Know : List of Countries using Nuclear Energy

Nuclear_power_station

Nuclear_label

Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries. Of the thirty countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Belgium, Hungary and Slovakia use them as the primary source of electricity, although many other countries have a significant nuclear power generation capacity. According to the World Nuclear Association, a nuclear power advocacy group, over 45 countries are giving “serious consideration” to introducing a nuclear power capability, with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey,Vietnam, Belarus, and Jordan at the forefront. China, South Korea and India are pursuing ambitious expansions of their nuclear power capacities

As of June 2011, Germany and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power which will be replaced mostly by fossil fuels, and a smaller part renewable energy.

Rank Country Capacity (MW)
(2014)
Nuclear share of
electricity production, 2013
1 United States United States 99,081 19.4%
2 France France 63,130 73.3%
3 Japan Japan 42,388 1.7%
4 Russia Russia 23,643 17.5%
5 South Korea South Korea 20,721 27.6%
6 China China 17,978 2.1%
7 Canada Canada 13,538 16.0%
8 Ukraine Ukraine 13,107 43.6%
9 Germany Germany 12,068 15.4%
10 Sweden Sweden 9,474 42.7%
11 United Kingdom United Kingdom 9,243 18.3%
12 Spain Spain 7,121 19.7%
13 Belgium Belgium 5,927 52.1%
14 India India 5,308 3.5%
15 Taiwan Taiwan 5,032 19.1%
16 Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,884 35.9%
17 Switzerland Switzerland 3,308 36.4%
18 Finland Finland 2,752 33.3%
19 Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,906 30.7%
20 Hungary Hungary 1,889 50.7%
21 Brazil Brazil 1,884 2.8%
22 South Africa South Africa 1,860 5.7%
23 Slovakia Slovakia 1,815 51.7%
24 Argentina Argentina 1,627 4.4%
25 Mexico Mexico 1,570 4.6%
26 Romania Romania 1,300 19.8%
27 Iran Iran 915 1.5%
28 Pakistan Pakistan 690 4.4%
29 Slovenia Slovenia 688 33.6%
30 Netherlands Netherlands 482 2.8%
31 Armenia Armenia 375 29.2%
World 374,704

Courtesy & Source: “Nuclear power station” by Ichabod Paleogene, Krzysztof Kori. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Know : Thorium – 8gm could power a car for 100yrs


Thorium_crystal
Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius and named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.

Thorium, a slightly radioactive metal that occurs in rocks and soils, may hold significant promise as a replacement for uranium in the nuclear energy sector. As global energy consumption increases, thorium is being looked into as a possible alternative to uranium to provide safe and abundant nuclear power at a reasonable cost. 1 gram of thorium is more energy dense than 7,396 gallons of gasoline. This means that 8 grams of the substance could power a thorium turbine motor vehicle for a century.

CanadaChinaGermanyIndia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States have experimented with using thorium as a substitute nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. When compared to uranium, there is a growing interest in thorium-based nuclear power due to its greater safety benefits, absence of non-fertile isotopes and its higher occurrence and availability. India’s three stage nuclear power programme is possibly the most well known and well funded of such efforts.

Thorium vs.Uranium

Thorium is an appealing alternative to uranium to many countries. It is both more cheap and more abundant than uranium, whose price is expected to rise yet more as backlash from the Fukushima disaster dies down, according to Energy and Capital. There are other benefits of thorium as well. During a thorium-powered nuclear reaction, most of the thorium itself is consumed, which leads to less waste, most of which is rendered non-hazardous in 30 years. The most dangerous nuclear waste material currently in use must be stored for 10,000 years, by way of contrast. Furthermore, 1 metric ton of thorium is equal to 250 metric tons in terms of efficiency in a water reactor.

Extraction of thorium would be less expensive per unit of energy than extraction of uranium as well, because it is present in higher concentrations by weight than the other metal, according to Dauvergne. The source also mentions another peculiar trait of thorium: it is nearly impossible to weaponize, as it contains no fissile isotope. This in itself has slowed uranium research, according to a 1997 international scientific symposium on nuclear fuel cycles.

The dangers of uranium – widely publicized in the wake of the Fukushima disaster – often lead analysts and others to consider thorium more seriously. As thorium is not fissile on its own, reactions could be stopped in case of emergency, according to Forbes. The publication suggests thorium could allow countries like Iran and North Korea to benefit from nuclear power without causing concern that they are secretly developing nuclear weapons, as well.

Thorium can also be used together with conventional uranium-based nuclear power generation, meaning a thriving thorium industry would not necessarily make uranium obsolete.

When used in a breeder-like reactor, however, unlike uranium-based light water reactors, thorium requires irradiation and reprocessing before the above-noted advantages of thorium-232 can be realized, which initially makes solid thorium fuels more expensive than uranium fuels. But experts note that “the second thorium reactor may activate a third thorium reactor. This could continue in a chain of reactors for a millennium if we so choose.” They add that because of thorium’s abundance, it will not be exhausted in 1,000 years.

thoriumVsUranium

Where thorium is found

Thorium is present in small quantities in soils and rocks everywhere, and it’s estimated to be about four times more plentiful than uranium. Large reserves, rather than the trace amounts of the metal in the average backyard, exist in China, Australia, the US, Turkey, India and Norway, according to Reuters.

thorium_reserves

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Source : Wikipedia, energyfromthorium.comhttp://uraniuminvestingnews.com/, Stuff They Don’t Want You To Know

Eco-preservation : Alas! This many Environmental Issues Exist?

