Documentary : Know : Peru

PeruPeru – officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north byEcuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by thePacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence, the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Flag_of_Peru.svgPeru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans andAsians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.


Courtesy & Credits : Wikipedia and Expoza Travel


Documentary : Know Armenia

ArmeniaArmenia officially the Republic of Armenia, is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave ofNakhchivan to the south.

Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. The Satrapy of Armenia was established in the 6th century BC, after the fall of Urartu. In the first century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between late 3rd to early years of the 4th century (the official date is 301 AD), becoming the first Christian nation.” An Armenian principality and later a kingdom, known as Cilician Armenia, existed on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.

Between the 16th and early 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under rule of the rivaling Ottoman and Persian Empires, passing between the two over the centuries. By the mid 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by Russia, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland still remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, the Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. After almost 600 years of statelessness, Armenia achieved Independence in 1918; however, the First Republic of Armenia, surrounded by hostile countries, was Sovietized in 1920. Between 1922 and 1991, Armenia was part of the Soviet Union. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991.

The Republic of Armenia recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world’s oldest national church, as the country’s primary religious establishment. Armenians have their own unique alphabet, which was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.

Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991.

Documentary : Know Portugal

Location of  Portugal  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (PortugueseRepública Portuguesa), is a unitary semi-presidential republic. It is located in South-Western Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula, and it is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, being bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. Aside from continental Portugal, the Portuguese Republic holds sovereignty over the Atlantic archipelagos of Azores and Madeira, which are autonomous regions of Portugal. The country is named after its second largest city, Porto, whose name derives from Latin “Portus” and Celtic “Cale”.

The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continually fought over and settled since prehistoric times. The Celts and the Romans, followed by the Visigothic and Suebian domination, and theMoorish invaders, who were eventually expelled during the Reconquista. Portugal by 1139 established itself as an independent kingdom from Galicia. In the 15th and 16th centuries, as the result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, Portugal expanded western influence and established the first global empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and military powers, and ultimately dividing the world with Spain.

The Portuguese Empire was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost 600 years, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau to China in 1999 (de facto) or the granting of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002 (de jure). The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories that are now part of 53 different sovereign states, leaving a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today (making it the sixth most spoken first language) and a number of Portuguese-based creoles. Portugal’s international status was greatly reduced during the 19th century, especially following the Independence of Brazil, its largest and most important colony. After 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstablePortuguese First Republic was established, itself being superseded by the “Estado Novo” right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. The revolution in 1974 also resulted in the independence of AngolaMozambiqueSão Tomé and PríncipeEast TimorCape Verde and Guinea-Bissau in 1975.

Portugal is considered a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards. It’s one of the world’s most globalized and peaceful nations. It is a member of the United NationsEuropean UnionEurozoneOECDNATOWTOSchengen Area, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level. Portugal also received international attention for being the first country in the world to fully decriminalize the usage of all drugs in 2001.


Courtesy : Expoza Travel via Youtube and Wikipedia

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Documentary : Know France

FranceFrance officially the French Republic is a sovereign country in Western Europe that includes overseas regions and territoriesMetropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of only three countries (with Morocco and Spain) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Due to its shape, it is often referred to in French as l’Hexagone (“The Hexagon“).

France map

France is the largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the third-largest in Europe as a whole. With a total population of around 67 million, it is the third most-populous European country. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the nation’s largest city and the main cultural and commercial centre. The current Constitution of France, adopted by referendum on 4 October 1958, establishes the country as secular and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people. The nation’s ideals are expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, one of the world’s earliest documents on human rights, which was formulated during the seminal French Revolution of the late 18th century.

France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages. It possessed the second-largest colonial empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Throughout its long history, France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains prominent global centre of culture. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites, drawing around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world.

File:Armoiries république française.svgFrance remains a great power with significant culturaleconomicmilitary, and political influence in Europe and around the world. It has the world’s sixth-largest military budgetthird-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, and second-largest diplomatic corps, after the United States. Due to its overseas regions and territories throughout the world, France has the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France is a developed country and has the world’s fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of total household wealth, France is the wealthiest nation in Europe and fourth in the world.

French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, with the country performing well in international rankings of educationhealth carelife expectancy, civil liberties, and human development. France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. It is a member of numerous international institutions, includingFrancophonie, the G8G20NATOOECDWTO, and the Latin Union. France is a founding and leadingmember state of the European Union


Courtesy : Expoza Travel

Documentary : Know Antarctica


Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth‘s southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2(5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after AsiaAfricaNorth America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89 °C (−129 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive, including many types of algaebacteriafungiplantsprotista, and certain animals, such as mitesnematodespenguinsseals and tardigrades. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.

Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis (“Southern Land”) date back to antiquity, the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny first sighted a continental ice shelf in 1820. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation.

The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 49 countries have signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent’s ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.


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Courtesy : Youtube : ExploreTravelWorldGeoff Head