Know : List of Oldest & Continuously Inhabited Cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

The age claims listed are generally disputed and may indeed be obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of “city” as well as “continuously inhabited” and historical evidence is often disputed.

Several cities listed here (Balkh, Byblos, Aleppo, Damascus, and Jericho) each popularly claim to be “the oldest city in the world”.

Name Continuously
inhabited since
Historical
region
Location
Aberdeen c. 580 Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Acoma
Puebloand Taos Pueblo,  New Mexico
c. 1075 Pueblo culture US
Albany, New York 1614 New Netherlands US
Aleppo Chalcolithic
(4300 BC or earlier)
Levant Syria
Alexandria 332 BC Egypt
Amesbury 8th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Britain
UK (England)
Amman c. 1878 Levant Jordan
Argos 5th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Mycenaean Greece
Greece
Århus c. 770 Denmark
Athens 5th–4th
Millennium BC
Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica,
Greece
Axum c. 400 BC Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia
Bagan 849 AD Kingdom of Pagan Myanmar
Baku The 1st century AD. Azerbaijan Absheron peninsula
Balkh  (as Bactra) 1500 BC Bactria Balkh
Province, Afghanistan
Bamyan 1st century AD Bactria Bamyan Province, Afghanistan
Bandar Seri Begawan 977 AD Kingdom of
Po-ni
Brunei
Baracoa 1511 New Spain Cuba
Barcelona  (as
Barcino)
3rd century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Bath  (as Aquae Sulis) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Beijing c. 1045 BC Ji,
Yan
Beijing,
China
Beirut 3000 BC Levant Lebanon
Belgrade 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Berat 314 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Albania
Berbera c. 400 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi 6th century BC Bessarabia Ukraine
Butuan 1001 AD Kingdom of Butuan Philippines
Byblos (Jubayl) Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier) Levant Lebanon
Cádiz 1100 BC Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Cagliari 8th century BC Sardinia Sardegna,
Italy
Cape Guardafui c. 500 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Cape Town 1652 Cape colony South Africa
Cartagena  (as
Carthago Nova)
228 BC Iberia Spain
Carthage 814 BC Tunisia
Chalcis before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Chania c. 1400 BC Crete Crete,
Greece
Chengdu c. 400 BC Shu Sichuan,
China
Chios c. 1100 BC Chios North Aegean, Greece
Cholula c. 2nd
century BC
Old Cholula Mexico
Chur 15 BC Raetia Prima Grisons,
Switzerland
Cologne 50 AD Germania Inferior Germany
Constanţa 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Corfu,  Kerkyra 700 BC Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece
Crotone  (as Kroton) 710 BC Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy
Cusco c. 1100 Inca Empire Peru
Damascus Chalcolithic Levant Syria
Djenné-Jeno c. 200 BC Mali
Dublin 841 Ireland Ireland
Durrës 627 BC Illyria Albania
Edessa, Greece before the 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Edinburgh as Din
Eidyn
c. 580 Gododdin UK (Scotland)
Erbil 6000 BC or earlier Mesopotamia Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq
Évora 53 BC (Roman conquest) Lusitania Portugal
Faiyum  (as Shediet,
Crocodilopolis,  Ptolemais Euergetis,  Arsinoe)
c. 4000 BC Lower Egypt Faiyum Governorate, Egypt
Feodosiya  (as
Theodosia)
7th century
BC
Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Fes  (as Fes-al-Bali) 789 Morocco
Gaza c. 1000 BC Levant Gaza Strip
Gaziantep c. 3650 BC Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey
Ghadames  (as Cydamus) 19 BC Libya
Glasgow c. 6th century Dál Riata orAlt
Clut
UK
(Scotland)
Guangzhou
(as Panyu)
214 BC Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China
Gyeongju 57 BC Silla South Korea
Hamadan
(asEcbatana)
c. 800 BC Median Empire Iran
