Know : Is She looks Beautiful? Yangyang is a Humanoid Robot

“Yangyang” was presented at the Global Mobile Internet Conference in Bejing with the aim of getting younger people interested in studying robotics.

yangyang

Dressed in a long red coat, the android can move its head, raise its hands and speak – fooling many into thinking it’s a real woman.

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The machine was produced at the Yangyang Intelligent Robot Science Service Centre and gave a demonstration of its range of emotions at the show.

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The eerie creation is the latest advancement in robotics that are swiftly becoming all-too-human.

Creativity : 10 Cutest Cars & Customization Rules

Unfortunately, only a few cars made it to the roads and many of them just remained as much adored cars on Techno-Exhibitions.

Because customization of Cars has many laws associated with it and that varies from country to country. You can read some of the common illegal alterations following this gallery. So when you try customizing your car, always check your state’s law.

In India, you check the following list before you customize.

  • First, get the modification plans approved by the original car maker
  • Modify the car according to the approved plan
  • Get the modified car approved by the original car maker
  • If approved, the owner has to get the car certified at one of three government-approved certifying agencies
  • Once cleared by them, an RTO certificate will enable the owner to drive around town without being pulled up

However, these cars will tempt you at least to go for a ride. ūüôā Which one is your favourite?

10 common illegal customizations

  1. Window tinting

    Dark window tinting is one of the most common illegal alterations made to cars. Every state has different laws regarding window tinting and regulations, including light transmittance and location of tinting. Some states are stricter about tinting the driver’s side window and the windshield. For the most part, a light tint is the best way to go and will keep you out of trouble with law enforcement.

  2. License plate frames

    Customizing license plates and the frames that keep them in place is very popular. It may seem harmless to have a customized frame that advertises a dealership or your favorite sports team, but you can actually get pulled over and ticketed if the frame covers up the state name or numbers in any way. Tinted and reflective-plate covers are also illegal in many states.

  3. Exhaust

    Adding a performance exhaust to your vehicle can make it more powerful, faster, and louder than before. Drivers who install a new exhaust system may have a noisier and meaner sounding vehicle, but you’ll also run the risk of being ticketed if it’s too loud and causes any noise complaints.

  4. HID headlamps

    Drivers who want a customized look for their car might be tempted to get a HID headlamps kit to install, but this popular alteration is illegal in all 50 states. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration says that no HID headlamps meet the federal photometric standards, so if you install these you may end up with a pricey ticket.

  5. Undercarriage lighting

    Undercarriage lighting is a popular, but often illegal alteration made to cars. Adding bright neon or LED lights may be illegal in your state, especially if it interferes with the front and rear lighting. Some states have restricted certain colors and color combinations that might cause confusion or distractions on the road.

  1. Lifts

    Lifting the suspension or frame and body of your vehicle can drastically change the way your car looks and drives. As popular as this alteration is, your state may have a limit on how high you can go. Some states set their height restrictions based on maximum headlight and taillight heights and others measure by maximum bumper heights. Depending on the state you live in or drive through, you could be ticketed for an excessive lift.

  2. Muffler delete

    Drivers who want to increase the horse power and noise level of their vehicle may consider installing muffler delete pipes. But it’s important to know that every state has different laws relating to muffler delete alterations, but for the most part, it’s illegal. Most states require all vehicles have a working muffler to prevent excessively loud or unusual noises, but adding a muffler delete or similar device to your vehicle is illegal.

  3. Studded tires

    Many drivers install studded tires to get better traction on slippery roads during the winter season, but these tires can also destroy pavement. Even though studded tires have been approved by the federal government and received the DOT rating, some states do not allow them on their roads or only at certain times of the year.

  4. Off-road lamps

    High-intensity off-road lamps are very bright and very illegal in some states. These 100-watt (or more) lights are often attached to the grille of trucks or mounted on the roof of vehicles. Off-road lamps might help you find your way through the dark wilderness, but they are completely unnecessary for everyday driving. The range, intensity, and light patterns of these lamps are extremely distracting on the road and can cause danger to oncoming traffic.

  5. Cold air intake

    This is a common alteration made to mostly muscle cars and four-cylinder import vehicles. Drivers install cold air intake systems for various reasons, but one of the most common is to produce more power from the engine. But this increase in power can result in an increase in fuel consumption and emissions. Your car may seem like it’s running better, but if you’re exceeding the legal emissions limits, you could be in trouble with the law.


Credits : Criminal Justice Degrees guide

Know : List of Countries using Nuclear Energy

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Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries.¬†Of the thirty countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Belgium, Hungary and Slovakia use them as the primary source of electricity, although many other countries have a significant nuclear power generation capacity.¬†According to the World Nuclear Association, a nuclear power advocacy group, over 45 countries are giving “serious consideration” to introducing a nuclear power capability, with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey,Vietnam, Belarus, and Jordan at the forefront.¬†China, South Korea and India are pursuing ambitious expansions of their nuclear power capacities

As of June 2011, Germany and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power which will be replaced mostly by fossil fuels, and a smaller part renewable energy.

