Alert! : River Pollution in India

India is a blessed country when we consider its rich natural sources of water in the form of numerous rivers and lakes. The country has rightly been referred to as the “Land of Rivers” and the people worship the rivers as gods and goddesses. But what is ironical is that in spite of our profound respect and reverence for our rivers, we have not been able to maintain their purity, cleanliness and the physical well-being. Be it Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra or Kaveri or any other river flowing in the soil of our motherland, not a single river is free from pollution. River pollution has been causing serious water-borne diseases and health problems affecting human population as well as animals, fish, and birds in the environment.

Causes of river pollution

River pollution is increasing day by day. In spite of various governmental projects going on in many rivers, there is no sign of water pollution being prevented or stopped. Whom do we blame? Lots of factors lead to water pollution and reducing overall quality of river water. Some of the most serious contributing factors are:

  • Industrial wastes, mixtures of chemicals, heavy metals are all discharged in water and these are difficult to clean up.
  • Agricultural wastes, chemicals, feritilisers, pesticides used in agriculture have made the river water bodies contaminated.
  • Nature’s rain also brings with it pollutants as it falls through polluted air. We call this acid rain, which when reached the soil, releases harmful substances.
  • Domestic wastes from households and the sewage that we throw into rivers increases the pollution levels.
  • Regular disposal of plastic bags and plastic objects, solid wastes, flowers, garlands is another cause of pollution.
  • People responding to nature’s call in open spaces near the water bodies also contribute to river pollution.
  • Animals washing, car washing, clothes washing are other causes.
  • Another cause of river pollution is the dumping of human remains, partially burned bodies, dead bodies, which pose serious health threats.

Some hard facts about river pollution

Surveys undertaken by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) have come up with some hard facts on river pollution, in terms of statistical figures, which makes it a matter of really serious concern:

  • Out of the 445 rivers surveyed, not even a quarter of them are fit for bathing.
  • Indian cities generate 10 billion gallons or 38 billion litres of municipal waste water every day, out of which only 29% of it is treated.
  • The Central Pollution Control Board also stated that there were only 160 sewerage systems and sewage treatment plants in nearly 8,000 towns surveyed in 2011.
  •  Only 20% out of nearly 40,000 million litres of sewage produced daily in Indian cities are treated.

Extreme cases of pollution in river Ganga and Yamuna

  • Yamuna has become a garbage dump area with more than 57 % of Delhi’s waste thrown into it.
  • Only 55% of Delhi’s residents are connected to a proper sewerage system.
  • According to the CSE, around 80% of Yamuna’s pollution is due to raw sewage.
  • Ganga is considered to be the most polluted river in India.
  • Approximately 1 billion litres of raw, untreated sewage is dumped in Ganga regularly.
  • Ganga contains 60,000 faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml, which is a threat to human health.

Effects of river pollution

River pollution is a big menace to the economy, the environment and, of course, human health and the other living organisms. It is a big contributor to a number of health problems and disorders in humans. River pollution also affects aquatic life, leading to growth of unhealthy fish unsuitable for human consumption and also mass fish death. Polluted river waters have affected the lives of animals and birds as well, sometimes threatening their very existence. In the long term, continuous river pollution can lead to loss of biodiversity and even extinction of some species and can disrupt the ecosystem as a whole.


Courtesy and Credits : This article was written by  originally here and she discusses about possible solutions as well. Shared here on our blog for educational purposes only.

Eco-Preservation : Water Pollution in China : Gallery

pollution china

Growing cities, overuse of fertilizers and factory wastewater have degraded China’s water supplies to the extent that half the nation’s rivers and lakes are severely polluted. China aims to spend $850 billion to improve filthy water supplies over the next decade, but even such huge outlays may do little to reverse damage caused by decades of pollution and overuse in Beijing’s push for rapid economic growth.


Courtesy & Source : User Submitted on Our Forum [you can also share any educational info there in our forum , but please provide the courtesy to the appropriate sources ]


Documentary : Pollution : The Science Guy (must watch)

This episode doesn’t stink, even though it’s about pollution. Dirty water, land, and air are a result of pollution. People are the only animals on Earth that make pollution. Garbage, burning fuel, chemicals, sewage, oil, and pesticides are all human-made things that make the Earth’s atmosphere, water, and soil unclean. Humans are even leaving trash in space, such as broken satellites, pieces of metal, paint from rocket skin, and even cameras and toothbrushes.

