Know : Amber – Fossil Beauty

Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

Inspire to Learn : Stem Cell Therapy : Medicine

sencbleStem cells are cells of the body (somatic cellsundifferentiated biological cells) which can divide and become differentiated.

When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skinmuscle,bloodbonelivernerves, all have different types of cell. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.

Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings in the 1960s.

stem-cell (1)The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialised embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of blood,skin, and intestinal tissues.

Stem cells can be grown in cell culture. In culture, they can be transformed into specialised cells, such as those of muscles or nerves. Highly plastic adult stem cells can be taken from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow. They are now used in medical therapies, and researchers expect that stem cells will be used in many future therapies.

Stem Cells Theraphy

Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease. A number of adult stem cell therapies already exist, particularly bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia. In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases, including cancerParkinson’s diseasespinal cord injuriesAmyotrophic lateral sclerosismultiple sclerosis, and muscle damage, amongst a number of other impairments and conditions.However, there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding stem cell research, which could possibly be overcome through public debate and future research, and further education of the public.

Stem_cell_treatments.svg

One concern of treatment is the risk that transplanted stem cells could form tumors and become cancerous if cell division continues uncontrollably.

Stem cells are widely studied, for their potential therapeutic use and for their inherent interest.

Supporters of embryonic stem cell research argue that such research should be pursued because the resultant treatments could have significant medical potential. It has been proposed that surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilization could be donated with consent and used for the research.

The recent development of iPS cells has been called a bypass of the legal controversy. Laws limiting the destruction of human embryos have been credited for being the reason for development of iPS cells, but it is still not completely clear whether hiPS cells are equivalent to hES cells. Recent work demonstrates hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in hiPS cells.

Disadvantages

Stem cell treatments may require immuno-suppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the patient’s previous cells, or because the patient’s immune system may target the stem cells. One approach to avoid the second possibility is to use cells from the same patient that is being treated.

Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. It is also difficult to obtain the exact cell type needed, because not all cells in a population differentiate uniformly. Undifferentiated cells can create tissues other than desired types.

Some stem cells form tumors after transplantation; pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells, fetal proper stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal proper stem cells form tumors despite multipotency.

Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury account for a substantial number of failures of new drugs in development and market withdrawal, highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.

____________

Courtesy : Wikipedia, EuroStemCell (YouTube)


“Inspire to learn” is an initiative by senCble, we introduce the students and potential learners who might be curious to explore the world of education. We introduce them with various updates on technology, science and various other resources. Many do not know what are the resources / technology applied to various things we come across, we will feature them here. If you are curious to know about any technology or field, please drop a request here in our forum. We will get back to you with all the info you need! 
For queries contact helpdesk@propelsteps.com
sencble
 
© senCble is a brand of Propel Steps with a mission “Inspire to Learn”

Know : The Scientific Secret of Muscle Growth

Myostatin (also known as growth differentiation factor 8, abbreviated GDF-8) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSTN gene.  Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor that is a member of the TGF beta protein family that inhibits muscle differentiation and growth in the process known as myogenesis. Myostatin is produced primarily in skeletal muscle cells, circulates in the blood and acts on muscle tissue, by binding a cell-bound receptor called the activin type II receptor.

Animals lacking myostatin or animals treated with substances that block the activity of myostatin have significantly larger muscles. This could be of economic benefit to the livestock industry. However these animals require special care and feeding which offsets the potential economic advantage.

Mutations in both copies of the human myostatin gene results in individuals that have significantly more muscle mass and hence are considerably stronger than normal. Furthermore blocking the activity of myostatin may have therapeutic application in treating muscle wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy.

Courtesy : AsapSCIENCE

Know : Plastic Surgery in 1500 BC forgotten Indian History

800px-Shushrut_statue

Archaeologists made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappan periods (c. 3300 BCE), had knowledge of medicine and dentistry. The physical anthropologist that carried out the examinations, Professor Andrea Cucina from the University of Missouri-Columbia, made the discovery when he was cleaning the teeth from one of the men. Later research in the same area found evidence of teeth having been drilled, dating back 9,000 years to 7000 BCE.

Sushruta (c. 600 BCE other dates range from 1000 BCE to 900 CE) known as “Father of Surgery” taught and practiced surgery on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Benares in Northern India. He is also considered as the father of plastic surgery and ophthalmology. His method of plastic surgery was copied by George Screw from Germany and 2 others in 1614 in marthawada in central India was taken to England and from there to Germany and from there it spread to rest of Europe. Much of what is known about Sushruta is in Sanskrit contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita. It is the oldest known surgical text and it describes in detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments, as well as procedures on performing various forms of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery and rhinoplasty.

Courtesy & Source : Wikipedia