large, target, gin, give, verging,
Ought, oust, joust, and scour, but scourging;
   Ear, but earn; and ere and tear
   Do not rhyme with here but heir.

Mind the o of off and often
Which may be pronounced as orphan,
   With the sound of saw and sauce;
   Also soft, lost, cloth and cross.

Pudding, puddle, putting. Putting?
Yes: at golf it rhymes with shutting.
   Respite, spite, consent, resent.
   Liable, but Parliament.

Seven is right, but so is even,
Hyphen, roughen, nephew, Stephen,
   Monkey, donkey, clerk and jerk,
   Asp, grasp, wasp, demesne, cork, work.

A of valour, vapid vapour,
S of news (compare newspaper),
   G of gibbet, gibbon, gist,
   I of antichrist and grist,

Differ like diverse and divers,
Rivers, strivers, shivers, fivers.
   Once, but nonce, toll, doll, but roll,
   Polish, Polish, poll and poll.

Pronunciation-think of Psyche!-
Is a paling, stout and spiky.
   Won’t it make you lose your wits
   Writing groats and saying “grits”?

It’s a dark abyss or tunnel
Strewn with stones like rowlock, gunwale,
   Islington, and Isle of Wight,
   Housewife, verdict and indict.

Don’t you think so, reader, rather,
Saying lather, bather, father?
   Finally, which rhymes with enough,
   Though, through, bough, cough, hough, sough, tough??

Hiccough has the sound of sup
My advice is: GIVE IT UP!


Courtesy : http://ncf.idallen.com/

‘Snoopy’ Digs the Archive for You: May 2013

Snoopy @ Work :)

Snoopy @ Work 🙂

Visiting our blog now? Well, you could have missed a few interesting posts. Here we bring you “Snoopy” he will dig the archives and bring you the complete list of old posts in one place. Check out now what Snoopy found from May 2013.

 
job
One question poll : Know what others say: Love or Hate their Job?

300 3
5 Insights from the Movie 300 : A Recommended Reading

“Being happy doesn’t mean that everything is perfect. It means you’ve decided to look beyond the imperfections.”
Just one great Quote : Being HaPpY

jumping_frog cartoon
Understand Arguments : The Frog Story

ch5
Slums Of Chennai : Needs Action

arrest
Relax Off Serious Philosophies 🙂 Nothing but fun : A Teacher Terrorist 🙂

man dog
A Funny Story of a Man and his Dog: Sure It Will Leave You Thinking

Dalailama
Must Read : Inspirational Speech : Dalai Lama : Education & Warm Heart

student deaf
Three Life Changing Words : Teacher who made the Difference

dad son
EcHo Of You

attitude choice
Attitude n’ Choices

dream
Dream Thieves : Go Go.. Keep Going..

Missing flight
The Missed Flight : Writer’s Digest Entry

bethankful
Be Thankful : Insights

ugly cat
Bet you stay off tears? Ugly, The Cat : Value of Compassion & Love

time bank
Insights : Time Bank

pearl necklace
Story of Jenny : The Real Pearl Necklace

Darkness needs Light
Picture Speaks : Darkness Needs Light, Money blocks Accessibility

ul
What exactly is “Propel Steps”?

mam111
10 Unusually beautiful friends (Part 1) : We humans have lot to learn

save me tiger1
SAVE TIGER : Pictures Speak

victim vs creator
Choose one : You wanna be Victim or Creator : Personality Insights

shill
Instant Personality Self Test : Your brain thinks mostly left / right / both?

train
Dont Miss it : Which direction the Train moves? It will as you wish.. Magical 🙂

Blind-girl-gets-to-class-XII-merit-list-tops-Humanities-group
Blind girl gets to class XII merit list, tops humanities group

career vs money
Snippet Thoughts: Error at Start: Career Decision

taxi
The Cab Ride I will Never Forget : Great moment in Life

watch
The Lost Watch

child-playing-in-water-fountain-michele-stoehr
Limpid Life

miguel claro
You will say WOW : Miguel Claro’s Astrophotographs

man-dogs-best-friend
Why Dogs live less than us? : This Deserve a read.

earth-day
Who is the Daddy? Earth or Homo-Sapiens?

