Know : List of Plants – A

Here is the list of plants with their Common Name, Botanical Name and Pictures

This post features all plants with common names starting with ‘A’

Alder – Alnus

Alder is particularly noted for its important symbiotic relationship with Frankia alni, an actinomycete, filamentous, nitrogen-fixing bacterium. This bacterium is found in root nodules, which may be as large as a human fist, with many small lobes, and light brown in colour. The bacterium absorbs nitrogen from the air and makes it available to the tree. Alder, in turn, provides the bacterium with sugars, which it produces through photosynthesis. As a result of this mutually beneficial relationship, alder improves the fertility of the soil where it grows, and as a pioneer species, it helps provide additional nitrogen for the successional species which follow.

Varieties 


AlmondPrunus amygdalus

The almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as the Indus. In India, it is known as badam. It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe and more recently transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States.


Ambrosia

This is an annual herb usually growing up to 2 meters tall, but known to reach 6 meters in rich, moist soils. The tough stems have woody bases and are branching or unbranched. This species is well known as a noxious weed, both in its native range and in areas where it is an introduced and ofteninvasive species. It is naturalized in some areas, and it is recorded as an adventive species in others. It grows in many types of disturbed habitat, such as roadsides, and in cultivated fields.


Amy root – Apocynum cannabinum

It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means “poisonous to dogs”. All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. The cannabinum in the scientific name and the common names Hemp Dogbane and Indian Hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant, rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug. A very strong and good quality fiber obtained from the bark is a flax substitute that does not shrink and retains its strength in water. It is used for making clothes,twine, bags, linen, paper, etc.The plant yields a latex which is a possible source of rubber.


Apple – Malus domestica

The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India andPoland.


Apple of Sodom – Solanum carolinense

hnettle“Horsenettle” is also written “horse nettle” or “horse-nettle”. These plants can be found growing in pastures, roadsides, railroad margins, and in disturbed areas and waste ground. They grow to about 1 m tall, but are typically shorter, existing as sub shrubs. Bumblebees pollinate the flowers of this species. Fruits are eaten by a variety of native animals, including Ring-necked pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, and Striped skunk. Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant


ApricotPrunus armeniaca

Although the apricot is native to a continental climate region with cold winters, it can grow in Mediterranean climates if enough cool winter weather allows a proper dormancy. A dry climate is good for fruit maturation. The tree is slightly more cold-hardy than the peach, tolerating winter temperatures as cold as −30 °C (−22 °F) or lower if healthy.


Arfaj – Rhanterium epapposum

Native to the deserts of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait where it is known locally as Arfaj . The Arfajplant consists of a complicated network of branches scattered with small thorny leaves and bright yellow flowers about 1.5 cm wide. The Arfaj flower is also the national flower of Kuwait.


Arizona sycamorePlatanus wrighitii

Sycamore is a name which is applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms


Arrowwood – Cornus florida


Ash – Fraxinus spp.

Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana, and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior), tough and verystrong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, hurleys and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.

It is also often used as material for electric guitar bodies and, less commonly, for acoustic guitar bodies, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Some Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters are made of ash, as an alternative to the darker sounding alder. They are also used for making drum shells. Interior joinery is another common user of both European Ash and White Ash. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. Ash is not used extensively outdoors due to the heartwood having a low durability to ground contact, meaning it will typically perish within five years.


Azolla – Azolla

As an additional benefit to its role as a paddy biofertilizer, Azolla spp. have been used to control mosquito larvae in rice fields. The plant grows in a thick mat on the surface of the water, making it more difficult for the larvae to reach the surface to breathe, effectively choking the larvae.

Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a “super-plant”, as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed – doubling its biomass every two to three days. The only known limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral.

Know : TomTato – Tomato and Potato on the same plant

By combining the genes of tomatoes and potatoes they were able to create a “TomTato”, which is essentially a plant that grows tomatoes and potatoes at the same time. This is the creation of Thompson and Morgan.

TomTato (4)

TomTato (1) TomTato (2) TomTato (3)  TomTato (5)

Courtesy: Thompson and Morgan (For more details please visit their website, we shared this on our blog for educational and non-profit purposes only.


Know: Gene splicing is a post-transcriptional modification in which a single gene can code for multiple proteins. Gene Splicing is done in eukaryotes, prior to mRNA translation, by the differential inclusion or exclusion of regions of pre-mRNA. Gene splicing is an important source of protein diversity. During a typical gene splicing event, the pre-mRNA transcribed from one gene can lead to different mature mRNA molecules that generate multiple functional proteins. Thus, gene splicing enables a single gene to increase its coding capacity, allowing the synthesis of protein isoforms that are structurally and functionally distinct. Gene splicing is observed in high proportion of genes. In human cells, about 40-60% of the genes are known to exhibit alternative splicing.