Many of the junk people make and leave behind hurts plants, animals, you and me. In some places, the Earth is becoming a real mess, and humans are the only ones who can start cleaning it up. Instead of dangerous chemical pesticides, some farmers are getting bats to help keep insects off their crops. Recycling helps lower the amount of garbage that gets buried in landfills. Some companies have reduced the amount of packaging on their products. Humans make pollution, and the amount of pollution depends on the choices people like you and me make. Sometimes, to leave the world better than you found it, you have to clean up other people’s trash. Be sure to clean up your messes and watch the “Pollution Solutions” episode

William Sanford “Bill” Nye, popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science educator, comedian, television host, actor, writer, and scientist who began his career as a mechanical engineer at Boeing. He is best known as the host of the Disney/PBS children’s science show Bill Nye the Science Guy and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.

Eco-preservation : Chinese Air Pollution affects Japan and Korea

Buildings in the western Japanese city of Osaka, some 2,250 kilometers (1,400 miles) southeast of Beijing, are shrouded in dense smog Wednesday, February 26, 2014 a day after parts of northern China suffered a sixth straight day of severe pollution. The readings of particulate matter known as PM2.5, a key measure of pollution reached 104 micrograms per cubic meter in Osaka in the morning. The World Health Organization considers 25 micrograms a safe level. (Photo by AP Photo/Kyodo News) 

Buildings in the western Japanese city of Osaka, some 2,250 kilometers (1,400 miles) southeast of Beijing, are shrouded in dense smog Wednesday, February 26, 2014 a day after parts of northern China suffered a sixth straight day of severe pollution. The readings of particulate matter known as PM2.5, a key measure of pollution reached 104 micrograms per cubic meter in Osaka in the morning. The World Health Organization considers 25 micrograms a safe level. (Photo by AP Photo/Kyodo News)

A general view of the pollution covered Beijing CBD on February 25, 2014 in Beijing, China. The air pollution has caused an increase in the number of people seeking hospital treatment for respiratory problems and the public are asked to avoid outdoor activities. (Photo by Lintao Zhang/Getty Images)

A general view of the pollution covered Beijing CBD on February 25, 2014 in Beijing, China. The air pollution has caused an increase in the number of people seeking hospital treatment for respiratory problems and the public are asked to avoid outdoor activities. (Photo by Lintao Zhang/Getty Images)

A couple watches the Seoul skyline covered with a thick haze at Seoul Tower's observation deck in Seoul, South Korea, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The Seoul metropolitan government issued a dust warning, urging people to stay indoors. (Photo by Ahn Young-joon/AP Photo) 
A couple watches the Seoul skyline covered with a thick haze at Seoul Tower’s observation deck in Seoul, South Korea, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The Seoul metropolitan government issued a dust warning, urging people to stay indoors.
(Photo by Ahn Young-joon/AP Photo)

Children walk back home after school on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China's Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
Children walk back home after school on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China’s Hebei province,
Wednesday, February 26, 2014.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

Vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing's skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. Chinese characters on board reads: “Smog weather, reduce going outside”. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing’s skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants. Chinese characters on board reads: “Smog weather, reduce going outside”.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

A watchdog stands in front of a wall with a mosaic scenic painting at a cement plant on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China's Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The meteorological center said moderate or severe pollution had persisted in northern China since Thursday, and that it was particularly serious in Beijing and its surrounding area. It forecast that the pollution would continue in parts of eastern, northern and central China until Wednesday evening, when precipitation and wind should help to disperse it. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
A watchdog stands in front of a wall with a mosaic scenic painting at a cement plant on a severely polluted day in Shijiazhuang, in northern China’s Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. The meteorological center said moderate or severe pollution had persisted in northern China since Thursday, and that it was particularly serious in Beijing and its surrounding area. It forecast that the pollution would continue in parts of eastern, northern and central China until Wednesday evening, when precipitation and wind should help to disperse it.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

