Know: ‘The Most Hated Tree’ in the World

Prosopis juliflora

There is no harmful living being in this earth and nature created everything with specific roles to play, in order to balance the ecosystem. But sometimes a few living beings can be regarded as harmful to some other species.

Would you hate a tree which can grow in any extremely arid environment, saline soil and stay ever green? Most importantly it can grow fast on its own! Are we supposed to hate such a tree? If I say ‘Yes’ you would feel that I am insane. But there are people who hate such special trees! 

You must have seen this Tree in your villages, even urban bushes or alongside roads.Prosopis juliflora” also called as  algarrobe,cambróncashawépinardmesquitemostrenco, or mathenge is probably the most hated tree in the world now. Many countries declared this a weed and prohibited them planting this. Destruction campaigns are actively happening in many parts of the world to weed out these trees.

Why people hate this tree?

Prosopis juliflora Commonly called as “Mesquite” is a shrub or small tree. It is native to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean. It has become established as an invasive weed in Africa, Asia, Australia and elsewhere.

It has become an invasive weed in several countries where it was introduced. It is considered a noxious invader in Ethiopia, in Hawaii, in Sri Lanka, Jamaica, the Middle East, India, Nigeria, Sudan, Somalia, Senegal and southern Africa. It is also a major weed in the southwestern United States. It is hard and expensive to remove as the plant can regenerate from the roots. Its aggressive growth leads to a monoculture, denying native plants water and sunlight, and not providing food for native animals and cattle.

Prosopis juliflora2

DEVIL TREE : Grazing areas are scarce and vegetation sparse. In recent years this precious grazing land has been invaded by an aggressive, thorny plant called Prosopis (Prosopis juliflora), known to locals as the devil tree. – Farm Africa

A mature tree can produce hundreds of thousands of seeds. Seeds remain viable for up to 10 years. The tree reproduces by way of seeds, not vegetatively. Seeds are spread by cattle and other animals that consume the seed pods and spread the seeds in their droppings.

Prosopis juliflora Seeds

Its roots are able to grow to a great depth in search of water: in 1960, they were discovered at a depth of 53 meters (175 feet) at an open-pit mine near Tucson, Arizona, putting them among the deepest known roots.

In Australia, mesquite has colonized more than 800,000 hectares of arable land, having severe economic and environmental impacts. With its thorns and many low branches it forms impenetrable thickets which prevent cattle from accessing watering holes, etc. It also takes over pastoral grasslands and uses scarce water. Livestock which consume excessive amounts of seed pods are poisoned. It causes land erosion due to the loss of the grasslands that are habitats for native plants and animals. 

In Sri Lanka this mesquite was planted in the 1950s near Hambantota as a shade and erosion control tree. It then invaded the grass lands in and around Hambantota.

In the Arabian Peninsula where P. juliflorais invasive has strong negative impacts on native species despite increases in the concentrations of some nutrients in sub-canopy soil.[Source]

The Survivor:

Scientists say P. juliflora has survived where other tree species have failed.

The concern in the 1970s and 1980s about deforestation, desertification and fuel wood shortage prompted a wave of projects, leading to the introduction of the species on a large-scale manner in the State and elsewhere.

They say the invasion by this species is going in several areas. The growth and spread of Prosopis is tremendous mainly due to its inbuilt mechanism to overcome adverse conditions. The ‘proline’ content in Prosopis is high under stress conditions, which helped the plant to thrive under extreme drought. – Courtesy : The Hindu

Prosopis was introduced in India during the 1870s to meet the fuel wood demand and in Tamil Nadu the 1960

It is called bayahonda blanca in Spanish, bayarone Français in French, in Hindi it is called angaraji babulKabuli kikarvilayati babulvilayati khejra or vilayati kikar. In Gujarati it is called gando baval, in Marwari, baavlia, in Kannada it is known as “Ballaari Jaali” and in Tamil language it is known as cheemai karuvel (சீமைக்கருவேலை)

Every species has it’s role to play as we mentioned earlier. This Tree has nothing to consider it as evil or to hate it. The only this is that it has spread in wrong habitats. Just like letting Lions to live free in cities. Regardless of whatever the negatives that the people see in this tree, I consider this as a Solid Fighter and a Rock Tree to survive even in Deserts. Let these trees find its actual home, where no other trees or plants can grow. The nature will do the rest of its magic which many of us are reluctant to accept. Hope people see this from the nature’s perspective.

Courtesy : Wikipedia, The Hindu, Farm

Documentary : The First World War (complete history)

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. From the time of its occurrence until the approach of World War II in 1939, it was called simply the World War or the Great War, and thereafter the First World War or World War I. In America it was initially called the European War. More than 9 million combatants were killed: a scale of death impacted by industrial advancements, geographic stalemate and reliance on human wave attacks. It was the fifth-deadliest conflict in world history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.

The war drew in all the world’s economic great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: theAllies (based on the Triple Entente of the United KingdomFrance and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powersof Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance. These alliances were both reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy,Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.

Although a resurgence of imperialism was an underlying cause, the immediate trigger for war was the 28 June 1914assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo. This set off a diplomatic crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, and international alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked. Within weeks, the major powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.

On 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians fired the first shots in preparation for the invasion of Serbia. As Russia mobilised, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading Britain to declare war on Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that would change little until 1917. Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, but was stopped in its invasion of East Prussia by the Germans. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the war, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. Italy and Bulgaria went to war in 1915 and Romania in 1916.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

The war approached a resolution after the Russian Tsar’s government collapsed in March 1917 and a subsequent revolution in November brought the Russians to terms with the Central Powers. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives and American forces began entering the trenches. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war in victory for the Allies.

By the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the GermanRussianAustro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost substantial territory, while the latter two were dismantled. The map of Europe was redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created. The League of Nationsformed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such an appalling conflict. This aim failed, with weakened states, renewed European nationalism and the humiliation of Germany contributing to the rise of fascism and the conditions for World War II.

The First World War (1/10) To Arms 1914

The First World War (2/10) Under The Eagle 1914 to 1915

The First World War (3/10) Global War 1914 to 1916

The First World War (4/10) Jihad 1914 to 1916

The First World War (5/10) Shackled to a Corpse 1914 

The First World War (6/10) Breaking The Deadlock 1915 

The First World War (7/10) Blockade 1916 to 1917

The First World War (8/10) Revolution 1917

The First World War (9/10) Germany’s Last Gamble 1918

The First World War (10/10) War Without End