Food We Eat : List of Varieties of Mangoes

Mango varities

Worldwide, hundreds of mango cultivars exist. In mango orchards, multiple cultivars are often grown together to improve cross-pollination. Two of the most important cultivars are the Chaunsa, which is particularly common in Pakistan, and the Tommy Atkins, which dominates the world export trade because it can be easily transported and has a good shelf-life, although it is reputed to not have the same flavor as that of a chaunsa.

The International Mango Festival, held annually in Delhi, India during early summer, is a two-day festival showcasing mangoes. It has been held since 1987. More than 550 varieties and cultivars of mango are featured in the festival for visitors to view and taste. Among these are alphonso, mallika, amrapali, himsagar, malda, balia, chorasya, dhaman, dhoon, fazia, gelchia, nigarin kheria, ruchika and shamasi. 

The following are among the more widely grown mango cultivars, listed by the country in which they were selected or are most extensively cultivated

Common
name(s)
Image Origin / Region
Alampur Baneshan Mango AlampurBaneshan Asit fs.jpg India, United States
Alice Mango Alice Asit fs.jpg United States
Alphonso Alphonso mango.jpg Pakistan, Ecuador,Egypt, India, Sudan,United States
Amrapali  . India
Anderson Mango Anderson Asit fs8.jpg United States
Angie Angie mango.jpg United States
Anwar Ratol  . Punjab (Pakistan)
Ataulfo Ataulfo mango.jpg Ecuador, Mexico
Bailey’s Marvel Mango BaileysMarvel Asit fs8.jpg United States
Banganapalle GntMango.jpg Pakistan , Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Bennet Alphonso Mango BennetAlphonso Asit fs.jpg United States
Beverly Beverly mango.JPG United States
Bombay Mango Bombay Asit ftg.jpg India, Nepal, United States
Brahm Kai Meu Mango BrahmKaiMeu Asit fs.jpg United States
Brooks Mango Brooks Asit fs8.jpg Australia, United States
Carrie Mango Carrie Asit fs8.jpg United States
Chaunsa Chaunsa.JPG Pakistan
Chok anan Pakistan,Bangladesh, India,Thailand
Cogshall Mango02 CS HD CS Asit.jpg United States
Cushman Mango Cushman Asit fs8.jpg United States
Dasheri  . Pakistan, India,Nepal
Dot Mango Dot Asit fs8.jpg United States
Duncan Mango Duncan Asit fs8.jpg United States
Earlygold Earlygold mango.JPG United States
Edward Mango Edward Asit fs8.jpg United States
Eldon Mango Eldon Asit fs8.jpg United States
Emerald  . United States
Fajri Kalan  . Pakistan
Fairchild  . United States
Fascell Mango Fascell2 Asit fs.jpg United States
Florigon Mango Florigon Asit fs8.jpg United States
Ford Mango Ford Asit fs8.jpg United States
Gary Gary mango.JPG United States
Glenn Mango Glenn Asit fs8.jpg Italy, United States
Gold Nugget Mango ATAULFO GOLD NUGGET Asit.jpg United States
Golden Lippens  . United States
Graham Mango Graham Asit fs8.jpg United States
Haden Haden mango.jpg Australia, Brazil,Costa Rica,Ecuador,Guatemala,Honduras, Mexico,United States
Hatcher  . United States
Himsagar Mango Himsagar Asit ftg.jpg Bangladesh, India
Ice Cream  . United States
Irwin Mango Irwin Asit fs8.jpg Australia, Costa Rica, United States,Taiwan, Japan(Okinawa)
Ivory Mango IVORY Asit fs.JPG China
Jakarta Mango Jakarta Asit ftg.jpg United States
Jean Ellen Jean Ellen mango.JPG United States
Julie  . Ecuador, United States
Kalepad  . Andhra Pradesh, India
Keitt Mango ATAULFO KEITT Asit.jpg Australia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Italy,United States
Kensington Pride Mango Kensington Asit ftg.jpg Australia, Italy,United States
Kent Mango Kent Asit fs8.jpg Australia, Ecuador,Guatemala,Honduras, Israel,Italy, Mexico, United States
Lakshmanbhog  .
Lancetilla Mango Lancetilla Asit fs8.jpg Honduras, United States
Langra Vikramshila Agrovet 2 Langra Mango farm, Mathurapur, Bhagalpur Bihar.JPG Pakistan, India
Lippens Mango Lippens Asit fs8.jpg United States
Mallika Mango Mallika Asit fs.jpg India, Nepal, United States
Manilita  . United States
Muhammad Wala  . Pakistan
Mulgoba Mango Mulgoba Asit fs8.jpg India, United States
Neelam  . Pakistan
Osteen Mango Osteen Asit ftg.jpg Italy, United States
Palmer Mango Palmer Asit fs8.jpg Australia, Brazil,United States
Parvin Parvin mango.JPG United States
Rosigold Rosigold mango.JPG United States
Ruby Mango Ruby Asit fs8.jpg United States
Saigon Mango Saigon Asit ftg.jpg United States
Saharni  . Pakistan
Sammar Bahisht  . Pakistan, India
Sensation Mango Sensation Asit fs.jpg United States
Shan-e-Khuda Shan-e-khuda.jpeg Pakistan
Sindhri Sindhri Mango.JPG Pakistan
Sophie Fry Mango SophieFry Asit fs8.jpg United States
Southern Blush  . United States
Spirit of ’76  . United States
Springfels Mango Springfels Asit fs8.jpg United States
Sunset Sunset mango fruit.jpg United States
Tommy Atkins Mango TommyAtkins05 Asit.jpg Brazil, Costa Rica,Ecuador,Guatemala,Honduras, Israel,Italy, Mexico, United States, Venezuela
Torbert  . United States
Totapuri Mango Sandersha Asit fs8.jpg India
Valencia Pride Mango VALENCIA PRIDE ATAULFO VALENCIA PRIDE Asit.jpg United States
Van Dyke Mango VanDyke Asit fs8.jpg Italy, United States
Young  . United States
Zill Mango Zill Asit fs8.jpg United States