poverty_20130311
There’s More fruit in Rich Man’s Shampoo than a Poor man’s Plate

daddy kiss
Box Full of Kisses : While reading you too realize having one Box 🙂

piggy
Never Miss to Read this : A Miracle costs $1.11 : True Story

cropped-logo-of-ps2.png
Appreciate Talent : Siddhartha Rahi & Summa Hussain : Young Student Scientists From Ghazipur, India.

cropped-logo-of-ps2.png
Appreciate Talents : Adithyha Jayakumar – A Musical Talent from South India

walk-through
An Interesting Personality test : Just 5 mins

Cart fill
Life is similar to filling our cart. We pay and enjoy for what we fill our carts with…

firefighter__kid
The Little Firefighter : Relish helping others : Must feel Story

Peace is Cheaper than War Love is Precious of all Weapons
Pic : Peace is Cheaper than War! Love is Precious of all Weapons!

finland_education
Impressive Quotes from Finland Teachers

7. DICENTRA
Top 10 Beautiful flowers in the world

push
Snippet Thoughts : Push

beggar-01
Snippet Thoughts : A Humane day

walk-through
Poster #3 : Is there a True Friend?

592891
Poster #2 : Join Hands if you are against Caste Discrimination

Poster #1 : A Good Child is a Sign of a Good Society…

The Good Bye Kiss

Lesson to a Disciple Painter : Easy to point; hard to correct.

Just 3 words : Explains So much

The Cookie Thief : Must Read One

The empty soap box : Keep it simple lesson for every organisation

Need Expert Opinion: What will happen if there are no limitations to export / import taxes (arbitrage benefits)?

Four Fingered Pianist : Hee Ah Lee

Jessica Cox – An Inspirational Woman

18 Rules of HaPpInEsS 🙂

Our Life is Our Choice: Always do your best

Window of Happiness : Must Read One

Ways to judge people, things and life : Four Seasons’ Insight

Beautiful Oil Paintings : Realistic Ones

One of the most inspired story : Boy and Butterfly

Very Small Story, But Great Insight : Purpose of Goal

Home of Millions : Earth : Have no space for our little Sparrows?

Four Apples and Understanding others

Inability is just a belief : Story of Elephants

Hold on your emotions : This may make you feel the importance of understanding

Old one but Evergreen story : True Love is Unique

“Paid in full with one glass of milk”

Difference : Optimist and Pessimist

Know Stats: List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

Concert Freebies : Don’t miss to read 🙂

Funny Marriage of Princess : Cant stop laughing 🙂

Quotes from the Way of a Peaceful Warrior – Dan Millman

The Brick and the Jaguar : Listen to life

Reach and Touch Others’ life with Kindness : Story of Waldorf-Astoria Hotel

Appreciate Life : Story of a Blind Girl

A true story, happened in 1892 at Stanford University : Herbert Hoover & Paderewski

”How heavy is this glass of water?” : Stress is same as this

Snippet Thoughts : Mistakes Matters @ workplace

50 Amazing Facts about Animals : I

“A Love Letter at my 60″ Heart melting Story. Never miss to read it.

Guys Vs Cats : These funny pics will relax mind 🙂

Please spare a minute, we need your help not money!!!

GiveTogether.Hands_

Share anything you read, you liked, you want the world to know about. Ask anything you want to know about. 

“Education is Everything” – you might see this as our tag line, not just as words. We Propel Steps get all the inspiration from that strong belief. Through education, we can bring many positive changes. Wisdom, Humanity, Environmental issues, Fair use of Science, Good governance,Prevention of arts, Encouraging creativity… The list is big where your support is needed. 

We do not need money. Just your support and a few mins time whenever feasible for you. Help us to bring a change! Only You can make this reach millions of people.

forumWho can Educate and who can get Educated? Well, everyone of us has a Teacher and a Learner in us.

We are good at many things, skills that we possess naturally or developed over a period of time. When we share it with others, we become the provider of knowledge and help enabling others.

On the other end, every day we learn something new, get educated from some sources. 

Our areas of interest are wide. But Education is the common thing we find in everything we see in life. 

We believe Education is not just limited to, schools anymore, if we are determined to learn and share knowledge this modern world has plenty of opportunities.