Hangzhou  (as Lin’an) c. 200 BC Qin Dynasty Zhejiang,
China
Hanoi 454 AD Jiaozhou Vietnam
Hebron c. 1500 BC Levant West Bank
Heraklion 824 Crete Greece
Ife c. 350 BC Osun State Nigeria
Igodomigodo c. 400 BC Kingdom of Benin Nigeria
Inverness c. 6th century Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Ioannina 527–565 Byzantine Empire Greece
Istanbul/Byzantion 685 BC Anatolia ThraceAnatolia Turkey
Jaffa c. 2000 BC Levant Israel
Jamestown,
Virginia
1607 Colony of Virginia US
Jenin c. 2450 BC Levant West Bank
Jericho Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Levant West Bank
Jerusalem (Old
City)
2800 BC Levant West Bank
Kaifeng  (as Daling, Bianzhou,
Dongjing, Bianjing)
c. 364 BC Wei Henan,
China
Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur c. 2nd
century AD
Nepal Kathmanduvalley,
Nepal
Kavala 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Kediri 1042 AD Kediri Kingdom Indonesia
Kerch 7th century BC Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Kerikeri c. 1818 Northland New Zealand
Kiev 482 AD Medieval East Slavic civilization Ukraine
Kirkuk
(asArrapha)
3000–2200 BC Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate,
Iraq
Kismayo 4th century Bilad al-Barbar, after the 14th century part of theAjuuraan
Empire
Somalia
Kraków  (Wawel Hill) 7th century Lesser Poland Poland
Kumasi c. 1680 Ashanti
Empire
Ghana
Kutaisi c. 2000 BC Colchis Imeretiprovince,
Georgia
Kyoto
(as Heian-kyō, and sometimes
known in the west as Miyako)
794 AD Japan Japan
Lamia before the
5th century BC
Greece Greece
Lamu c. 1300 Kenya
Larnaca c. 1400 BC Alashiya Cyprus
Lisbon c. 1200 BC Iron Age Iberia Portugal
Ljubljana 50 BC Italia Slovenia
London  (asLondinium) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Luang Prabang 698 AD Muang Sua Laos
Lund c. 990 Denmark Sweden
Luoyang  (as Zhenxun, Xibo) c. 2070 BC Xia Dynasty Henan,
China
Luxor  (as Waset, better known by its Greek nameThebes) c. 3200 BC Ancient Egypt Egypt
Madurai 500 BC Pandyan kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Mahasthangarh, Bogra 4th century BC Pundravardhana Bogra District, Bangladesh
Málaga 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Mangalia 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Manila 900 AD Kingdom of
Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila
Philippines
Mantua 6th century BC Po Valley Lombardy,
Italy
Marrakesh
(Murakuc)
1070 Morocco
Marseilles  (as
Massilia)
600 BC Gaul France
Messina  (as Zancle) 8th century
BC
Sicily Sicily, Italy
Metz 4th century BC Gaul France
Mexico City 1325 Mexica culture Mexico
Mogadishu c. 700 Sultanate of Mogadishu Somalia
Montreal 1642 New France Canada
Mtskheta c. 1000 BC Caucasian Iberia Georgia
Mytilene 10th century
BC
Lesbos North Aegean, Greece
Nablus  (asShechem) c. 100 Levant West Bank
Nanjing  (as Yecheng, Jianye,
Jiankang, Jinling)
c. 495 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Naples c. 680 BC Magna Graecia Italy
Nara  (as Heijō-kyō) 710 AD Japan Japan
Nijmegen 19 BC Germania Inferior Netherlands
Niš 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Nombre de Dios,
Colón
1510 New Granada Panama
Novi Sad 1st century
AD
Illyria Serbia
Old Cairo c. 100 Egypt
Oraibi, Arizona c. 1100 Hopi culture US
Osaka  (as Naniwa) c. 400 AD Japan Japan
Palembang c. 600 AD Srivijaya Indonesia
Panama City 1519 New Granada Panama
Paris 52 BC Lutetia France
Patna 5th century BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Patras c. 1100 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Peshawar c. 400–300 BC Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Plovdiv 3000 –
4000 BC
Thrace Plovdiv
Province, Bulgaria
Plymouth,
Massachusetts
1620 Plymouth Colony US
Polatsk 862 Belarus
Prague c. 6th century Bohemia Czech Republic
Provadia 4700 BC. Neolithic,
Danubian Plain
Bulgaria
Ptuj 1st century BC Pannonia Slovenia
Pyeongyang
(as Wanggeom-seong)
194 BC Gojoseon North Korea
Qabala  (as Kabalaka) 4th century BC Caucasian Albania Azerbaijan
Quebec City 1608 New France Canada
Quito 980 Quitu culture Ecuador
Rajagriha
(Rajgir)
600 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion) 743 BC Magna Graecia Calabria,
Italy
Rey 3000 BC Media Iran
Reykjavík c. 871 Iceland Iceland
Rhodes c. 408 BC Rhodes,
Aegean Sea
Dodecanese, Greece
Ribe 704–710 Jutland Denmark
Rome 753 BC Latium Lazio,
Italy
Roses  (as
Rhode)
4th century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Saint John 1631 New France Canada
Samarqand 700 BC Sogdiana Uzbekistan
San
Diego
1769 New
Spain
US
San Juan 1508 New Spain Puerto Rico (US)
Sant Martí d’Empúries  (as Emporion) ca. 575 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Santa Fe de Bogota 1538 New Granada Colombia
Santa Fe, New
Mexico
1607 New Spain US
Santa Marta 1525 New Granada Colombia
Santiago del Estero 1553 Río de la Plata Argentina
Santo Domingo 1496 Hispaniola Dominican Republic
São Vicente, São
Paulo
1532 Governorate General of Brazil Brazil
Sault Ste. Marie,
Michigan
1668 New France US
Seoul
(as Wiryeseong)
18 BC Baekjae South Korea
Serres 5th century BC Macedonia Greece
Seville 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Sidon 4000 BC Levant Lebanon
Siem Reap 801 AD Khmer Empire Cambodia
Singapore 1170 AD Kingdom of Singapura Singapore
Skara 988 Sweden
Skopje 81–96 AD Macedonia (Roman
province)
Republic of Macedonia
Smederevo 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
Sofala c. 700 Mozambique
Sofia 4th century
BC
Moesia Sofia
Valley, Bulgaria
Solothurn c. 20 AD Gaul Switzerland
Sremska Mitrovica 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
St. Augustine,
Florida
1565 New Spain US
St. John’s,
Newfoundland and Labrador
1540s Newfoundland Colony Canada
Stara Zagora 342 BC Thrace Bulgaria
Staraya Ladoga 753 Russia
Stobi/Gradsko 217 BC Macedonia Republic of Macedonia
Susa
(Shush)
4200 BC Khuzestan Iran
Suzhou  (as Gusu, Wu) 514 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Syracuse 734 BC Sicily Sicily,
Italy
Taranto  (as Taras) 706 BC Magna Graecia Puglia,
Italy
Tarragona  (as
Tarraco)
218 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Tbilisi c. 500 Caucasian Iberia Kartli province, Georgia
Ternate 1109 AD Sultanate of Ternate Indonesia
Thanjavur 300 BC Early Chola kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Thebes c. 1400 BC Mycenaean
Greece
Boeotia,
Greece
Thessaloniki 315 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Greece
Tidore 1109 AD Sultanate of Tidore Indonesia
Tongeren 10 BC Germania Inferior Belgium
Trier 30 BC Gallia Belgica Germany
Trikala before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Thessaly,
Greece
Trois-Rivières 1634 New France Canada
Trondheim 997 Norway Norway
Tyre 2750 BC Levant Lebanon
Ujjain  (As Avanti) c. 800 BC Malwa India
Upper Xingu c. 800 AD Xingu culture Brazil
Vaisali 500 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Varanasi c. 1200–1100
BC
Iron Age India Uttar Pradesh, India
Varna 585 BC – 570 BC Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria
Veliky Novgorod 859 Russia
Vera Cruz 1519 New Spain Mexico
Verdun 4th century Lotharingia France
Veria c. 432 BC Macedonia Greece
Vitebsk 947 Belarus
Volterra c. 725 BC Tuscany Tuscany,
Italy
Vukovar 3500 BC Illyria Croatia
Winchester  (asVenta Belgarum) c. 70 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Worms 14 BC Germania Superior Germany
Xanthi before 879 Thrace Greece
Xi’an  (as Haojing, Fenghao,
Chang’an, Daxing)
c. 1100 BC Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi,
China
Yeha c. 700 BC D’mt Ethiopia
Yerevan 782 BC Urartu Armenia
York  (asEboracum) c. 72 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Zagreb 1 st century Illyria Croatia
Zeila/Avalite c. 9th century BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Zürich
(Lindenhof)
c. 50 BC Gaul Switzerland
c.
Citation needed
 

Courtesy & Source: Wikipedia 

Know : 100s of Rose Species (Gallery)

rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa (The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa), within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.

The Gallery here features native Roses (Rosa flowers not the hybrid ones, which we will post later)

The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:

  • Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning “with single leaves”) containing one or two species from southwest AsiaR. persica and R. berberifolia (syn. R. persica var. berberifolia) which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
  • Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for “western rose”) has two species, both from southwestern North America. These are R. minutifolia and R. stellata.
  • Platyrhodon (from the Greek for “flaky rose”, referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, R. roxburghii.
  • Rosa (the type subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
    • Banksianae – white and yellow roses from China
    • Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India
    • Caninae – pink and white species from AsiaEurope and North Africa
    • Carolinae – white, pink, and bright pink species all from North America
    • Chinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma
    • Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped roses from western Asia and Europe
    • Gymnocarpae – a small group distinguished by a deciduous receptacle on the hip; one species in western North America (R. gymnocarpa), the others in east Asia
    • Laevigatae – a single white species from China
    • Pimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe
    • Rosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa
    • Synstylae – white, pink, and crimson roses from all areas
1 Rosa abyssinica
2 Rosa acicularis – Arctic Rose, Prickly Rose (Rosa)
3 Rosa × alba (possibly R. canina × R. gallica)
4 Rosa alexandrae
5 Rosa alpina see Rosa pendulina
6 Rosa anemoniflora
7 Rosa arkansana (syn. R. pratincola, R. suffulta) – Wild Prairie Rose, Arkansas Rose (Rosa)
8 Rosa arvensis – Field Rose, Trailing Rose (Synstylae)
9 Rosa azerbaidshanica
10 Rosa banksiae (Banksianae)
11 Rosa beggeriana – (Gymnocarpae)
12 R. berberifolia – syn. R. persica var. berberifolia
13 Rosa blanda
14 Rosa bracteata – Chicksaw Rose, Macartney Rose (Bracteatae)
15 Rosa bridgesii
16 Rosa brunonii – Himalayan Musk Rose, Brown’s Musk Rose (Synstylae)
17 Rosa californica – California Wild Rose (Rosa)
18 Rosa canina – Dog Rose (Caninae)
19 Rosa carolina – Carolina Rose, Pasture Rose (Carolinae)
20 Rosa centifolia cristata – Crested Moss
21 Rosa × centifolia (complex hybrid possibly containing R. rubra, R. phoenicia, R. moschata, R. canina)
22 Rosa chinensis var. spontanea – China Rose (Chinensis)
23 Rosa cinnamomea see R. majalis
24 Rosa clinophylla (R. involucrata) (Bracteatae)
25 Rosa × coryana (R. macrophylla x R. roxburghii)
26 Rosa corymbifera (Caninae)
27 Rosa cuspidata see Rosa tomentosa
28 Rosa cymosa (Banksianae)
29 Rosa × damascena ((R. moschata × R. gallica) × R. fedtschenkoana)
30 Rosa davidii – Father David’s Rose (Rosa)
31 Rosa dumalis – Glaucous Dog Rose
32 Rosa dumetorum
33 Rosa ecae (syn. R. xanthina var. ecae) (Pimpinellifoliae)
34 Rosa eglanteria see Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa foetida
35 Rosa elegantula – Threepenny Bit Rose (Rosa)
36 Rosa fedtschenkoana (Rosa)
37 Rosa filipes
38 Rosa floribunda see R. micrantha
39 Rosa foetida (syn. R. lutea) – Austrian Briar (Pimpinellifoliae)
40 Rosa foliolosa
41 Rosa forrestiana
42 Rosa gallica – French Rose, Rose of Provins (Gallicanae)
43 Rosa gentiliana (syn. R. polyantha grandiflora)
44 Rosa gigantea (syn. R. × odorata gigantea) (Chinensis)
45 Rosa giraldii
46 Rosa glandulosa see Rosa maximowicziana
47 Rosa glauca (syn. R. rubrifolia) – Redleaf Rose
48 Rosa gymnocarpa (Gymnocarpae)
49 Rosa helenae (Synstylae)
50 Rosa hemisphaerica (syn. R. sulphurea) – Sulphur Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
51 Rosa henryi
52 Rosa holodonta (syn. R. moyesii rosea)
53 Rosa hugonis – Father Hugo’s Rose, Golden Rose of China
54 Rosa involucrata see Rosa clinophylla
55 Rosa × kochiana
56 Rosa kokanica (Pimpinellifoliae)
57 Rosa kordesii
58 Rosa laevigata (syn. R. sinica) – Cherokee Rose, Camellia Rose, Mardan Rose (Laevigatae)
59 Rosa laxa (syn. R. gebleriana) (Rosa)
60 Rosa longicuspis
61 Rosa luciae see Rosa wichuraiana
62 Rosa lucida see Rosa virginiana
63 Rosa lutea see Rosa foetida
64 Rosa × macrantha
65 Rosa macrophylla (Rosa)
66 Rosa majalis (syn R. cinnamomea) – Cinnamon Rose (Rosa)
67 Rosa maximowicziana (syn. R. glandulosa)
68 Rosa micrantha (syn. R. floribunda, R. numerosa, R. rubiginosa)
69 Rosa minutifolia (Hesperrhodos)
70 Rosa mollis
71 Rosa moschata – Musk Rose
72 Rosa moyesii (Rosa)
73 Rosa moyesii var. rosea see Rosa holodonta
74 Rosa mulliganii (Synstylae)
75 Rosa multibracteata (Rosa)
76 Rosa multiflora – Multiflora Rose (Synstylae)
77 Rosa nitida (Carolinae)
78 Rosa numerosa see R. micrantha
79 Rosa nutkana – Nootka Rose, Nutka Rose
80 Rosa obtusifolia
81 Rosa × odorata var. gigantea see Rosa gigantea
82 Rosa omeiensis
83 Rosa omissa see Rosa sherardii
84 Rosa oxyacantha
85 Rosa palustris – Swamp Rose (Carolinae)
86 Rosa pendulina (syn. R. alpina) – Alpine Rose
87 Rosa persica (syn. Hulthemia persica, R. simplicifolia)
88 Rosa phoenicia
89 Rosa pimpinellifolia (syn. R. spinosissima) – Burnet Rose, Scots Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
90 Rosa pinetorum
91 Rosa pisocarpa
92 Rosa polyantha var. grandiflora see Rosa gentiliana
93 Rosa pomifera see Rosa villosa
94 Rosa primula – Incense Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
95 Rosa roxburghii – Chestnut Rose, Burr Rose (Platyrhodon)
96 Rosa rubiginosa (syn. R. eglanteria) – Sweetbriar, Eglantine (Caninae)
97 Rosa rubrifolia see Rosa glauca
98 Rosa rugosa – Rugosa Rose, Ramanas Rose, Japanese Rose (Rosa)
99 Rosa salictorum
100 Rosa sempervirens – Evergreen Rose (Synstylae)
101 Rosa seraphinii see Rosa sicula
102 Rosa sericea – Winged Rose (Pimpinellifoliae)
103 Rosa setigera – Prairie Rose (Synstylae)
104 Rosa setipoda
105 Rosa sherardii (syn. R. omissa)
106 Rosa sicula (syn. R. seraphinii)
107 Rosa simplicifolia see Rosa persica
108 Rosa sinica see Rosa laevigata
109 Rosa soulieana (Synstylae)
110 Rosa spinosissima see Rosa pimpinellifolia
111 Rosa spithamea
112 Rosa squarrosa
113 Rosa stellata – Gooseberry Rose, Sacramento Rose (Hesperrhodos)
114 Rosa stellata var. mirifica (Hesperrhodos)
115 Rosa suffulta see Rosa arkansana
116 Rosa sulphurea see Rosa hemisphaerica
117 Rosa willmottiae (Gymnocarpae)
118 Rosa woodsii – Mountain Rose
119 Rosa xanthina – Manchu Rose

Courtesy : Wikipedia