Courtesy : Wikipedia

 

Know: ‘The Most Hated Tree’ in the World

Prosopis juliflora

There is no harmful living being in this earth and nature created everything with specific roles to play, in order to balance the ecosystem. But sometimes a few living beings can be regarded as harmful to some other species.

Would you hate a tree which can grow in any extremely arid environment, saline soil and stay ever green? Most importantly it can grow fast on its own! Are we supposed to hate such a tree? If I say ‘Yes’ you would feel that I am insane. But there are people who hate such special trees! 

You must have seen this Tree in your villages, even urban bushes or alongside roads.Prosopis juliflora” also called as  algarrobe,cambróncashawépinardmesquitemostrenco, or mathenge is probably the most hated tree in the world now. Many countries declared this a weed and prohibited them planting this. Destruction campaigns are actively happening in many parts of the world to weed out these trees.

Why people hate this tree?

Prosopis juliflora Commonly called as “Mesquite” is a shrub or small tree. It is native to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean. It has become established as an invasive weed in Africa, Asia, Australia and elsewhere.

It has become an invasive weed in several countries where it was introduced. It is considered a noxious invader in Ethiopia, in Hawaii, in Sri Lanka, Jamaica, the Middle East, India, Nigeria, Sudan, Somalia, Senegal and southern Africa. It is also a major weed in the southwestern United States. It is hard and expensive to remove as the plant can regenerate from the roots. Its aggressive growth leads to a monoculture, denying native plants water and sunlight, and not providing food for native animals and cattle.

Prosopis juliflora2

DEVIL TREE : Grazing areas are scarce and vegetation sparse. In recent years this precious grazing land has been invaded by an aggressive, thorny plant called Prosopis (Prosopis juliflora), known to locals as the devil tree. – Farm Africa

A mature tree can produce hundreds of thousands of seeds. Seeds remain viable for up to 10 years. The tree reproduces by way of seeds, not vegetatively. Seeds are spread by cattle and other animals that consume the seed pods and spread the seeds in their droppings.

Prosopis juliflora Seeds

Its roots are able to grow to a great depth in search of water: in 1960, they were discovered at a depth of 53 meters (175 feet) at an open-pit mine near Tucson, Arizona, putting them among the deepest known roots.

In Australia, mesquite has colonized more than 800,000 hectares of arable land, having severe economic and environmental impacts. With its thorns and many low branches it forms impenetrable thickets which prevent cattle from accessing watering holes, etc. It also takes over pastoral grasslands and uses scarce water. Livestock which consume excessive amounts of seed pods are poisoned. It causes land erosion due to the loss of the grasslands that are habitats for native plants and animals. 

In Sri Lanka this mesquite was planted in the 1950s near Hambantota as a shade and erosion control tree. It then invaded the grass lands in and around Hambantota.

In the Arabian Peninsula where P. juliflorais invasive has strong negative impacts on native species despite increases in the concentrations of some nutrients in sub-canopy soil.[Source]

The Survivor:

Scientists say P. juliflora has survived where other tree species have failed.

The concern in the 1970s and 1980s about deforestation, desertification and fuel wood shortage prompted a wave of projects, leading to the introduction of the species on a large-scale manner in the State and elsewhere.