Rank Country Capacity (MW)
(2014)
Nuclear share of
electricity production, 2013
1 United States United States 99,081 19.4%
2 France France 63,130 73.3%
3 Japan Japan 42,388 1.7%
4 Russia Russia 23,643 17.5%
5 South Korea South Korea 20,721 27.6%
6 China China 17,978 2.1%
7 Canada Canada 13,538 16.0%
8 Ukraine Ukraine 13,107 43.6%
9 Germany Germany 12,068 15.4%
10 Sweden Sweden 9,474 42.7%
11 United Kingdom United Kingdom 9,243 18.3%
12 Spain Spain 7,121 19.7%
13 Belgium Belgium 5,927 52.1%
14 India India 5,308 3.5%
15 Taiwan Taiwan 5,032 19.1%
16 Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,884 35.9%
17 Switzerland Switzerland 3,308 36.4%
18 Finland Finland 2,752 33.3%
19 Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,906 30.7%
20 Hungary Hungary 1,889 50.7%
21 Brazil Brazil 1,884 2.8%
22 South Africa South Africa 1,860 5.7%
23 Slovakia Slovakia 1,815 51.7%
24 Argentina Argentina 1,627 4.4%
25 Mexico Mexico 1,570 4.6%
26 Romania Romania 1,300 19.8%
27 Iran Iran 915 1.5%
28 Pakistan Pakistan 690 4.4%
29 Slovenia Slovenia 688 33.6%
30 Netherlands Netherlands 482 2.8%
31 Armenia Armenia 375 29.2%
World 374,704

Courtesy & Source: “Nuclear power station” by Ichabod Paleogene, Krzysztof Kori. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Understand the Differences : NASA’s MAVEN and ISRO’s MOM : Complete Info

There are so many comparisons going on “MAVEN vs MOM”, without even knowing the¬†PURPOSE,¬†DIMENSIONS,¬†PAYLOADS,¬†TRAJECTORY and¬†RESEARCH POTENTIALS¬†of both the projects. But this is not a competition but a good progression in Science. It is illogical to compare both as a subject of Pride. If we can understand the differences, we can educate the right info about both the Mission to MARS. Here is the complete info…

PURPOSE

NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) is a space probe designed to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars.

India‚Äôs Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM ‚Äď ‚ÄúMangalyaan‚ÄĚ)¬†is a space probe designed¬†to explore Mars‚Äô surface features, morphology, mineralogy and¬†Martian atmosphere¬†using indigenous scientific instruments while orbiting Mars.

The two projects are being conducted for very different reasons.

Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) (AKA Mangalyaan)
A. Technological Objectives:

  • Design and realisation of a Mars orbiter with a capability to survive and perform Earth bound manoeuvres, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase around Mars.
  • Deep space communication, navigation, mission planning and management.
  • Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.

B. Scientific Objectives:

  • Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere by indigenous scientific instruments.

(source: ISRO – Mars Orbiter Mission )

Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN)

MAVEN is the first spacecraft that will focus primarily on the state of the upper atmosphere, the processes that control it, and the overall atmospheric loss that is currently occurring. Specifically, MAVEN will explore the processes through which the top of the Martian atmosphere can be lost to space. Scientists think that this loss could be important in explaining the changes in the climate of Mars that have occurred over the last four billion years.

(source: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (UC Boulder) –MAVEN ” FAQs )

DIMENSIONS

MAVEN is larger than MOM.

MAVEN’s body has a cubical shape of about 2.3 m x 2.3 m x 2 m high, spans a total of 11.4 m with its solar panels deployed and has a lift-off mass of  2,454 kg (including fuel) and has a dry payload of 903 kg.

Mangalyaan’s body is a cuboid measuring about 1.5 m per side, a span of 4.2 m with solar panels deployed and an initial mass of 1337 kg of which 852 kg is fuel. MAVEN at its aphelion will pull in 1215 W of solar power.  MOM pulls in 840 W.

MAVEN at its aphelion will pull in 1215 W of solar power.  MOM pulls in 840 W.

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PAYLOADS

The Atlas 5 rocket to be used to launch MAVEN has the capability to lift about 7,000 kg directly into a Geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). This allows MAVEN (2500 kg) to be injected directly into a Trans-Mars trajectory from launch.

The PSLV to be used for MOM can lift about 1300 kg into a GTO. With the MOM having a mass of 1337 kg, it becomes necessary for a  launch first into earth orbit and then a multi-step transition  through ever increasing earth orbits and finally into a Trans-Mars trajectory.

The two vehicles have very different payloads packages, as befitting their separate objectives.¬† MOM’s instruments are mainstream, broad spectrum, and intended to give ISRO experience at measuring different types of planetary data ranging from atmospheric to surface morphology.¬† MAVEN’s instruments are all focused on upper atmosphere and are cutting edge, measuring to greater limits, sensitivity, and accuracy than previous missions.

Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) (AKA Mangalyaan) – Payload

  • Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP)
  • Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS)
  • Mars Color Camera (MCC)
  • Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM)
  • Martian Exospheric Nutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA)

Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN)

TRAJECTORY (PATH)

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MAVEN

MAVEN is due to launch on an Atlas 5 rocket at 1:28 p.m. EST (1828 GMT) on Monday (Nov. 18) from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Within one hour of launch, MAVEN will be in a Hohmann Transfer Orbit with periapsis at Earth’s orbit and apoapsis at the distance of the orbit of Mars. MAVEN should reach Mars orbit on 22nd September 2014.

mangalyaan-trajectory

MOM (Mangalyan)

Because of the relatively low payload capability of the PSLV for an interplanetary mission MOM will spend more than four weeks in earth orbit and has to be equipped with radiation shielding to endure the numerous passages through earth‚Äôs radiation Belts.¬†MOM has fired its Liquid Motor six times ‚Äď always when passing perigee to gradually increase the apogee of the orbit to work its way up to departing Earth orbit in a fuel-efficient manner. The sixth (including one correction) firing yesterday placed the spacecraft in a 600 by approx 193,000 kilometer orbit around Earth and sets up the proper perigee passage for the final engine burn that puts the vehicle onto its Trans-Martian Trajectory using s standard Hohmann Transfer Orbit on 30th November/ 1st December. MOM should reach Mars orbit on 24th September 2014 (2 days after MAVEN).

Research Potential

The separation here is again due to their separate objectives.  MOM is primarily intended to provide information to ISRO on how to plan, design, manage, and operate interplanetary missions.  It is an invaluable and essential process that will allow larger scale future missions.  The information will be of great use to engineers and mission planners at ISRO.  Although limited, the Mars information will also no doubt be of interest to researchers.

MAVEN is targeting a science orbit of 150 by 6,200 Kilometers at an inclination of 75 degrees.¬†It will perform measurements from a highly elliptical orbit around Mars over a period of one Earth year, with five ‚Äúdeep dips‚ÄĚ at 150¬†km minimum altitude to sample the upper atmosphere.

Mangalyaan will be much further out and targets an operational orbit of 365 by 80,000 Kilometers with an inclination of 150 degrees and a duration of 76.72 hours from where it will perform its science mission. The MOM mission in Mars orbit is open-ended and is expected to last about 160 days. MOM’s closest approach is 377 km

MAVEN’s data is far more specialized and of interest to smaller groups of researchers, but the project fits under one of NASA’s “Big Questions” – specifically understanding how life developed on Earth.¬† Studying the atmosphere of Mars should provide insights to researchers interested in the evolution of Earth’s atmosphere.

MAVEN’s science phase features regular communication sessions. The spacecraft points its High Gain Antenna at Earth for high data rate communications twice per week with the exact timing depending on Deep Space Network visibility. Those comm sessions take place on Tuesday and Friday and have a duration of eight hours during which at least five hours of Earth pointing are required to downlink all science data and housekeeping telemetry.

Mangalyaan is equipped with a 2.2-meter diameter High Gain Antenna which is a parabolic X-Band reflector antenna that is used for data downlink and command uplink. Science data and spacecraft telemetry is stored in two 16Gb Solid State Recorders aboard the vehicle for downlink during regular communications sessions. Low and Medium Gain Antennas are used for low-bandwidth communications such as command uplink and systems telemetry downlink.

Both vehicles arrive at Mars the same week (22 Sept 2014 for MAVEN and 24 Sept 2014 for MOM).  MOM is taking longer to get there because of the multiple Earthbound maneuvers in its trajectory.  Those maneuvers are part of the mission test objectives.

Budget:

MAVEN is expected to have a budget of about $672 million. MOM has a budget of about $70 million. So now you can understand how illogical to comparisons both the projects on a “pride of your country-basis.”

“If NASA’s orbiter Maven and ISRO’s Mars Orbiter are successful, they will complement each other in findings and help understand the red planet better. We will coordinate with NASA once both our missions get there. Right now our focus is to get the Orbiter there,” ISRO sources told PTI. Explaining the differences between both missions, they said that unlike the American NASA orbiter, MOM is a “small and modest” attempt by India. – NDTV

Sources: 

Documentary : World’s Strongest Materials

Materials science, also commonly known as materials engineering, is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This relatively new scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With significant media attention focused on Nano science and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science is becoming more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering. It is an important part of forensic engineering (Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property.) and failure analysis, the latter being the key to understanding, for example, the cause of various aviation accidents. Many of the most pressing scientific problems that are currently faced today are due to the limitations of the materials that are currently available and, as a result, breakthroughs in this field are likely to have a significant impact on the future of technology.


Courtesy : PBS Documentary via YouTube