How many Environmental Issues are you aware of? This list will definitely exceed your known  list of issues. Just click the issue to know what it is all about. (Permalinks to wiki)

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia

Know : No. of Nuclear Reactors in the World (Country wise)

Currently, 73 reactors are under construction in 15 countries. Some new countries will be starting their first nuclear power plants including: Belarus, Vietnam, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Ghana, Morocco and Saudi Arabia.

Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries. In 2010, before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, it was reported that an average of about 10 nuclear reactors were expected to become operational per year, although according to the World Nuclear Association, of the 17 civilian reactors planned to become operational between 2007 and 2009, only five actually came on stream. As of June 2011, Germany and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power Which will be replaced mostly by fossil fuels, and a smaller part renewable energy.

As of June 2011, countries such as Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,  Malaysia, Malta, New Zealand, Norway and Portugal remain opposed to nuclear power.

Of the thirty countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Belgium and Slovakia use them as the primary source of electricity, although many other countries have a significant nuclear power generation capacity. According to the World Nuclear Association, a nuclear power advocacy group, over 45 countries are giving “serious consideration” to introducing a nuclear power capability, with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Vietnam, Belarus, and Jordan at the forefront. China, South Korea and India are pursuing ambitious expansions of their nuclear power capacities.

Rank Country Capacity (MW)
(2012)
Nuclear share of
electricity production
1 United States United States 102,136 19.0%
2 France France 63,130 74.8%
3 Japan Japan 44,215 18.1%
4 Russia Russia 23,643 17.8%
5 South Korea South Korea 20,739 30.4%
6 Canada Canada 14,135 15.3%
7 Ukraine Ukraine 13,107 46.2%
8 China China 12,860 2.0%
9 Germany Germany 12,068 16.1%
10 United Kingdom United Kingdom 9,938 18.1%
11 Sweden Sweden 9,395 38.1%
12 Spain Spain 7,560 20.5%
13 Belgium Belgium 5,927 51.0%
14 Taiwan Taiwan 5,028 18.4%
15 India India 4,780 3.6%
16 Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,804 35.3%
17 Switzerland Switzerland 3,278 35.3%
18 Finland Finland 2,752 32.6%
19 Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,906 31.6%
20 Hungary Hungary 1,889 45.9%
21 Brazil Brazil 1,884 3.1%
22 South Africa South Africa 1,860 5.1%
23 Slovakia Slovakia 1,816 53.8%
24 Mexico Mexico 1,530 4.7%
24 Romania Romania 1,300 19.4%
26 Argentina Argentina 935 4.7%
27 Iran Iran 915 0.6%
28 Pakistan Pakistan 725 5.3%
29 Slovenia Slovenia 688 36.0%
30 Netherlands Netherlands 482 4.4%
31 Armenia Armenia 375 26.6%
  World 374,411

Courtesy : WIki

nuke

Country Operating Under
construction
References and notes
United States United States 104 5  
France France 58 1 First French EPR under construction at Flamanville
Russia Russia 33 10  
South Korea South Korea 23 4  
India India 20 7  
Canada Canada 19 0 2 new reactors at Darlington planned
China China 17 32 80 GWe by 2020(~6%)
United Kingdom United Kingdom 16 0  
Ukraine Ukraine 15 2 2 new reactors by 2018
Sweden Sweden 10 0  
Germany Germany 9 0 Phase-out in place.
Belgium Belgium 7 0  
Spain Spain 7 0 Stable
Taiwan Taiwan 6 2  
Czech Republic Czech Republic 6 0  
Switzerland Switzerland 5 0 Phase-out in place.
Slovakia Slovakia 4 2  
Finland Finland 4 1 As of 2012, TVO is planning new reactor to be build and operational by 2020.
Hungary Hungary 4 0  
Pakistan Pakistan 3 2  
Argentina Argentina 2 1  
Brazil Brazil 2 1  
Bulgaria Bulgaria 2 0
Four reactors were shut down in 2004 and 2007. Belene Nuclear Power Plant construction was officially terminated in March 2012.
Japan Japan 2 (50)* 0 (2)* After Fukushima, Japan shut down all of its 54 nuclear reactors, but has since restarted two reactors. Further restarts are planned, with the reactors with the best seismic ratings to be restarted first.
Mexico Mexico 2 0  
Romania Romania 2 0  
South Africa South Africa 2 0
Armenia Armenia 1 0 Replacement
 Iran 1 0 The first reactor of Bushehr Plant has power generation capacity of 915 MW
Netherlands Netherlands 1 0  
Slovenia Slovenia 1 0  
Belarus Belarus 0 1  
World 436 73

Note: Only the commercial reactors registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency are listed

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia