Know : Romance Languages : List, Origin, Current Status

The Romance languages (more accurately the Romanic languages), are a group of languages known also as Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages, and are descended from Vulgar Latin. They form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family. The five most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish (410 million), Portuguese (220 million), French (75 million), Italian (60 million), and Romanian (25 million). The larger have many non-native speakers; this is especially the case for French, which is in widespread use throughout Central and West Africa and the Maghreb region.

The Romance languages developed from Latin in the sixth to ninth centuries. Today, there are more than 800 million native speakers worldwide, mainly in Europe and the Americas and many smaller regions scattered throughout the world, as well as large numbers of non-native speakers, and widespread use as lingua franca. Because of the difficulty of imposing boundaries on a continuum, there are various counts of the Romance languages; Dalby lists 23 based on mutual intelligibility:

GalicianPortugueseSpanishAsturian-LeoneseAragoneseCatalanGasconProvençalGallo-WallonFrenchFranco-Provençal,  Romansh,  Ladin,  Friulian,  Venetian,  Lombard,  Corsican, ItalianNeapolitanSicilianSardinianDalmatianIstro-RomanianAromanian, and Daco-Romanian.

In several of these cases, more than one variety has been standardized, and is therefore considered a distinct language in the popular conception; this is true for example with Asturian and Leonese as well as Napolitan and Sicilian.

Origins

romance language origin

Romance languages are the continuation of Vulgar Latin, the popular and colloquial sociolect of Latin spoken by soldiers, settlers and merchants of the Roman Empire, as distinguished from the Classical form of the language spoken by the Roman upper classes, the form in which the language was generally written. Between 350 BC and AD 150, the expansion of the Empire, together with its administrative and educational policies, made Latin the dominant native language in continental Western Europe. Latin also exerted a strong influence in southeastern Britainthe Roman province of Africa, and the Balkans north of the Jireček Line.

During the Empire’s decline, and after its fragmentation and collapse in the fifth century, varieties of Latin began to diverge within each local area at an accelerated rate and eventually evolved into a continuum of recognizably different typologies. The overseas empires established by PortugalSpain, and France from the fifteenth century onward spread their languages to the other continents to such an extent that about two-thirds of all Romance language speakers today live outside Europe.

Despite other influences (e.g. substratum from pre-Roman languages, especially Continental Celtic languages; and superstratum from later Germanic or Slavic invasions), the phonologymorphology, and lexicon of all Romance languages are overwhelmingly evolved forms of Vulgar Latin. However, there are some notable differences between today’s Romance languages and their Roman ancestor. With only one or two exceptions, Romance languages have lost the declension system of Latin and, as a result, have SVO sentence structure and make extensive use of prepositions.

Romance Languages in Europe

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Romance Languages – World

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Lexical and grammatical similarities among the Romance languages, and between Latin and each of them, are apparent from the following examples having the same meaning:

English: She always closes the window before she dines.

Latin (Ea) semper antequam cenat fenestram claudit.
Aragonese (Ella) zarra siempre a finestra antes de cenar.
Aromanian (Ea/Nâsa) încljidi/nkidi totna firida ninti di tsinâ.
Asturian (Ella) pieslla siempres la ventana enantes de cenar.
Bergamasque (Lé) la sèra sèmper sö la finèstra prima de senà.
Bolognese (Lî) la sèra sänper la fnèstra prémma ed dsnèr.
Catalan (Ella) sempre tanca la finestra abans de sopar.
Corsican (Ella/Edda) chjode sempre u purtellu nanzu di cenà.
Emilian (Lē) la sèra sèmpar sù la fnèstra prima ad snàr.
Extremaduran (Ella) afecha siempri la ventana antis de cenal.
Franco-Provençal (Le) sarre toltin/tojor la fenétra avan de goutâ/dinar/sopar.
French Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner/souper.
Friulan (Jê) e siere simpri il barcon prin di cenâ.
Galician (Ela) pecha/fecha sempre a fiestra/xanela antes de cear.
Italian (Ella/Lei) chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare.
Judaeo-Spanish Eya serra syempre la ventana antes de senar.
Ladin (Ëra) stlüj dagnora la finestra impröma de cenè. (badiot) (Ëila) stluj for l viere dan maië da cëina (gherdëina)
Leonese (Eilla) pecha siempre la ventana primeiru de cenare.
Ligurian (Le) a saera sempre u barcun primma de cenà.
Lombard(west.) (Lee) la sara sù semper la finestra primma de disnà/scenà.
Magoua (Elle) à fàrm toujour là fnèt àvan k’à manj.
Mauritian Creole Li touzur pou ferm lafnet avan (li) manze.
Milanese (Le) la sara semper sü la finestra prima de disnà.
Mirandese (Eilha) cerra siempre la bentana/jinela atrás de jantar.
Mozarabic Ella cloudet sempre la fainestra abante da cenare. (reconstructed)
Neapolitan Essa nzerra sempe ‘a fenesta primma ‘e magnà.
Norman Lli barre tréjous la crouésie devaunt de daîner.
Occitan (Ela) barra sempre/totjorn la fenèstra abans de sopar.
Picard Ale frunme tojours l’ creusèe édvint éd souper.
Piedmontese Chila a sara sèmper la fnestra dnans ëd fé sin-a/dnans ëd siné.
Portuguese Ela fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar/cear.
Romanian Ea închide totdeauna fereastra înainte de cinare.
Romansh Ella clauda/serra adina la fanestra avant ch’ella tschainia.
Sardinian Issa sèrrat sémper/sémpri sa bentàna innantis de chenàre/cenài.
Sassarese Edda sarra sempri lu balchoni primma di zinà.
Sicilian Idda chiui sempri la finestra prima di pistiari/manciari.
Spanish (Ella) siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar.
Umbrian Essa chjude sempre la finestra prima de cena’.
Venetian Eła ła sara/sera sempre ła fenestra vanti de xenàr/disnar.
Walloon Ele sere todi li finiesse divant di soper.

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia and Google

Life Excerpts: The Day that changed the life : Alfred Nobel

alfred NobelAbout a hundred years ago, a man looked at the morning newspaper and to his surprise and horror, read his name in the obituary column. The newspapers had reported the death of the wrong person by mistake. His first response was shock. Am I here or there? When he regained his composure, his second thought was to find out what people had said about him. The obituary read, “Dynamite King Dies.” And also “He was the merchant of death.” This man was the inventor of dynamite and when he read the words “merchant of death,” he asked himself a question, “Is this how I am going to be remembered?” He got in touch with his feelings and decided that this was not the way he wanted to be remembered. From that day on, he started working toward peace. His name was Alfred Nobel and he is remembered today by the great Nobel Prize.

Just as Alfred Nobel got in touch with his feelings and redefined his values, we should step back and do the same.

  1. What is your legacy?
  2. How would you like to be remembered?
  3. Will you be spoken well of?
  4. Will you be remembered with love and respect?
  5. Will you be missed?

Assess: What kind of Confident Personality are you?

Many of us, pause for some time and check how others perceive our work. There can be an appreciation, or disagreement or even a no reaction from the recipients. There is no rule that the other person needs to be positive for our actions always.

Our happiness and mental peacefulness are more proportional to how much we give importance to others’ feedback.

Let us say you have 100 units of confidence in a project that you have done. Then you are presenting it to a group 100 people. Among them 50 people like your work and the other half dislikes it. Assume 50 positive reaction is equivalent to +50 units of Confidence, Whereas 50 dislikes / negative reaction is equivalent to -50 units of confidence.

Based on your personality type we can correlate your final confidence level as follows

Over Confident Personality:

Over Confident
This kind of persons takes only the positive feedback thus they will add up a further +50 units of confidence to their 100 units so they will have 150 units of confidence.

