Know : List of saying “Thanks” in Many Languages

THank you in all languages

Thanks is  one of the most Beautiful Words in any Language! Here is the big list of Thanks in many languages along with the regions / countries where it is spoken.

Help : Press ‘Ctrl’ + ‘F’ on your keyboard, and type to jump to the language / region you want. or SCROLL 🙂

Regions

Languages

HOW TO SAY THANKS

Afghanistan Pashto Tashakkur
Afghanistan, Pakistan Sta na shukria
Africa Kidavida Chavucha
Kiembu Ni waro
Kiga Kazaare
Mwebare
Osyo
Otyo
Webare
Yebare
Kikuyu Ni wega
Thengiu
Kikwe Niwega muno
Kinyamwezi Wabeeja
Kituba Melesí
Ngbaka Dé kãã
Ntomba Ebóto
Ewata
Alaska Ahtna Tsin’aen
Deg Xinag Dogedinh
Xisrigidisddhinh
Eyak ‘Awa’ahdah
Gwich’in Mahsi’
Mahsi’ choo
Haida Háw’aa
Hän Mahsi’
Inuktitut Taikkuu
Koyukon Anaa basee
Baasee’
Suqpiaq Quyanaa
Tanaina Chin’an
Tanana Basee choo
Maasee’
Tanana [Upper Tanana] Tsen’ii
Tsimshian Way dankoo
Unagan Qagaasakung
Qaqaasakuq
Yup’ik Quyana
Albania Albanian Faleminderit
Ju falem nderit
Albania & Kosovo & Serbia Albanian [Gheg]  Falimineres
Alberta Canada, Montana USA Blackfoot Nitsíniiyi’taki
Algeria Kabyle Tamemmirt
Amazon Pa’ikwene Kibeiné
Ancash Peru Quechua Ancashino Paylla
Andorra, Spain, France Catalan Gràcies
Mercès
Angola Kimbundu Matondo
Ngasakidila
Sakidila
Angola, Namibia Ambo Ondapandula unene
Kwanyama Nda pandula
Aragon Spain Aragonese Grazias
Arizona USA Apache Ashoge
Apache [Jicarilla] Ihe edn
Armenia Armenian Merci [colloquial]
Armenia, Russia, Middle East Shnorhagallem
Shterakravetsun
Arunachal Pradesh India Nisi Pajaliptso
Australia Gumatj Ga’
Gurrangung Yaddung jee
Kala Kawaw Ya Eso
Kaurareg Eso
Kutthung Murromboo
Mabuiag Eso
Meriam Mir Eswau
Warlpiri Wiyarrparlunpaju-yungu
Yolngu Matha Yo manymak
Austria German Dankschen [in spoken language]
Ayacucho Peru Quechua Ayacuchano Diyus pagapusonqa
Diyus pagapusonqacheh [plural]
Dyuspagrasunki
Yuspagrasunki
Azerbaijan Talysh Sağ bi
Azerbaijan, Iran Azerbaijani Sağ olun [plural]
Təşəkkür edirəm
Azerbaijani [Azeri] Sağ ol
Badia Valley Italy Ladin Dilan
Baffin Island Canada Inuktitut Qujannamiik
Baja Verapaz Guatemala Achí Mantiox chawe
Bali Balinese Matu suksama
Matur suksme
Baltic region Sudovian Denkâ
Denkauja
Barrow Alaska Inuktitut Quyanaq
Batanes Philippines Isamurongen Dios mamajes dinio
Itbayaten Ah Dios mamexes
Ah Dios mamexes dimo
Dios mamexes dimo
Ivasayen Dios mamajes dimo
Bavaria German Danksche [in spoken language]
Belarus Belorussian Dziákuj
Dziakuju
Belgium Walloon Mercè [pronounced]
Merci
Benin, Togo Fon A houanu
Ablo
Bhutan Dzongkha Kadinche
Kadinche la
Bolivia Cavineño Yusurupai
Bolivia, Peru Ese Ejja Jamayá acuá
Bolivia, Peru, Chile Aymará Dios pagarakátam
Juspajaraña
Juspajarkätam
Juspaxar
Yuspagara
Bosnia and Hercegovina Bosnian Hvala
Bosnia, Yugoslavia Croatian Hvala
Serbian Hvala
Botswana, South Africa Setswana Ke a leboga
Ke itumela
Ke itumetse
Brazil Guarani [Mbyá] Ha’evete
Brazil Tupi [Tembé Tenetéhar]  Azéharamo aypo-mia [by women]
Ipo [by men]
Britain Manx Gura mie ayd
Gura mie eu
Brittany France Breton Ho trugarekaat
Trugarez
Bulgaria Bulgarian Blagodarya
Mersi
Burkina Faso Mòoré [Mossi] Barka
Mpuus barka
Mpuusda barka
Burkina Faso, Ghana Dagaare Barka
Puorra bebe la
Burkina Faso, Mali Boboda Baraka
Burma Kachin Chyeju gaba sai
Chyeju kaba sai
Burma, Thailand Mon Tang kun
Burundi Kirundi Murakoze
Cajamarca Peru Quechua Cajamarca Dyusilupagi
Pagi
Yusilupagi
California USA Karuk [Karok] Yo-twa
Wintu Cala da mat doyut
Depelda cala da mat doyut
Depelda mat doyut
Cambodia Khmer [Cambodian] Ar kun
Cameroon Bakweri Masuma
Na somi saisai
Bulu Akeva
Eton Abuimgang
Abumgang
Ewondo Abui ngan
Canada Cree E’kosi
Mikwec
Nunasko’mowin keya
Têniki
Inuktitut Mutna
Nakorami
Qujanaq
Kaska Máhsi
Sógá sénlá
Mikmaq Weláliek
Welálin
Canada, Alaska Tlingit Gunalchéesh
Canada, northwest coast of USA Guneshcheesh
Canada, USA Abenaki, Western Alamisit
Kanienkehaka [Mohawk] Niawen
Cape Verde Kabuverdianu Obrigadu
Caribbean Taino [Arawak] Oáan
Carribbean, Florida USA Bo matum
Caucasus Ossetian Arfö
Buznyg
Central African Republic Sango Mèrèsi
Central Asia Khowar Mehrbani
Shukria
Kohistani Shukria
Tashkorghani Rahmat türi
Uyghur Rähmät sizgä
Rakhmat
Wakhi Shobosh
Shukria
Central Asia, India Shina Bakhshish
Shukria
Central Europe German Danke
Danke schön
Vielen Dank
Romani [Romany] [Gypsy] Nais
Nais tuke
Swabian Dankeschee
Dankschee
Central Europe, E Africa Italian Grazie
Chad Sara Angen
Chiang Rai Northern Thailand Akha Gu lah hu ma de
Chiapas Mexico Tojolabal Tzachatal
Yuj
Tzeltal Jocolawal
Wokolawal
Tzotzil Kolaval
Kolawal
Ois botik
China Cantonese [Chinese] Doh je [for gift]
M goi [for service]
Hmong [Eastern] Jid keub
Nax weix
Hoi San U de
Manchu Baniha
Mandarin [Chinese] Toa chie
Xie xie
Xiamen Kam sia
China, Burma, Thailand Lisu Atkel bboxmu
Dut zoil
Xual mu wa
China, Southeast Asia Akha Gui lah hui dui dui ma
Gui lah hui mi a de
Gui lah hui te ha
Lahu Aw bon uija
Da ja
Òboi jâ
Chuuk Lagoon Micronesia Chuukese Kini so
Cochabamba Bolivia Quechua Cochabambino Diuspagarapusunki
Diuspagarasunki
Pachi
Pachis
Colorado and Utah USA Ute Tog’oyak
Tograyock
Tokhoyak
Towayak
Comoros Comori Marahaba
Marahabha
Shimasiwa Marahaba
Congo Shi Koko
Congo, Angola Kikongo Merci mingi
Ntôndili kwami
Congo, Angola, Cuba Ndondele
Ntandele
Wuanka
constructed Interlingua Gratias
Cook Islands Maori Meitaki
Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba Balika
Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso Dyula [Jula] I ni che
Cote d’Ivoire, Mali Senoufo Minkari
Minmonchar
Cuba Kikongo Manbote
Nkimandi
Cuba, United States Lucumí Moducué
Cuzco Peru Quechua Cuzqueño Añachaykin
Añay
Grasias
Yuspagarasunki
Yusulpaykinsunki
Cuzco Peru & Cochabamba Bolivia Quechua Yusulpayki
Czech Republic Czech Dêkuji
Denmark, Greenland Danish Tak
Dutch Antilles, Aruba Papiamentu Danki
East Africa Somali Mahad sanid
East Timor Tetum Obrigada [by a woman]
Obrigado  [by a man]
Easter Island Rapanui Maururu
Eastern Friesland, Germany Low Saxon Dank
eastern Germany Sorbian [Lower Sorbian] Z’e’kujom se
Sorbian [Upper Sorbian] Dz’akuju so
Eastern Sudan Gaam Àayyá
Áwdém áalò
eastern Uganda Dhopadhola Afwoyo swa
Walwa swa
Ecuador Huaorani Ewa ra
Quichua Diusulupagui
Pagui
Pagui shungulla
Yupaichani
Ecuador, Peru Achuar Maketai
Yuuminsame
Egypt Domari Daarim
El Salvador Pipil Paampa diyúx
Padiux
Eritrea Kunama Giraske
Estetla Mexico Mixtec Niku tab’i[formal-to one p.]
Niku tab’o[formal-to several]
Estonia Estonian Aitäh
Tänan
Setu Aiteh
Võro Aiteh
Aitjumma
Ethiopia Harari [Adare] Alla magah
Gaza yagabzal yushen
Ethiopia, Eritrea Tigrinya Yaqhanyelay
Yekanyelay
Yeqniyeley
Yrunyli
Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti Afar Gadda ge
Ethiopia, Israel, Egypt Amharic Amesegënallô
Amesegunalhun
Europe Romani [Romany] [Gypsy] Gestena
Yiddish a dank
a dank aykh
Europe, USA, other countries a dank dir
a dank enk
Faroe Islands Faroese Takk
Takk fyri
Fiji Fijian Vinaka
Finland Finnish Kiitoksia
Kiitos
Finland and Russia Karelian Kiitän
Kiitos
Passibo
Passipoičemma
Florida USA Apalachicola Mvto
France Corsican À ringraziavvi
À ringraziè vi
Grazia
Gallo Mèrczi
Gascon Merci
Provencal [Occitan] Gramaci
Mercé
France, Belgium, Africa, Canada French Merci
Merci beaucoup
French Guyana Taki-taki Ganta
French Polynesia Marquesan Koutai
Gabon Fang Abora
Mpongwe Kewa
Gansu China Yugur [Western Yugur] Çowattï
Sagha &ccedi;owattï
Gardena Valley Italy Ladin De gra
Georgia Georgian Gmadlobt [to more than 1 person]
Germany Low Saxon [Northern Low Saxon] Danke
Low Saxon [Westphalian] Ek dank auk schoin
Sind auk viellmaols bedankt
Plattdeutsch Dankscheen
Ghana Asante Meda w’asé
Meda wo ase
Ga Oyiwala dɔŋŋ
Mampruli Mossi
Ghana, Burkina Faso Fante Medagse
Medawagse
Kasem A ke lei naa
De N lei
Ghana, Togo Ewe Akpe
Mudo
Mudu, epenau
Goa India Konkani [Konknni] Dev borem korum
Great Britain Cornish Dew re-dallo dheugh-why [middle/unified]
Meur ras [Kemmyn]
Meur ras dhis
Cornish [modern] Durdaladawhy
Gwra’massi
Greece, Balkans Aromunian Haristo
Greece, Cyprus Greek Sas efharisto
Greek [Hellenic] Efcharisto
Greenland Inuttut [Greenlandic] Qujanaq
Guam Chamorro Si yu’os ma’ase’
Si yuus maasi
Guatemala Chortí Ch’ahp’ei’x ta’p’a
Chuj Yuj wal dios
Garifuna Téngi nían bún
Itzaj [Itzá Maya] D’yos b’o’tik
D’yos b’ot’ik ti’ij
D’yos b’o’tikil
Ixil Ta’n tiz
Jacalteca Nich’an tiox
Kanjobal [Q’anjob’al] Yuj wal ch’an tyoxh
Yuj wal tyoxh
Yujwal Dios
Kekchi B’antiox
Kekchi [K’ekchí] Bantiox
Mam Chjónta che  [to more than one person]
Chjónta tey
Chjoonta
Chjóonte
Mopá-maya B’o’tic
Pocomchí Rin dios awe
Quiché [K’iche] Maltiox
Maltiox nan  [to a woman]
Maltiox tat  [to a man]
Sibälaj maltiox
Guatemala Cheri cha ai [for work]
Guinea Susu Inwali
Gujerat State, India Gujarati Dhanyawaad
Haiti Kwéyòl Mèsi
Harjumaa Estonia Estonian Aitih
Hawaii Hawaiian Mahalo
Hiiumaa Estonia Estonian Kiidan
Himalayas Thangmi [Thami] Sewa
Huanca Peru Quechua Huancaño Rasyas
Huehuetenango Guatemala Aguacateco Ntyox teru’
Hungary Hungarian [Magyar] Köszi
Köszönöm
Iceland Icelandic Takk
Takk fyrir
Idaho United States Coeur d’Alene Limlemtsch
India Kannada Dhanyawaadagalu
Vandane
Vandanegalu
Konkani [Konknni] Dhanyawaada
Malayalam Nandi
Nanni
Valarey nanhi
Marathi Abhari ahi
Dhanyawaadh
Dhanyawaatha
Oriya Danna waat
Punjabi Dannaba
Dhannvaad
Miharbaanee
Shukria
Tuhaadee kirpaa hai
Telugu Dhanyavaadaalu
Tamara krutagntha
India Tulu Mast upakara
India, Bangladesh Bengali Dhanyabad
India, Bangladesh, S. Africa Gujarati Aabhar
India, East Asia, Suriname Hindi Dhanyawaad
India, Nepal Newari Su-bhaay
India, Nepal, Bhutan Lepcha Trok chi
India, Pakistan Ladakhi Jule
Od dju
Urdu Danyavad
Merbani
Shukriya
India, Pakistan, China Kashmiri Danawad
Shukria
India, Southeast Asia Tamil Nandri
Romba nanringa
Rumba nandri
Indonesia Aceh Teurimeung geunaseh
Javanese Matur nuwun
Suwun
Sasak Matur tampiasih
Tampi asiq
Sundanese [Basa Sunda] Hatur nuhun
Toraja Kurre sumange
Tukang Besi Tarima kasi
Indonesia, Sumatra, Philippines Batak Mauliate
international Esperanto Dankon
Dankon al vi
Ido Danko
Loglan Sia
Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan Persian Mamnoon
Motehshakeram
Tashakkur
Iraq, Iran Kurdi [Kurmanji] Shukur
Ireland Irish Go raibh maith agaibh [to more than one]
Ireland and Britain Go raibh maith ‘ad
Go raibh maith agat [to one]
Israel Hebrew Toda
Italy Camuno Gràsce
Napulitano Gràzzie
Sardinian Grassias
Japan Japanese Arigato
Domo arigato
Japanese [Izumo] Dan san
Japanese [Kumamoto] Kora doshi
Japan Japanese Arigato gozaimashita[act of thanks has ended]
Arigato gozaimasu [act of thanks not ended]
Jersey Jèrriais Mèrci bein des fais
Kalahari Africa G//ana [San] Kaen se !tau
G/wi [San] !kaen se !tau
Kazakhstan, Central Asia, China Kazakh Rahmet
Rahmet sizge
Kenya Ekegusii Imbuya mono
Nandi Asai
Kaigai
Kongoi
Kenya, Somalia Oromo Fayyaa ta’aa
Fayyaa ta’i
Galatomaa
Galatoomii
Maharaba
Ulfaad’d’a
Waaqni sii haa kennu
Kenya, Tanzania Luo Erokamano
Maasai Ashi
Maasai [Maa, Masai] Ashi oleng
Aske
Korea Korean Kamsahamnida
Komapsumnida
Kyoto Japan Japanese [Kyo Kotoba] Ohkini
Kyrgyzstan Kirgiz Chong rakhmat
Rakhmat
Labrador and Quebec Canada Innu Tshinashkumitan
Lao Cai Vietnam Hmong Uụ caox tsõus
Uụ tsõus
Laos Lao Khawp jai
Laos, Thailand Hmong Daw Ua koj tsaug
Ua tsaug
Hmong Njua Ua koj tsaug
Ua tsaug
Mien [Yao] Laengz zingh
Laengz zingh meih
Latvia Latvian Paldies
Latvia, Estonia Livonian Tienū
Lesotho, South Africa Sesotho Ke a leboha
Liberia, S.Leone Vai Bai-ka-way [for gift, to 1]
Ee-she [for favor, to 1]
Wo bai-kay-way [for gift,to group]
Wo-she [for favor,to group]
Lithuania Lithuanian Ačiū
Dėkoju
Dėkui
Labai dėkoju
Ludza Latvia Võro Aitüma
Luxembourg Luxembourgish Merci
Macedonia Macedonian Blagodaram
Madagascar Malagasy Misaotra
Magdalena Peñasco Oaxaca Mexico Mixtec Cacutahvixensa
Cutahvixieensa
Maine USA, Canada Abenaki, Eastern Wliwni
Malawi Chilomwe Zikomo
Chingoni Zikomo
Chitonga Yewo
Ngoni Zikomo
Malaysia Kimaragang Torimakasi
Malaysia, Brunei Malay Terima kasih
Maldives Dhivehi Shukuriyyaa
Maldivian Sabkaa
Mali Bambara Aw ni ce [plural]
I ni ce  [singular]
Sangha Birepo
Mali, Senegal Soninke Nawari
Malta Maltese Grazzi
Manitoba Canada Saulteaux Miigwech
Marshall Islands Marshallese Kommol
Mauratania Hassaniya Shukram
Mauritius Morisyen Mersi
Mediterranean Lingua Franca Gratzia
Mexico Amuzgo Quialva’
Cakchikel Matiosh chawe
Chol Wokol a wala
Wokolix awölö
Hñähñu Jamadi
Huastec C’ac’naamal yaan
Jalbinchi yaan
Huave Dios mangüy ic
Ixcatec Skanaa-ri
Mazahua Pöjö
Mazatec Natejchiri
Nkhi k’a ninashitechino
Náhuatl [Aztec] Icnelia
Tlazohcamati
Popoluca Ni’ctíyus
Tarahumara [Raramuri] Matétera
Tarahumara [Rarámuri] Matéterabá
Zoque Yuscotoya
Mexico, USA Paipai ‘Ara’ya:ikm
‘Ara’yai:km
‘Ara’ye:km
Micronesia Chuukese Kili so
Kosraean Kulo
Pohnpeian Kalangan
Puluwat Kilissow
Yapese Kam magar
Middle East Kurdi Sipas
Sipas dikim
Middle East, North Africa Arabic Shukran
Mokornulga Estonia Võro Tennä
Moldova Gagauz Saa olsun
Moldavian Multumesc
Monaco Monegasque Merçì
Mongolia Mongolian Saikhan zochluullaa  [for hospitality]
Mongolia Ta ikh tus bolloo [for help]
Mongolia, Northern China Bayarlalaa
Gyalailaa
Morocco Arabic Barak llahu fik
Mozambique Makhua Kooshukhuru
Marahaba
Mt. Elgon Kenya Bukusu Nasima
Orio muno
Wanyala
Webaale
Mulgi dialect, Karksi Estonia Estonian ‘Aituma
Myanmar Burmese Chezu ba
Chezu tinbade
Rakhin Chyee zu thon ree
Rohingya Shukuria
Namibia Nama Aio
Nauru Nauruan Tsuba kor
Nayarit and Jalisco Mexico Huichol Pam parios
Pan parius
Nebraska and Oklahoma, USA Omaha Wíbthahon
Nepal Gurung Dxanyaa’baad [to an equal or superior]
Syaabaas [to a child]
Nepal, Bhutan Nepali Dhanyabaad
Nepal, Tibet Sherpa [Helambu] Thuchi chea
Sherpa [Solu] Thuchi che
Netherlands Dutch Bedankt
Frisian [Westerlauwer] Tanke
Tanke wol
Tankje
Tankje wol
Netherlands, Belgium Dutch Dank u
Dank u wel
New Caledonia Houailou Ei
New Guinea Tok Pisin Tenkyu
Tenkyu tru
Tok Pisin [Pidgin English] Tenkiu
New Zealand Maori Ka pai
Tika hoki
New Zealand, Midland England English Cheers
Nias Island Indonesia Nias [North Nias] Sauha gölö
Nias [South Nias] Söwö gölö
Nicaragua Miskito Tingki
Panamahka Tingkih
Nigeria Bura Maraba
Edo Ù rú èsé
Igbo [Ibo] Dalu
Imela
Imena
Yâuwá
Kanuri Ardeneskin
Ngizim Ná goodoota-ngaa naa ci
Nigerian Pidgin Thank yu
Well done
Yoruba A dupe
E se é
Oshe
Niue, South Pacific Niuean Fakaaue
Noatak Alaska Inuktitut Taku
North Africa Arabic SaHHa
North America Chinook Jargon Mahsie
Masiem
Comanche Ura
Urako
Dakota Pidamaya ye  [by female]
Pidamaya yedo[by male]
Pidamayado
Hopi Askwali [said by women]
Kwakwhá [said by men]
Kiowa Aahóow
Kwakiutl Gilakas’la
Mohican Oneowe
Wneeweh
Natick Kuttabotomish
Tobotonoque
Ttaubotneanauayean
Nez Perce Qe’ci’yew’yew’
Okanogan Lim limt
North Caucasus Chechen Barkal
Barkalla
North Malawi Chitumbuka Yewo
northeast Japan Japanese [Tohoku Ben] Oshoshina
Northern Ghana Wali Bareka
Northern Ireland Scots [Ulster Scots] Thenks
northern Italy Friulian Graciis
Piedmontese Grasie
Northern Pakistan Burushashki Bakhshish
Juu goor maniSh
Juu na
Shukria
Northern Thailand Hmong Njua Zoo sab muab
Northweast Poland Cassubian Dzãkujã
Norway Finnish, Kven Kiitoksii
Kiitos
Norwegian [Nynorsk, Bokmaal] Takk
NW Caucasus Adyghe Thawerapsaw
Wapsaw
Oaxaca Mexico Mixtec Kúta’ùrí  [familiar]
Zapotec Guishepeli
Okinawa Japan Japanese [Uchinaaguchi] Nihwee-deebiru
Uchinaaguchi Ippe nihei deebiru
Nihei deebiru
Uchinaaguchi [Shuri] Nifee deebiru
Oklahoma & Florida USA Muskogee Akvsv’mkv
Henka
Ka
Mvto
Oklahoma United States Choctaw Yakoke
Yokoke
Pacific Islands Kiribati Ko rabwa
Rotuman Fại’ȧkse’ea
Filo’montou [said to child]
Noa’ia
Pakistan Balochi Tai merbani
Khowar Tazim
Sindhi Mehrbani
Palau Palauan Ke kmal mesaul
Msuulaang
Sulang
Panama Kuna Dot nuet
Papua Dani, Grand Valley Baliem Wah wah wah
Papua New Guinea Dani, Western Kaonak
Duna Tirja
Edolo Neseke
Enga Tángeyoo
Foe Kije
Hiri Motu Tanikiu
Koiari Maigo
Maiteka
Matukar Ujanamok
Motu Tanikiu
Nanubae Emba:m
Safeyoka Ìsámàyʌkà
Salt Yui Wai onia
Tabriak Jəpən
Jεpεn
Teop Mataa
Paraguay Guarani Aguyje
Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia Aguije
Peru Aguaruna Seé
Huambisa Maake
See
Quechua Cuzqueño Yuspagarasunkichis [to several people]
Resigaro Kashoonopihku
Shipibo Iráque
Philippines Aklanon Saeamat kimo
Ifugao [Tuwali] Munhana ak
Salamat
Ilokano Agyamanak
Dios ti agngina
Ilonggo Daghang salamat
Salamat
Kalagan Sokor
Kankanaey Salamat
Kapampangan Salamat
Tagalog Salamat
Salamat po
Salamat sa iyo
Tugalug Salamot
Visayan [Cebuano] Gracia
Salamat
Pohnpei Pohnpeian Kalangen en Komwi
Poland Polish Dzięki [familiar]
Dziękuję
Dziękujemy [spoken by several people]
Polynesia Polynesian Auw’e
Ponpei Ponpeian Kelangan
Qiandong China Hmong Bod hfud mongx
Bod hfut
Dub hseit
Romania Romanian Mulţumesc
Russia Altai Bïyan bolzïn
Bashkir Rekhmet
Chuvash Tav
Tavssi
Tavtapuch
Erzya Сюкпря
Ingush Barkal
Barkl [in spoken language]
Kalmyk Khanganav
Khanty Пумасипа
Komi-Permyak Attö
Ydzhyt attö
Komi-Zyryan Attö
Attöala
Attöalam [from a group]
Ludian Spassibo
Spassiboičem
Mansi Пумасипа
Mari Tau
Mari [Meadow] Taushtem
Taushtena [from a group]
Mordvin Syukprya
Nenets Nyarya bada
Nganasan Nägê
Xoasi
Russian Спасибо
Rutul Сагъул
Saami [Kildin] Пассьпе
Tatar Rekhmet
Tuvan Chettirdim
Udmurt Tau
Tau karisko
Veps Kitäm [from a group]
Kitän
Spasib
Votic Ciitän
Passibo
Suurõd passivad
Suurõt spassibad
Ryukyu Island Japan Miyako Nihedebil
Sabah Malaysia Dusun Pounsikou
Kadazan Kotohuadan
Salento Italy Griko Kali’ sso’rta-ssu
Samachique Mexico Tarahumara [Raramuri] Natérarabá
Samoa Samoan Fa’afetai
San Antonio Huitepec Mexico Mixtec Nakuu ta’viin
San Juan Colorado Mexico Tyáhvi nyóò
San Juan Mixtepec Mexico Tatsa’vi
Tatsa’vini
Scandinavia Saami [Davvi] Giitu
Giitus
Giitus dutnje
Giitus eatnat
Saami [Inari] Kijtto
Kjittoseh
Takkâ
Saami [Lule] Gijtto
Saami [Skolt] Spä’sseb
Spässep
Saami [South] Gäjhtoe
Saami [Ume] Gijtuov
Scotland Scots Thank ye
Thenk ye
Scottish Gaelic Tapadh leat
Seattle Washington USA Lushootseed Ck’wálidxw
Senegal Diola Emitekati
Mersi
Senegal, Gambia Serrere Dioka ndjiale
Senegal, Mali Malinké Ni ke
Seychelles Seselwa [Seychelles Creole] Gran mersi
Mersi
Shanghai China Shanghai Sha ja non
Sha sha
Shodoshima Japan Japanese [Shodoshima] Ookini
Siberia Yup’ik Igamsiqanaghhalek
Quyanaghhalek
Siberia Russia Khakas Aalghïstapcham
Ispasiba
Sicily Italy Sicilian Grazzii
Sierra Leone Krio Tenkey
Tenki ya
Mende Baiika
Baika
Bisse
Silesia region, southern Poland Polish Dziynki
Dziynkuja
Singapore, Indonesia Hokkien [Chinese] Gum xia
Slovakia Slovak Dakujem
Slovenia Slovenian Hvala
Solomon Islands Pijin Tanggio
Sonora Mexico Seri Yooz ma samsisíinxo
Sortland Norway Norwegian [Sortlandsk] Takk
South Africa Sepedi Ke a leboga
Tsonga I nkomu
Venda Ndi a livhuha
Ndo livhuwa
Ukhani
Xhosa Enkosi
Ndiyabulela
South Africa, Lesotho Zulu Ngiyabonga
Siyabonga  [plural]
South Africa, Malawi Chichewa Zikomo
South America Jaqaru [Jacaru] Jilatyi
Mapuche [Araucano] Chaltu
Chaltu may
Krasia may
Manumeimi
Traeltu
South Malawi Chiyao Asante
Sikomo
South Pacific Maohi Mauruuru
South Sierra USA Miwok [S Sierra] Tengkiju
South Uganda Lunyankole Webale
Southeast Africa Kisawhili Asanteni [to several]
Kiswahili Ahsante
Aksante
Asante
Nashukuru
Shukrani
Southeast Asia Cham Uan sagun
Uan tabuan
southeast Estonia Võro Aiten
Southern Africa Afrikaans Dankie
Southern Australia Kaurna Ngaityalya
Southern Qiandong China Hmong Deb hseit
Southern Scotland Scottish Gaelic Gun robh math agaibh
Southwestern United States Keres Da-waa-ee
Khuu’a
Tewa Kuunda
Southwestern USA Pueblo [Acoma] Da-wah-eh
Spain Asturian Gracies
Basque [Navarrese] Esker aunitz
Esker mila
Basque [Roncalais] Eskerrik anitx
Galician Grazas
Ladino Gracias
Munchas gracias
Romani [Caló] Najis tuke
Valencian Gracies
Moltes gracies
Spain, America Spanish Gracias
Spain, France Basque Eskerrik asko
Mila esker
Sri Lanka Sinhalese Istuti
Sudan Arabic Creole Shukran
Dinka Yin acaa muoc
Suriname Ndjuka A bigi ba
Gaantangi
Gaantangi fi ye
Saramaccan F&uacteu;únu
Gaantángí fii
Sranan Danki
Grantangi
Tangi
Suriname, Holland Sarnami Dhanbaad
Dhanjabaab
Soekoeria
Sukriya
Swaziland Siswati [Swazi] Ngiyabonga [by one person]
Siyabonga [more than one]
Sweden, Finland Swedish Jag tackar
Tack
Switzerland German Dank schön  [in spoken language]
Romansch Grazia
Sursilvan Engraziel
Swizterland Romansch Grazcha
Grazie
Syria Arabic Mamnuun
Syria, Turkey Suryoyo Tawdi
Tahiti Tahitian Mauruuru
Mauruuru roa
Taiwan Atayal Mhuway su’
Mhuway su’ balay
Muhuway su
Bunun Uninang
Paiwan Malimali
Masalu
Puyuma Tayu’an
Rukai Maulanenga
Saisiat Muhuway su
Yami Ayoi
Tajikstan Tajik Rakhmat
Tashakur
Tanzania Kichagga Haika
Kikamba Ni oseo
Makhua Asantte
Tanzania, Zambia Mambwe Sanco
Tataltepec Mexico Chatino Ngua tsaa xlay’be hii
Tepoztlan Mexico Náhuatl Tlazocama
Tlazocamati
Tlazocamatl
Texas United States English Thank ya  [Texan]
Texas USA Alabamu Alíila
Thailand Akha Ghu long khu me-ah
Gong Ang kêun
Karen Da blu
Lahu Ah bo
Lisu Ahku bumu
Mpi Mèu mèu
Pho Karen Hsà khawn hsá ta má’ lâw
Sgaw Karen Dah bluet
Tà byu’ dô law
Thai Kha [by woman]
Khawp khun
Khawp khun kha [by woman]
Khawp khun khrap [by man]
Khrap [by man]
Tibet Tibetan [Amdo dialect] Gwajinchi
Tibet, China Tibetan Tujechhe
Tihuanacu Bolivia Aymará Yusulupay
Timor, Semau Island Indonesia Helong Nodan mamomamo
to a group Yeyi [Botswana] Ta kumbiiri
to one person Nda kumbiiri
Togo Mina Akpe
Tonga South Pacific Island Tongan Malo
Torres Strait Australia Yumpla Tok Eso po yu
Trakai Lithuania Karaim Tabu
Turkey, Northern Cyprus Turkish Mersi
Tesekkür ederim
Tesekkurler
Turkmenistan Turkmen Sag bol
Sag bolung
Tangur
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Fakafetai
Uganda Ateso Eyalama
Icetot Ilakasugotia
Karamojong Alakara
Kipsigis Kongoi
Kupsapiny Keyi tapon
Luganda Webale
Uganda and Sudan Acholi Apwoyo
Ukraine Ukrainian Dyakooyu
Spasibi
United States Apsaaloke Ahó
Ahoo
Cahuila ‘Ácha-ma
Cherokee [eastern] Sgi
Cherokee [western] Wado
Cheyenne Hahóo [intertribal]
Néá’eshe
Néá’êshemeno [plural]
Ioway Aha [by women]
Aho [by men]
Kuskokwim Tsenanh
Lenape [Delaware] Wanìshi
Luiseno No$un looviq
Lummi Hy’shqe siam
Navajo Ahéhee’
Osage Thla-ho
We’-a-hnon
Potawatomi Iwgwien
Kcumigwe’c
Migwe’c
Spokane Chn lm-s-cút
Wampanoag Taubut
Yuki Mis tatk
USA, Canada Huron [Wyandotte] Ti-jiawen
Yontonwe
Nakota Pinamaya
Uzbekistan Karakalpak Rahmet
Uzbek Rakhmat
Tashakkur
Vancouver Island Canada Saanich Hay sxw q’a
Hay sxw q’e
Vanuatu Araki Ham meje [to a group]
Om meje
Bislama Tangkiu
Tangkyu
Futuna Aniwa Fafetai
Jinisa
Mwotlap Vēwē nēk
Paamese Hihuri
Namasmasuk
Vastseliina Estonia Võro Tehnän
Veracruz Mexico Totonac Paxkatkatzinil
Vietnam Bahnar Bone ko ih
Bru Sa-aun
Dega Lac jak
Hmong Du Ô chò
Mien Tö’ dun
Tay Day fon
Vietnamese Cám ơn
Cám ơn anh [to male equal]
Cám ơn bà [to married woman]
Cám ơn chị [to female equal]
Cám ơn cô [to unmarried woman]
Cám ơn em [to young person]
Cám ơn ông [to man]
Cám ơn quý vị rât nhiều
Ông quá tử tế với tôi
Villa Alta Mexico Zapotec Dishklenle [to several]
Dishkleno [to one]
Wales Welsh Diolch
Wallis and Futuna Futuna Malo
Wallis and Futuna Vanuatu Uvean Malo
Malo te ofa
Washington United States Klallam Há’neng cen
West Africa Fulani A jaaraama [to one person]
Jaaraama
On jaaraama [to several people]
Hausa Nagode
Mandinka Abaraka
Al ning bara [to several people]
I ning bara [to one person]
Tamashek [Tamahoq, Tuareg] Tanumert
Wolof Djere dief
Jerejef
Zarma [Dyerma] Fofo
West Indies Creole Mese
West Sumatra Indoensia [inf] Minangkabau Makasi yo
West Sumatra Indonesia Tarimo kasih
West Uganda Lunyoro Webale
western Ireland Brigidian Boche’
Xhina, Thailand, Myanmar Bisu Ang hmèn yá
Yatzachi Mexico Zapotec Choshcwlen chele [to several]
Choshcwleno’ [to one]
Choshcwlentio’ [to one]
Yemen Soqotri Yala bak allah
Yucatan Mexico Yucatec Dios bo’otik
Dios bootiki’
Dyos bo’otik
Hach dyos bo’otik
Ki’ bolal
Yum bo’otik
Yunnan China Hmong Uat gaox zhous
Uat zhous
Naxi Jjef bei seiq
Zambia Chitonga Twalumba
Lunda Kusakililaku
Luvale Gunasakulila
Silozi Litumezi
Ni itumezi
Nitumezi
Zambia, Mozambique Chinyanja Zikomo
Zimbabwe Chishona Maita basa
Maita zvenyu
Mazviita
Ndatenda [to one person]
Ndinotenda [to one person]
Tatenda [to a group]
Tinotenda [to a group]
Ndebele Ngeyabonga
Ngiyabonga
Ngiyathokaza
Siyabonga [plural]
Zoogocho Mexico Zapotec Choshklenle [to several]
Choshkleno’ [to one]
Zurich Switzerland German Dank schön [spoken]
Dankë [spoken]
Merci
Alabama & Oklahoma United States Koasati Alí:la mó
America, Australia, UK, New Zea. English Thank you
Angola, Congo Kinshasa Yaka Koloombo
Bukavu Congo Kinshasa Mashi Koko
Bunkeya Congo Kinshasa Kisanga Tua santa
Congo Kinshasa Kiluba Wafwa ko
Pende Hambadiahana
Congo Kinshasa, Congo Brazaville Lingala Matóndo
Melesí
Natondi yo
Fassa Valley Italy Ladin Detelpai [to one person]
Develpai [plural]
Guinea Bissau Crioulo Obrigado
Jakarta Indonesia Indonesian Trims [slang]
Kansai, Osaka Japan Japanese [Kansai Ben] Ookini
Ookini arigatou
Kasai Oc. Reg., Congo Kinshasa Tschiluba Twasakadila
Lodja Congo Kinshasa Otetela Losaka
N.America Ojibwe [Chippewa, Anishinaabe] Miigwech
N.Carolina USA Tuscarora [Southern Band] Nyeahweh
Portugal, Brazil Portuguese Obrigada [by female]
Obrigado [by male]
Rwanda, Congo Kinshasa Kinyarwanda Murakoze
Viru Nigula & Kodavere, Estonia Estonian Aiteh
Ylä Savo Finland Savonian Kiitoksija
Zambia, Congo Brazaville Bemba Tsikomo
Twa to te la

This list is a compiled and sequenced from the source : Jennifer’s Language Pages and this list is partial only. To view the complete list with the formal and informal way of telling Thanks please visit the source. We sorted it country-wise for easy learning purpose only. 

Disclaimer: It’s used for Educational purposes and non-profit reasons only. Any commercial usage should be done with proper approval from the original source Jennifer’s Language Pages

 

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Know : 11 Burial Practices you may never heard of

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1. Air Sacrifice – Mongolia

Lamas direct the entire ceremony, with their number determined by the social standing of the deceased. They decide the direction the entourage will travel with the body, to the specific day and time the ceremony can happen.

Mongolians believe in the return of the soul. Therefore the lamas pray and offer food to keep evil spirits away and to protect the remaining family. They also place blue stones in the dead persons bed to prevent evil spirits from entering it.

No one but a lama is allowed to touch the corpse, and a white silk veil is placed over the face. The naked body is flanked by men on the right side of the yurt while women are placed on the left. Both have their respective right or left hand placed under their heads, and are situated in the fetal position.

The family burns incense and leaves food out to feed all visiting spirits. When the time comes to remove the body, it must be passed through a window or a hole cut in the wall to prevent evil from slipping in while the door is open.

The body is taken away from the village and laid on the open ground. A stone outline is placed around it, and then the village dogs that have been penned up and not fed for days are released to consume the remains. What is left goes to the local predators.

The stone outline remains as a reminder of the person. If any step of the ceremony is left out, no matter how trivial, bad karma is believed to ensue.

2. Sky Burial – Tibet

This is similar to the Mongolian ceremony. The deceased is dismembered by a rogyapa, or body breaker, and left outside away from any occupied dwellings to be consumed by nature.

To the western mind, this may seem barbaric, as it did to the Chinese who outlawed the practice after taking control of the country in the 1950s. But in Buddhist Tibet, it makes perfect sense. The ceremony represents the perfect Buddhist act, known as Jhator. The worthless body provides sustenance for the birds of prey that are the primary consumers of its flesh.

To a Buddhist, the body is but an empty shell, worthless after the spirit has departed. Most of the country is surrounded by snowy peaks, and the ground is too solid for traditional earth internment. Likewise, being mostly above the tree line, there is not enough fuel for cremation.

3. Pit Burial – Pacific Northwest Haida

Before white contact, the indigenous people of the American northwest coast, particularly the Haida, simply cast their dead into a large open pit behind the village.

Their flesh was left to the animals. But if one was a chief, shaman, or a warrior, things were quite different.

The body was crushed with clubs until it fits into a small wooden box about the size of a piece of modern luggage. It was then fitted atop a totem pole in front of the longhouse of the man’s tribe where the various icons of the totem acted as guardians for the spirits’ journey to the next world.

Written history left to us by the first missionaries to the area all speak of an unbelievable stench at most of these villages. Today, this practice is outlawed.

4. Viking Burial – Scandinavia

We have all seen images of a Viking funeral with the body laid out on the deck of a dragon ship, floating into the sunset while warriors fire flaming arrows to ignite the pyre.

While very dramatic, burning a ship is quite expensive, and not very practical.

What we do know is most Vikings, being a seafaring people, were interred in large graves dug in the shape of a ship and lined with rocks. The person’s belongings and food were placed beside them. Men took their weapons to the next world, while women were laid to rest wearing their finest jewelry and accessories.

If the deceased was a nobleman or great warrior, his woman was passed from man to man in his tribe, who all made love to her (some would say raped) before strangling her, and placing her next to the body of her man. Thankfully, this practice is now, for the most part, extinct.

5. Fire Burial – Bali

On the mostly Hindu Isle of Bali, fire is the vehicle to the next life. The body or Mayat is bathed and laid out on a table where food offerings are laid beside it for the journey.

Lanterns line the path to the person’s hut to let people know he or she has passed, and act as a reminder of their life so they are not forgotten.

It is then interred in a mass grave with others from the same village who have passed on until it is deemed there are a sufficient number of bodies to hold a cremation.

The bodies are unearthed, cleaned, and stacked on an elaborate float, gloriously decorated by the entire village and adorned with flowers. The float is paraded through the village to the central square where it is consumed by flames, and marks the beginning of a massive feast to honor and remember the dead.

6. Spirit Offerings – Southeast Asia

Throughout most of Southeast Asia, people have been buried in the fields where they lived and worked. It is common to see large stone monuments in the middle of a pasture of cows or water buffalo.

The Vietnamese leave thick wads of counterfeit money under rocks on these monuments so the deceased can buy whatever they need on their way to the next life

In Cambodia and Thailand, wooden “spirit houses” sit in front of almost every hut from the poorest to the most elaborate estate. These are places where food and drink are left periodically for the souls of departed relatives to refuel when necessary. The offerings of both countries also ask the spirits of the relatives to watch over the lands and the families left behind.

7. Predator Burial – Maasai Tribe

The Maasai of East Africa are hereditary nomads who believe in a deity known as Enkai, but this is not a single being or entity.

It is a term that encompasses the earth, sky, and all that dwells below. It is a difficult concept for western minds that are more used to traditional religious beliefs than those of so-called primitive cultures.

Actual burial is reserved for chiefs as a sign of respect, while the common people are simply left outdoors for predators to dispose of, since Maasai believe dead bodies are harmful to the earth. To them when you are dead, you are simply gone. There is no afterlife.

8. Skull Burial – Kiribati

On the tiny island of Kiribati the deceased is laid out in their house for no less than three days and as long as twelve, depending on their status in the community. Friends and relatives make a pudding from the root of a local plant as an offering.

Several months after internment the body is exhumed and the skull removed, oiled, polished, and offered tobacco and food. After the remainder of the body is re-interred, traditional islanders keep the skull on a shelf in their home and believe the native god Nakaa welcomes the dead person’s spirit in the northern end of the islands.

9. Cave Burial – Hawaii

In the Hawaiian Islands, a traditional burial takes place in a cave where the body is bent into a fetal position with hands and feet tied to keep it that way, then covered with a tapa cloth made from the bark of a mulberry bush.

Sometimes the internal organs are removed and the cavity filled with salt to preserve it. The bones are considered sacred and believed to have divine power.

Many caves in Hawaii still contain these skeletons, particularly along the coast of Maui.

10. Ocean Burial

Since most of our planet is covered with water, burial at sea has long been the accepted norm for mariners the world over.

By international law, the captain of any ship, regardless of size or nationality has the authority to conduct an official burial service at sea.

The traditional burial shroud is a burlap bag, being cheap and plentiful, and long in use to carry cargo. The deceased is sewn inside and is weighted with rocks or other heavy debris to keep it from floating.

If available, the flag of their nation covers the bag while a service is conducted on the deck. The body is then slid from under the flag, and deposited in Davy Jones locker.

In olden days, the British navy mandated that the final stitch in the bag had to go through the deceased person’s lip, just to make sure they really were dead. (If they were still alive, having a needle passed through their skin would revive them).

It is quite possible that sea burial has been the main form of burial across the earth since before recorded history.

11. The Advanced Technology : Space Burial

Today, if one has enough money, you can be launched into space aboard a private commercial satellite and a capsule containing your ashes will be in permanent orbit around the earth.

Perhaps this is the ultimate burial ceremony, or maybe the beginning of a whole new era in which man continues to find new and innovative ways to invoke spirits and provide a safe passage to whatever awaits us at the end of this life.

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Courtesy : Scribd

Earth Our Home Too : Parrots

parrots10

The parrot is a medium sized group of birds, with the parrot being best known for it’s extremely brightly coloured feathers, and the ability of some parrot species to talk, as these species of parrots are able to mimic sounds made by other animals such as humans.

There are thought to be over 350 species of parrot worldwide, ranging across rainforest regions of the Southern Hemisphere. The parrot tends to inhabit densely forested areas, where the parrot hunts insects and small mammals, as well as eating nuts, seeds and fruits.

The parrot can grow between 8cm and 1m, depending on the parrot species. The pygmy parrot is the smallest species of parrot in the world, growing to around the same size as an adult human’s finger. The pygmy parrot is found in the jungles of Papua New Guinea. The Hyacinth Macaw is the largest species of parrot in the world, growing to more than a meter in height and native to the jungles of central and eastern South America. However, the endangered kakapoof New Zealand can often be heavier than the Hyacinth Macaw, with the kakapooften reaching more than 3kg in weight.

The parrot is believed to be one of the most intelligent of all the bird species, mainly in the sense that parrots are able to replicate (mimic) the noises made around them. Some parrots are able to mimic modern sounds and human voices to almost perfection. One African grey parrot was found to have a vocabulary of more than 800 words!

Nearly all of the different parrot species around the world are known to live for a long time, particularly in comparison to other species of bird (even other species of animal). The average lifespan of the parrot is around 60 years, although it is not uncommon for parrots be much older ages, as many parrot individuals have reached the age of 100.

Parrots are identifiable by a number of their features, the brightly coloured feathers of the parrot being the most obvious one. Parrots are known to have sharp, curved beaks which help parrots to crack nuts open more easily and to access fruits on the trees. Parrots also have strong legs, but are most well known for the fact that there are four toes on each of the parrot’s two feet, two of these toes faces forwards and the other two toes face backwards. These remarkable feet help the parrot not only to perch on tree branches more easily, but also aid the parrot in climbing tree trunks or clambering through the dense jungle foliage.

Parrot populations are rapidly declining mainly due to deforestation and therefore destruction of the parrot’s natural habitat. Parrots are also a popular animal in the exotic pet trade and are trapped in the wild to be delivered to homes around the world.

Parrots are found on all tropical and subtropical continents, including Australia and Oceania, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central America, South America and Africa. Caribbean and some Pacific islands are home to endemic species. By far the greatest number of parrot species comes from Australasia and South America. 

Due to their large size (of the majority of parrot species) and intelligence, parrots have few natural predators in the wild. The human trapping and hunting parrots, is the main predator of the parrot along with monkeys, snakes and large birds of prey that tend to feed more on the eggs of the parrot rather than the bird itself.

The diet of parrots consists of seeds, fruit, nectar, pollen, buds, and sometimes arthropods and other animal prey. The most important of these for most true parrots and cockatoos are seeds; the evolution of the large and powerful bill can be explained primarily as an adaptation to opening and consuming seeds. 

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Courtesy : Google, Wikipedia, AtoZanimals.com

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Know : Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth.

Earth_Global_CirculationThe large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic climatological structure remains fairly constant. Individual weather systems – mid-latitude depressions, or tropical convective cells – occur “randomly”, and it is accepted that weather cannot be predicted beyond a fairly short limit: perhaps a month in theory, or (currently) about ten days in practice (see Chaos theory and Butterfly effect). Nonetheless, as the climate is the average of these systems and patterns – where and when they tend to occur again and again – it is stable over longer periods of time.

As a rule, the “cells” of Earth’s atmosphere shift polewards in warmer climates (e.g. interglacials compared toglacials), but remain largely constant even due to continental drift; they are, fundamentally, a property of the Earth’s size, rotation rate, heating and atmospheric depth, all of which change little. Tectonic uplift can significantly alter major elements of it, however – for example the jet stream -, and plate tectonics shift ocean currents. In the extremely hot climates of the Mesozoic, indications of a third desert belt at the Equator has been found; it was perhaps caused by convection. But even then, the overall latitudinal pattern of Earth’s climate was not much different from the one today.

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See More Know : Weakening Trade Winds and Global Warming

Courtesy : Mr. Smajda’s Class Videos, YouTube and Wikipedia

Know : Weakening Trade Winds and Global Warming

What are the trade winds?

globalcircThe trade winds are just air movements toward the equator. They are warm, steady breezes that blow almost continuously. The Coriolis Effect makes the trade winds appear to be curving to the west, whether they are traveling to the equator from the south or north.

The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth’s equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its warm phase. Historically, the trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships to cross the world’s oceans for centuries, and enabled European empire expansion into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

In meteorology, the trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and southern Indian Oceans and make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and Madagascar and eastern Africa, respectively. Trade winds also steer African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea, as well as portions of southeastern North America. Shallow cumulus clouds are seen within trade wind regimes, and are capped from becoming taller by a trade wind inversion, which is caused by descending air aloft from within the subtropical ridge. The weaker the trade winds become, the more rainfall can be expected within neighboring landmasses.

Understand Atmospheric Circulation better from the basics here

windpatThe trade winds in the Pacific Ocean are weakened as a result of global warming, according to a new study that indicates changes to the region’s biology are possible.

Using a combination of real-world observations and computer modeling, researchers conclude that a vast loop of circulating wind over the Pacific Ocean, known as the Walker circulation, has weakened by about 3.5 percent since the mid-1800s. The trade winds are the portion of the Walker circulation that blow across the ocean surface.

The researchers predict another 10 percent decrease by the end of the 21st century. 

The effect, attributed at least in part to human-induced climate change, could disrupt food chains and reduce the biological productivity of the Pacific Ocean, scientists said.

Humans to blame

The researchers used records of sea-level atmospheric pressure readings from as far back as the mid-1800s to reconstruct the wind intensity of the Walker circulation over the past 150 years. A computer climate model replicated the effect seen in the historical record.

Some of the computer simulations included the effects of human greenhouse gas emissions; others included only natural factors known to affect climate such as volcanic eruptions and solar variations.

“We were able to ask ‘What if humans hadn’t done anything? Or what if volcanoes erupted? Or if the sun hadn’t varied?'” Vecchi said. “Our only way to account for the observed changes is through the impact of human activity, and principally from greenhouse gases from fossil fuel burning.”

The earth’s average temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit over the past century and many scientists believe greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide emissions from human activities are to blame.

“This is evidence supporting global warming and also evidence of our ability to make reasonable predictions of at least the large scale changes that we should expect from global warming,” Vecchi told LiveScience.

By extrapolating their data and combining it with results from other models, the researchers predict the Walker circulation could slow by an additional 10 percent by 2100.

Driving force

The trade winds blow from the east at an angle towards the equator and have been used by sailors for centuries seeking to sail west. Christopher Columbus relied on the Atlantic’s trade winds to carry him to North America. The winds get their name from their reliability: To say that a “wind blows trade” is to say that it blows on track.

The overall Walker circulation is powered by warm, rising air in the west Pacific Ocean and sinking cool air in the eastern Pacific.

This looping conveyer belt of winds has far-reaching effects on climate around the globe. It steers ocean currents and nourishes marine life across the equatorial Pacific and off the coast of South America by driving the upwelling of nutrient-rich cold water from the ocean depths to the surface.

The Walker circulation is also primarily responsible for transporting water vapor that evaporates from the ocean surface west, towards Indonesia; there, the moisture rises up into the atmosphere, condenses, and falls back to Earth as rain.

The effects of global warming

Several theories on the effects of global warming predict a weakening of the Walker circulation. Scientists think it works like this:

To remain energetically balanced, the rate at which the atmosphere absorbs water vapor must be balanced by the rate of rainfall. But as temperatures rise and more water evaporates from the ocean, water vapor in the lower atmosphere increases rapidly. Because of various physical processes, however, the rate of rainfall does not increase as fast.

Since the atmosphere is absorbing moisture faster than it can dump it, and because wind is the major transporter of moisture into the atmosphere, air circulation must slow down if the energy balance is to be maintained.

A drop in winds could reduce the strength of both surface and subsurface ocean currents and dampen cold water upwelling at the equator.

“This could have important effects on ocean ecosystems,” Vecchi said. “The ocean currents driven by the trade winds supply vital nutrients to near-surface ocean ecosystems across the equatorial Pacific, which is a major fishing region.”

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Courtesy : Global Warming Weakens Trade Winds | LiveScience