They say the invasion by this species is going in several areas. The growth and spread of Prosopis is tremendous mainly due to its inbuilt mechanism to overcome adverse conditions. The ‘proline’ content in Prosopis is high under stress conditions, which helped the plant to thrive under extreme drought. – Courtesy : The Hindu

Prosopis was introduced in India during the 1870s to meet the fuel wood demand and in Tamil Nadu the 1960

It is called bayahonda blanca in Spanish, bayarone Français in French, in Hindi it is called angaraji babulKabuli kikarvilayati babulvilayati khejra or vilayati kikar. In Gujarati it is called gando baval, in Marwari, baavlia, in Kannada it is known as “Ballaari Jaali” and in Tamil language it is known as cheemai karuvel (சீமைக்கருவேலை)

Every species has it’s role to play as we mentioned earlier. This Tree has nothing to consider it as evil or to hate it. The only this is that it has spread in wrong habitats. Just like letting Lions to live free in cities. Regardless of whatever the negatives that the people see in this tree, I consider this as a Solid Fighter and a Rock Tree to survive even in Deserts. Let these trees find its actual home, where no other trees or plants can grow. The nature will do the rest of its magic which many of us are reluctant to accept. Hope people see this from the nature’s perspective.


Courtesy : Wikipedia, The Hindu, Farm Africawww.fao.org

Eco Preservation : List of Garden Plants for Saving Bees

Plants for Saving Bees

Bee6

Hey Honey, I can give more than Honey! Save Me!

Bees are important indicators for the health of the environment. When something is wrong with our bees, something is wrong in the environment!

Bees are having a hard time, but we can all do our bit to help save the bees.  You do not need to become a beekeeper. Indeed, many other pollinators (not just honey bees) are in serious decline too. For example, in some countries, like the UK, some bumblebee species have gone extinct already. Many butterfly species are also struggling.

Here is a list of garden plants for bees that provide forage for at least one species of bee. Many of these plants will attract honey bees and different types of bumblebees and solitary bees.

Most people can accommodate at least a few of these flowers to attract bees and butterflies into their gardens, even if only in pots.

GARDEN PLANTS FOR BEES

 LATE WINTER – SPRING GARDEN PLANTS
Mahonia
Winter Aconite
Crocus
Daffodil (try native wild types – e.g. if you live in the UK, try Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Genista
Dicentra (Bleeding Heart)
Pulmonaria (Lungwort)
Gorse (Ulex)  
Rosemary (Rosemarinus)
Flowering Currant (Ribes)  
Primrose (Primula vulgaris)
Bluebell (Choose native varieties)
Cowslip (Choose native varieties)  
Snakeshead (Fritillaria meleagris)
Winter Honeysuckle (Lonicera fragrantissima, Lonicera purpusii)
Barberry (Berberis) (Lamium)
Bugle (Ajuga)
Ground Ivy
Snowdrops (Galanthus) – single flowered varieties  
Winter Heathers (Erica carnea) Erica carnea 003.JPG
Lenten rose ( Helleborus orientalis)
 SPRING – SUMMER GARDEN PLANTS
Forget-me-not (Myosotis)
Foxglove (Digitalis)
Bistort
Crane’s-bill (Geranium)
Poppy (Papaver)
Chives  Chive flower
Bugle (Ajuga) (also in Late Winter – Spring)  
Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus acris)
Borage officinalis
Crocus (also mentioned in Late Winter Spring)  
Comfrey (Malus)  
Honey Suckle (Lonicera)
Passion Flower (Passiflora)
Muscari
Thyme
Sweetpea (Lathyrus)
Campanula
Lupin (Lupinus)
Rosa rugosa
Sea Holly (Eryngium)
Columbine (Aquilegia)
Penstemon
Salvia
Hebe
Allium
Agapanthus
 SUMMER – AUTUMN GARDEN PLANTS
Scorpion Weed (Phacelia tanacetifolia)
Purple Loosestrife
Sedum
Golden Rod (Solidago)
Cornflower Cornflower Blue.jpg
Red Hot Poker (Knifophia)
Veronica
Salvia (mentioned already)  
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus)
 
Verbascum
Scabious
Sunflower
Lavender
Watermint
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum)
Nepeta (Catmint)
Bugle (Ajuga) (mentioned already)  
Bergenia
Hellebores (mentioned already)  
Hollyhock
Bergamot
Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens)
Verbena
Raspberry (especially the Autumn raspberry)
 AUTUMN – WINTER GARDEN PLANTS
Ivy hedera helix
Mint (Mentha) (mentioned already)
Oregano (Origanum)
Autumn raspberries (mentioned already)  
Viburnum
Common Heather (Calluna vulgaris)

Courtesy : www.buzzaboutbees.net and WikiPedia