These people are mostly dictating and high performers, but volatile, yet their attitude towards a team can be so poor. In a justified environment these kind of personalities are subject to disliked more. Individually they are good but as a team they are poor.

Under Confident Personality:

under Confident

This kind of persons takes only the negative feedback thus they will deduce 50 units of confidence from their 100 units so they will have only 50 units of confidence.

These people are mostly negative minded and low performers, any point you can find them focusing on the negative side of things. In a justified environment this kind of personalities is ignored due to their negative mind sets. Often their views are seen as critics.

However these types of people are an essential part of a society to find faults which others may miss.

Variable Confident Personality:

Variable Confident
This kind of persons consider both the positive and negative feedback equally, thus they will add up the 50 and deduct the 50 units so they will have their original confidence level the same 100 units. However, based on the reaction variation this may change, for instance if the negative feedback is more, their overall confidence units may go down. Same on the other side if they get more positive feedback they then to be more confidence units.

These people are most common and optimal performers and very effective team players. The only concern is that these people need constant positive motivation and a leader to guide them. Only when the leadership fails these people tend to fail.

Constant Confident Personality:

Constant Confident
This kind of persons never lets the feedback to impact their original confidence level, be it negative or positive feedback they keep them aside. They manage it independently outside their mind on a common ground. Their original confidence level will remain the same irrespective of the feedback.

Further we can classify this kind into types,
A type People who consider the feedback – Justified / Democratic  who value others’ opinion
B type People who ignore the feedback – Autocratic  who do not value others’ opinion

Most of the ideal Leaders falls in this category of Constant Confident Personality Type.

An important point applies to all the four personalities is that their original confidence level need not to be 100 always that may vary from person to person. Just for better understanding the confidence is quantified as units, which in reality it is very difficult to do so. However a self analysis of ourselves can give us a better understanding about what kind of confident personality we are. Few of us are originally positive and negative, then according to our confident personality type we change. 

One of my favorite quotes helped me to develop this deeper insight

“No matter how wonderful you are you will always find someone who doesn’t like you! Even angels are hated by demons!” – Assya Moussaid 

It is advisable that we can work on our personality and groom ourselves to the Constant Confident Personality A Type, gradually. We need to develop resistance to feedbacks from  affecting our confidence levels. 

-Words by Din

Earth Our Home Too : 25 Intelligent Animals

Though we found them in a top 25 listing, we have removed the rating as it is better in this way. They are more intelligent than the other in some way or the other 🙂 Hope we humans do not ruin their home. Earth!

Well here the scale of intelligence is Human’s perspective, we define intelligence here as what according to human brains and ideas conceives, well maybe in Animals’ perspectives we humans may be the dumbest creatures to ruin our own habitat irreversible and moron-species 🙂

We may top their list of Dumbest Species 😛

 

Squids

Squids

Squids are said to be among the brainiest invertebrates in the world. Their brain structure is different from other invertebrates in the ocean, as they share complex features similar to the human brain. Like human beings, squids can be very curious about their environment. They have the ability to learn new skills and develop the capacity to use tools that can either help them repress their boredom and protect them from harm.

Spiders

Spiders

Spiders are among the smallest creatures to possess a proportionately high level of  intelligence. Especially the White-Mustached Portia spiders. These spiders dwell African; Asian; and Australian forests and have demonstrated special learning skills.

Ants

Ants

Though they are small, they have the ability to creatively withstand calamities that would that would wipe another species. Ants are often seen coordinating in massive groups to build nests and hunt for food; and they accommodate to their environment very well. All notable points when it comes to measuring intelligence.

Baboons

Baboons

Baboons are old world monkeys who have cognitive abilities very similar to chimpanzees and orangutans. In terms of the way they behave, one can see how these creatures resemble people. Unlike other animals, studies show that at some level baboons know how to identify stress and cope with it. They create extremely complex social systems and can think critically when confronted with difficult situations.

Sea Lions

Sea Lions

Studies have shown that sea lions possess the ability to think logically and can actually deduce if a=b and b=c, then a=c.

Orangutans

Orangutans

Just chimpanzees, the intelligence of orangutans is reflected in the way they imitate human actions. They also have the unique ability to learn complicated new skills, such as sawing wood or using a hammer and nail to put things together. Orangutans have the ability to understand their surroundings in a more abstract way than other animals so they know how to acclimate to some very harsh environments.

Pigeons

Pigeons

There’s a reason why pigeons have been used numerous times throughout history in places like battle fields . They are extremely good at Geo location and studies have shown that they have an amazing ability to remember people and places throughout the course of their life.

Crows

Crows

Along with pigeons, crows are among the most intelligent birds in the world. They have the ability to solve complicated problems and adapt to tough situations which can easily be seen in the way they gather their food and collect resources.

Sheep

Sheep

Of all the animals, sheep are believed to possess the most powerful memories with some research showing them to be better than humans in certain situations. For example, they have the ability to identify when a fellow sheep is lost in their flock.  Moreover, they exhibit a wide range of emotions and response to various things going on around them which also shows a high level of intelligence.

Raccoons

Raccoons

Known for being resourceful; raccoons are capable of forming complex social relationships and also make use of complex tools when problem solving.

Horses

Horses

Horses have always held a special meaning to humans, apart from the fact that they are very rideable and get us places they are also teachable, have good memories, and are able to respond to complicated commands quickly under stress.

Rhesus Monkeys

Monkeys

Known for having displayed suicidal tendencies and well planned attacks in a group; it’s safe to say that Rhesus Monkeys are extremely smart and resourceful.

Falcons

Falcons

Extremely adept hunters falcons have always been used in the same way as pigeons, to convey messages and do reconnaissance.  Their ability to follow commands and remember territory is formidable.

Rats

rats

Once could easily underestimate the mental capacity of a rat. While they can be revolting sewer dwellers that Hollywood has made them out to be, they are also quite smart. They have very good long term memories and are excellent when it comes to adapting to changing situations.

Owls

Owls

Even during the time of the ancient Greeks, owls were already seen as intelligent animals. While this may appear to be true due to preconceived notions about their “wisdom” this is the “burst your bubble” list item. That’s right, they are actually not that smart compared to other birds.  Technically they shouldn’t even be on this list but how else would we shatter everything you thought you knew?

Cats

Cats

Those who have cats as pets know that these animals are skilled at hunting. They are agile and they possess incredible sensory abilities and though they’re not nearly as trainable as dogs, they are extremely adept at learning new skills.

Squirrels

Squirrels

Squirrels may be small, but their brains should not underrated. Yes, we know what your thinking; every time you almost hit one with your car is because they can’t seem to figure out how to get out of your way, how can they be smart? Well, their intelligence is very focused on one thing; gathering food.  When it comes to storing provisions their minds are uniquely adapted with everything they need which includes a ridiculous memory to remember where they store it.

Elephants

Elephants

Compared to other animals, elephants have larger brains.  Of course just because your brain is big doesn’t necessarily mean much. What matters is the proportion of body mass to brain mass but even with that said elephants are really, really smart by non human standards. These animals use their brains to create and process complex social interactions and seem to even model things such as empathy.

Octopus

Octopuses

When it comes to  group of invertebrates, octopuses are known as the most intelligent. They are highly skilled hunters who use well developed strategies when finding food. And just like most of the other animals on this list they have shown the ability to solve some very complicated problems.

Dogs

Dogs

Although intelligence levels vary across breeds, in general they learn new skills easily and are quick to respond to human training.  Most breeds of dogs like Labrador Retrievers, Border Collies and Poodles aver very curious about their environment and can even notice a change in the smallest detail. Is what appears to be their high emotional intelligence however, that has probably led them to be man’s best friend.