People are seen inside a residential apartment building as city skyline shrouded with heavy haze in Beijing Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. (Photo by Andy Wong/AP Photo) 
People are seen inside a residential apartment building as city skyline shrouded with heavy haze in Beijing Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants.
(Photo by Andy Wong/AP Photo)

A man and a car travelling on a road are obscured in heavy haze on a severely polluted day in Pingshan county of Shijiazhuang, in northern China's Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Chinese President Xi Jinping braved Beijing's choking smog Tuesday, making an unannounced visit to a trendy alley and sitting with residents in his latest public relations effort to be seen as a man of the people. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
A man and a car travelling on a road are obscured in heavy haze on a severely polluted day in Pingshan county of Shijiazhuang, in northern China’s Hebei province, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Chinese President Xi Jinping braved Beijing’s choking smog Tuesday, making an unannounced visit to a trendy alley and sitting with residents in his latest public relations effort to be seen as a man of the people.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

Vehicles clog a highway during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Vehicles clog a highway during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. Beijing remained cloaked in hazardous white pollution hiding much of its skyline Wednesday, despite the announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

Paramilitary policemen stand ready to march across Tiananmen Square on a severely polluted day in Beijing, China, Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Pollution across a large swath of northern China worsened on Tuesday. (Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo) 
Paramilitary policemen stand ready to march across Tiananmen Square on a severely polluted day in Beijing, China, Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Pollution across a large swath of northern China worsened on Tuesday.
(Photo by Alexander F. Yuan/AP Photo)

Pedestrians cross an overhead bridge as vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing's skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city's industrial plants. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Pedestrians cross an overhead bridge as vehicles clog a main highway during a sixth straight day of severe pollution in Beijing Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Hazardous white pollution hid much of Beijing’s skyline Tuesday, despite announced closures or production cuts at 147 of the city’s industrial plants.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

In this photo taken Sunday February 23, 2014, residents barbecue along the river bank during a hazy day in southwest China's Chongqing municipality. Xinhua said that almost all provinces in central and east China have had serious air pollution since Friday, and that Beijing and five provinces in northern and eastern China had reported “severe smog”. (Photo by AP Photo) 
In this photo taken Sunday February 23, 2014, residents barbecue along the river bank during a hazy day in southwest China’s Chongqing municipality. Xinhua said that almost all provinces in central and east China have had serious air pollution since Friday, and that Beijing and five provinces in northern and eastern China had reported “severe smog”.
(Photo by AP Photo)

Chinese women wearing masks cross the road near the headquarters of the China Central Television headquarters during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014. (Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo) 
Chinese women wearing masks cross the road near the headquarters of the China Central Television headquarters during a hazy day in Beijing, China, Wednesday, February 26, 2014.
(Photo by Ng Han Guan/AP Photo)

A combination picture shows Beijing's hazy sky (L) on February 24, 2014 and clear sky on February 27, 2014, from the top of Jingshan Park near the Forbidden City. China's environment ministry has vowed to “harshly punish” factories and power plants that contributed to a hazardous smog which enveloped much of Northern China, official state media reported on Wednesday. (Photo by Kim Kyung-Hoon/Reuters) 
A combination picture shows Beijing’s hazy sky (L) on February 24, 2014 and clear sky on February 27, 2014, from the top of Jingshan Park near the Forbidden City. China’s environment ministry has vowed to “harshly punish” factories and power plants that contributed to a hazardous smog which enveloped much of Northern China, official state media reported on Wednesday.
(Photo by Kim Kyung-Hoon/Reuters)

Tourists visit Jingshan Hill before the Forbidden City as heavy air pollution continues to shroud Beijing on February 26, 2014. Beijing's official reading for PM 2.5, small airborne particles which easily penetrate the lungs and have been linked to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths, stood at 501 micrograms per cubic metre. (Photo by Mark Ralston/AFP Photo) 

Tourists visit Jingshan Hill before the Forbidden City as heavy air pollution continues to shroud Beijing on February 26, 2014. Beijing’s official reading for PM 2.5, small airborne particles which easily penetrate the lungs and have been linked to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths, stood at 501 micrograms per cubic metre(Photo by Mark Ralston/AFP Photo)

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Crafts & Creativity: Multi-Talented Preethi Venugopal

Can you make flowers from plastic bags and tulips from sock? Yes, it is possible!