We have made our Forum “Propel Steps” – here. Where you can share anything you want to share with the world. Ask anything you wish to know about. Not everyone is good at Googling to learn, also internet cannot self suffice. It’s all about knowledge/info reaching the right people who need them. We connect you with millions of school kids, students, teachers, professionals, activists, etc.

Share your links on our forum. Just a few clicks, you can share even anonymously. 

We have only one objective, education can be liberal and can be boundless.

We do not need money. Just your support and a few mins time whenever feasible for you. Help us to bring a change! We do not have millions of Dollars to to spend, but we have IDEAS and HOPE. Only You can make this reach millions of people.

Please do not forget to share this post.

Thanks and Regards

– Din

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Note: This is a non-profit initiative. You are welcome to ask more about our initiative, please contact me here dinesh@propelsteps.com

Find more about our objectives please refer to these articles

Critiques that Drive us

Five Thoughts For you 

More 

Know : List of All Noble Prize Winners

Nobel_PrizeThe Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Each recipient, or “laureate”, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.

555 Nobel Prizes!

Between 1901 and 2012, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 555 times.

Nobel Prize Number of Prizes Number of Laureates Awarded to one Laureate Shared by two Laureates Shared by three Laureates
Physics 106 194 47 29 29
Chemistry 104 163 63 22 18
Medicine 103 201 38 31 33
Literature 105 109 100 4
Peace 93 100+24 62 28 2
Economic Sciences 44 71 22 16 5
Total: 555 862 332 130 87

Only 44 Nobel Prizes to Women!

Between 1901 and 2012 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 44 times to women. List of all female Nobel Laureates

List of all Noble Prize Laureates (Winners)

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

1901

Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy

1902

Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat

1903

Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer

1904

Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International

1905

Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner

1906

J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt

1907

Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault

1908

Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer

1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d’Estournelles de Constant

1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau

1911

Wilhelm Wien Marie Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried

1912

Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root

1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine

1914

Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány

None

None

1915

William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter

None

Romain Rolland

None

1916

None

None

None

Verner von Heidenstam

None

1917

Charles Glover Barkla

None

None

Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross

1918

Max Planck Fritz Haber

None

None

None

1919

Johannes Stark

None

Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson

1920

Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois

1921

Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy

None

Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange

1922

Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen

1923

Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats

None

1924

Manne Siegbahn

None

Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont

None

1925

James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

None

George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes

1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann

1927

Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde

1928

Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset

None

1929

Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg

1930

C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom

1931

None

Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler

1932

Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy

None

1933

Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac

None

Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell

1934

None

Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson

1935

James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann

None

Carl von Ossietzky

1936

Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O’Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1937

Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

1938

Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees

1939

Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää

None

1940

None

None

None

None

None

1941

None

None

None

None

None

1942

None

None

None

None

None

1943

Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy

None

None

1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross

1945

Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull

1946

Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott

1947

Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee

1948

Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot

None[B]

1949

Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr

1950

C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche

1951

John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux

1952

Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer

1953

Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall

1954

Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1955

Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness

None

1956

John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez

None

1957

Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson

1958

Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire

1959

Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker

1960

Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli

1961

Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld

1962

Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling

1963

Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies

1964

Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.

1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

1966

Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs

None

1967

Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias

None

1968

Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin

1969

Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen

1970

Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson

1971

Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets

1972

John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll

None

John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow

1973

Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief

1974

Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek

1975

Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans

1976

Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman

1977

Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade

1978

Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon

1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis

1980

James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein

1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui;
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry;
David H. Hubel;
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin

1982

Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström;
Bengt I. Samuelsson;
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal;
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler

1983

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu

1984

Carlo Rubbia;
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne;
Georges J. F. Köhler;
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone

1985

Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman;
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown;
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani

1986

Ernst Ruska;
Gerd Binnig;
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach;
Yuan T. Lee;
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen;
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan

1987

Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram;
Jean-Marie Lehn;
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow

1988

Leon M. Lederman;
Melvin Schwartz;
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer;
Robert Huber;
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black;
Gertrude B. Elion;
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais

1989

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman;
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop;
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo

1990

Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Henry Way Kendall;
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray;
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz;
Merton Miller;
William Forsyth Sharpe

1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher;
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase

1992

Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer;
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker

1993

Russell Alan Hulse;
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis;
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts;
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela;
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel;
Douglass North

1994

Bertram Brockhouse;
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman;
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat;
Shimon Peres;
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi;
John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Reinhard Selten

1995

Martin Lewis Perl;
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen;
Mario J. Molina;
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis;
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.