Whales

Whales

Known for their massive size but not often their massive intellect whales often use complex sounds to communicate with each other and coordinate their activities among the group very effectively.  They are also formidable problem solvers.

Parrots

parrots

Although their famous ability to talk is pure mimicry as most people know parrots have excellent memories and like many others on this list are capable of solving relatively complex problems.

Bottlenose Dolphins

Bottlenose Dolphins

When it comes to  body mass to brain ratio, it is a scientific fact that Bottlenose dolphins have among the largest brains in the animal kingdom. Characterized by their advanced communication skills, they have also been considered to be self aware with the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror.

Pigs

ppigs

According to research, a middle aged pig can be as smart as a three year old human being and they know how to adapt to complex environmental situations because they have the ability to learn new skills easily.

Chimpanzees

Chimpanzees

Aside from the fact that chimpanzees look like humans, these animals also have the capacity in some ways to think like humans. They can manipulate their environment and utilize tools in order to help the community accomplish certain tasks.  By and large they are often considered to be the smartest primate and therefore one of the smartest animals in the world.

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Courtesy and Via list25.com

Career : Careful not to say these 13 things @ Office!

13things

“It’s not fair.”

She got a raise, you didn’t. He was recognized, you weren’t. “Some people have food to eat while others starve,” Price says. “Injustices happen on the job and in the world every day. Whether it’s a troubling issue at work or a serious problem for the planet, the point in avoiding this phrase is to be proactive about the issues versus complaining, or worse, passively whining.” Instead, document the facts, build a case, and present an intelligent argument to the person or group who can help you.

“That’s not my problem,” “That’s not my job,” or “I don’t get paid enough for this.”

If you asked someone for help, and the person replied with one of the above phrases, how would you feel? “As importantly, what would it say about him or her?” Price says. “Regardless of how inconvenient or inappropriate a request may be, it is likely important to the other person or they would not have asked. Therefore, as a contributing member of the team, a top priority is to care about the success of others (or at least act as though you do).”  An unconcerned, detached and self-serving attitude quickly limits career advancement.

“This doesn’t mean you have to say yes; it does mean you need to be articulate and thoughtful when saying no,” she adds. “For example, if your boss issues an unreasonable request, rather than saying, ‘You’ve got to be kidding me. I don’t get paid enough for this,’ instead say, ‘I’ll be glad to help. Given my current tasks of A, B, and C, which one of these shall I place on hold while I work on this new assignment?’ This clearly communicates teamwork and helpfulness, while reminding your boss of your current work load and the need to set realistic expectations.”

“I think…”

Which of these two statements sounds more authoritative?: “I think our company might be a good partner for you.” Or, “I believe…” “I know…” or “I am confident that our company will be a good partner for you.”

“There is a slight difference in the wording, however the conviction communicated to your customer is profound,” she says. “You may have noticed, the first phrase contains two weak words, ‘think’ and ‘might.’ They risk making you sound unsure or insecure about the message. Conversely, the second sentence is assertive and certain. To convey a command of content and passion for your subject, substitute the word ‘think’ with ‘believe’ and replace ‘might’ with ‘will.’”

“No problem.”

When someone thanks you, the courteous and polite reply is, “You’re welcome.”

“The meaning implies that it was a pleasure for you to help the person, and that you receive their appreciation,” Price says. “Though the casual laid-back phrase, ‘no problem’ may intend to communicate this, it falls short. It actually negates the person’s appreciation and implies the situation could have been a problem under other circumstances.” In business and social situations, if you want to be perceived as well-mannered and considerate, respond to thank you’s with, “You’re welcome.”

“I’ll try.”

“Imagine it’s April 15th and you ask a friend to mail your tax returns before 5pm on his way to the post office,” Price says. “If he replies, ‘Okay, I’ll try,’ you’ll likely feel the need to mail them yourself.” Why? Because that phrase implies the possibility of failure.