Preethi Venugopal – a civil engineer from Bangalore, India inspires us with that creativity in her to make flowers from plastic bags, even tulips from nylon sock. 

Preethi is currently on a sabbatical. She was interested in crafts right from her school days. The best thing about her is she also teach crochet, crafts and arts to kids in her neighborhood for free.

She is an active on blogger (http://tulipsandme.blogspot.in) Her talents expands beyond making crafts. She also makes pencil and charcoal portraits on demand, paints when she finds the mood for it.

She is proficient in acrylics, watercolor and oil paints, likes digital painting as well and often experiment with Adobe Photoshop.

We are happy to share a few of her tutorials here on Propel Steps,

Steps to make flowers using plastic bags:

Step (1): Cut in the indicated areas to get a rectangular sheet.

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Step (2): Cut the rectangular sheet into strips of equal width. Depending upon the width of the cover you can make different sizes of flowers. Make a minimum of 6 similar strips and stack them together

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Step (3): Make pleats on them (stacked together) of half inch wide throughout

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Step (4): Now tie a thread/ plastic strip/ in the middle. If you want the flower to have a stem tie with metal wire instead of plastic strip.

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Step (5): Now cut petal shape on both sides

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Step (6): This is how it will look

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Step (7): Now start pulling up the individual layers on both sides of the tie

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Step (8):  This is how it looks after pulling out one side completely. Continue pulling out the layers on both sides of the tie.

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Step (9): Two flowers that I made in similar fashion

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Step (10): Now add it to a bouquet or make one out of a similar bunch of flowers

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Steps to make Tulips from nylon sock:

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It is pretty easy once you get the idea of how to make a single petal.

For making this, the materials we need are:

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  • Nylon sock : Cream and Green color (as you prefer)
  • Two empty bottles of slightly different diameter : ( I took 5 cm and 6cm dia bottles respectively to loop the wire around to create petals and leaves)
  • Cutting Plier
  • Scissors
  • Nylon Thread
  • Metal Wire : Gold Colour
  • Flower tape: Green
  • Anther

All these materials will be available in craft shops.

First wind the gold wire on the bottles to form loops and tie them tight using a cutting player. Make 3 smaller petals using 5 cm dia bottle and three larger petals by looping around the 6 cm dia bottle. For the 2 green leaves loop around the two bottles kept side by side together so that you get a larger loop.

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Add a central connecting wire : For the 3 bigger petals and the 2 leaves,give a central connecting wire as shown in the above picture using the cutting player. This central wire is important to give the shape to the Tulip.

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Wrap the sock around wire petal: Now wrap around the 6 petals with cream nylon sock and the 2 leaf petals with green sock and tie them up using the nylon thread.

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Anthers fixed to the stem: Now twist three 15 cm long wires and tie them together. Wind the green flower tape to create a stem. Now tie the Anthers onto the stem with nylon thread.

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Tie the petals upside down : Now tie the 3 larger petals upside down followed by the 3 smaller petals.
It will look like this after tying like this.

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Petals tied upside down : Now slowly pull them up one by one bringing the shape of the Tulip like this.

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Pull the petals up: Tie the leaves in a similar manner on the stem at different positions and gently shape the petals and leaves like this.

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Add the leaves : Now wind the flower tape around the leaves to hide the thread.
You are done!!!

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Make many to make a bouquet or give it pride of place on your dining table as a single flower arrangement…!!!

Recycling is not the only solution to reduce the adverse effect of the plastic bags, sometimes an artistic mind with little effort can help us to lengthen the usage / reuse the plastic bags. Rather ending up on garbage we can prolong their utility by making flower / crafts out of them. May be someday our technologies will find an efficient way to dispose them safely compared to now, till that we can make it decorate our home, instead of making landfills.

Please visit her blog Tulips and Me for more of her works and wonderful pencil portraits.

A sample of her work. Hindu God : Baby Krishna

A sample of her work. Hindu God : Baby Krishna

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Courtesy : Preethi Venugopal , Tulips and Me and Indiblogger