1996

David Lee;
Douglas Osheroff;
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Harry Kroto;
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty;
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees;
William Vickrey

1997

Steven Chu;
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer;
John E. Walker;
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton;
Myron Scholes

1998

Robert B. Laughlin;
Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn;
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott;
Louis Ignarro;
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume;
David Trimble
Amartya Sen

1999

Gerard ‘t Hooft;
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell

2000

Zhores Alferov;
Herbert Kroemer;
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger;
Alan MacDiarmid;
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson;
Paul Greengard;
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman;
Daniel McFadden

2001

Eric Allin Cornell;
Wolfgang Ketterle;
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles;
Ryōji Noyori;
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell;
Tim Hunt;
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof;
Michael Spence;
Joseph Stiglitz

2002

Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Masatoshi Koshiba;
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn;
Koichi Tanaka;
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner;
H. Robert Horvitz;
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman;
Vernon L. Smith

2003

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Vitaly Ginzburg;
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre;
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur;
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle;
Clive Granger

2004

David Gross;
Hugh David Politzer;
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover;
Avram Hershko;
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel;
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland;
Edward C. Prescott

2005

Roy J. Glauber;
John L. Hall;
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin;
Robert H. Grubbs;
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall;
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann;
Thomas Schelling

2006

John C. Mather;
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire;
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps

2007

Albert Fert;
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi;
Martin Evans;
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz;
Eric Maskin;
Roger Myerson

2008

Yoichiro Nambu;
Makoto Kobayashi;
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura;
Martin Chalfie;
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen;
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman

2009

Charles K. Kao;
Willard S. Boyle;
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Thomas A. Steitz;
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn;
Carol W. Greider;
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom;
Oliver E. Williamson

2010

Andre Geim;
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard Heck;
Ei-ichi Negishi;
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo[F] Peter A. Diamond;
Dale T. Mortensen;
Christopher A. Pissarides

2011

Saul Perlmutter;
Adam G. Riess;
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler;
Jules A. Hoffmann;
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Leymah Gbowee;
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent;
Christopher A. Sims

2012

Serge Haroche;
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka;
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon;
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth;
Lloyd S. Shapley

Year

Physics

Chemistry

Physiology
or Medicine

Literature

Peace

Economics

Courtesy & Sources : Wikipedia, Nobelprize.org

Importance of Mother Tongue in learning English

esl1How does the mother tongue help the learning of English? 

Researches have shown that many skills acquired in the first language can be transferred to the second language. So, for example, if your child has developed good reading skills in Korean, she is likely to be able to apply these skills when reading English. (One useful reading skill is the ability to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from context. Another one is the ability to decide which new words in a text are important to look up in the dictionary and which words can safely be ignored.) For this reason it helps if you can encourage your child to read good fiction and nonfiction in her own language. Similarly, the skills of being able to plan out a piece of writing or develop an argument in a persuasive essay can be applied in the second language once they have been learned in the first.

What are the other reasons for maintaining and developing mother tongue proficiency?

Firstly, many children in international schools plan to return to their home country at some point to continue their education there. This is a strong reason to make sure they do not have gaps in the mother tongue language or cognitive development. And secondly, ESL students who turn against or otherwise neglect their mother tongue can often suffer from problems of identity loss or alienation from their parents, and from their grandparents or other family members in their home country.

How can ESL students best develop their mother tongue proficiency?

For some students, developing mother tongue proficiency is easier because they have lessons each week in their native language. For students who are not in this fortunate position, there is still much that can be done to maintain the mother tongue. For example, parents can make sure that they have good reference books or textbooks at home – in the native language. Students should be encouraged to read good literature and to discuss school work. Some of the long summer vacation could be devoted to mother-tongue learning and reading.

Courtesy & Source : http://esl.fis.edu

esl2

With one wheel (one language), you can go from place to place.

With one wheel (one language), you can go from place to place.

bike2

With one big and one small wheel (one good and one not so good language) you can go farther and faster.

With two equal-sized wheels (two strong languages) you can comfortably go anywhere you want!

With two equal-sized wheels (two strong languages) you can comfortably go anywhere you want!