“In your speech, especially with senior leaders, replace the word ‘try’ with the word and intention of ‘will.’ This seemingly small change speaks volumes,” she adds.

“He’s a jerk,” or “She’s lazy,” or “My job stinks,” or “I hate this company.”

Nothing tanks a career faster than name-calling, Price says. “Not only does it reveal juvenile school-yard immaturity, it’s language that is liable and fire-able.”

Avoid making unkind, judgmental statements that will inevitably reflect poorly on you. If you have a genuine complaint about someone or something, communicate the issue with tact, consideration and neutrality.

“But we’ve always done it that way.”

“The most effective leaders value innovation, creative thinking and problem solving skills in their employees,” Price says. In one fell swoop, this phrase reveals you are the opposite: stuck in the past, inflexible, and closed-minded. “Instead say, ‘Wow, that’s an interesting idea. How would that work?’ Or, ‘That’s a different approach. Let’s discuss the pros and cons.’”

“That’s impossible” or “There’s nothing I can do.”

Really? Are you sure you’ve considered every single possible solution and the list is now exhausted? “When you make the mistake of saying these negative phrases, your words convey a pessimistic, passive, even hopeless outlook,” Price says. “This approach is seldom valued in the workplace. Employers notice, recognize and promote a can-do attitude. Despite the glum circumstances, communicate through your words what you can contribute to the situation.”

Instead, try something like, “I’ll be glad to check on it again,” “Let’s discuss what’s possible under these circumstances,” or, “What I can do is this.”

“You should have…” or “You could have…”

You probably wouldn’t be thrilled if someone said: “You should have told me about this sooner!” Or, “You could have tried a little harder.” “Chances are, these faultfinding words inflict feelings of blame and finger-pointing,” Price says. “Ideally, the workplace fosters equality, collaboration and teamwork. Instead of making someone feel guilty (even if they are), take a more productive non-judgmental approach.” Say, “Next time, to ensure proper planning, please bring this to my attention immediately.” Or, “In the future, I recommend…”

“You guys.”

Reserve the phrase “you guys” for friendly casual conversations and avoid using it in business. “Referring to a group of people as ‘you guys’ is not only inaccurate if women are present, it is slang and lowers your level of professionalism,” Price explains. With fellow professionals such as your boss, co-workers and clients, substitute “you guys” with terms such as “your organization” or “your team” or simply “you.”

“I may be wrong, but…” or “This may be a silly idea, but…”

These phrases are known as discounting, Price explains. They diminish the impact of what follows and reduce your credibility. “Remember that your spoken words reveal to the world how much value you place on yourself and your message. For this reason, eliminate any prefacing phrase that demeans the importance of who you are or lessens the significance of what you contribute.”

Don’t say, “This may be a silly idea, but I was thinking that maybe we might conduct the quarterly meeting online instead, okay?” Instead, assert your recommendation: “To reduce travel costs and increase time efficiency, I recommend we conduct the quarterly meeting online.”

“Don’t you think?” or “Okay?” 

These phrases are commonly known as hedging—seeking validation through the use of overly cautious or non-committal words, she says. “If you truly are seeking approval or looking for validation, these phrases may well apply. However, if your goal is to communicate a confident commanding message and persuade people to see it your way, instead of hedging make your statement or recommendation with certainty.”

Imagine an investment banker saying, “This is a good way to invest your money, don’t you think? I’ll proceed, if that’s okay with you.” Instead, you’d probably want to hear something like: “This strategy is a wise investment that provides long-term benefits. With your approval, I’ll wire the money by 5pm today.”

“I don’t have time for this right now,” or “I’m too busy.”

“Even if these statements are true, no one wants to feel less important than something or someone else,” Price says. To foster positive relations and convey empathy, say instead: I’d be happy to discuss this with you after my morning meetings. May I stop by your office around 1pm?”

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For more suggestions read the complete article here

Courtesy & Source : Forbes and Google