Documentary : Know Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

Uzbekistan officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Before 1991, it was part of the Soviet Union.

Once part of the Persian Samanid and later Timurid empires, the region which today includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by nomads who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. This region was subsequently incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century, and in 1924 it became a boundaried constituent republic of the Soviet Union, known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). It subsequently became the independent Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially, from the following day). Most of Uzbekistan’s population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language, one of the family of Turkic languages.

Uzbekistan’s economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cottongolduranium, and natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, Uzbekistan continues to maintain economic controls, which deter foreign investment and imports and benefit domestic ‘import substitution’. The policy of a gradual, strictly controlled transition to the market economy has nevertheless produced beneficial results in the form of economic recovery after 1995. Uzbekistan’s domestic policies on human rights and individual freedoms have been criticised by some international organizations.

Tajikistan officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. It borders Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Pakistan has separated from Tajikistan by the narrow Wakhan Corridor in the south.

Most of Tajikistan’s population belongs to the Persian-speaking Tajik ethnic group, who share language, culture and history with Afghanistan and Iran. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). Mountains cover more than 90% of the republic. After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country’s economy to grow. Trade in commodities such ascottonaluminium and uranium has contributed greatly to this steady improvement.

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Courtesy : BBC World, Simon Reeve, YouTube, Wikipedia

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Know : What is Your Language’s Word Order?

In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.  SOV is the most common type (followed by subject–verb–object; the two types account for more than 75% of natural languages with a preferred order). 

Word Order

Source : Frequency distribution of word order in languages surveyed by Russell S. Tomlin in 1980s.

Languages that have SOV structure:

Ainu,  Akkadian,  Amharic,  Armenian,  Assamese,  Aymara, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Burushaski, Dogon languages,  Elamite,  Ancient Greek,  Hindi, Hittite,  Hopi, Hungarian, Ijoid languages, Itelmen, Japanese, Kazakh, Korean,Kurdish, Classical Latin, Manchu, Mande languages,  Marathi, Mongolian,  Navajo, Nepali,  Newari,  Nivkh,  Nobiin,  Pāli,  Pashto,  Persian, Punjabi, Quechua,  Sanskrit, Senufo languages,  Seri,  Sicilian,  Sindhi,  Sinhalese  and  most  other  Indo-Iranian languages,  Somali and  virtually all other Cushitic languages, Sumerian, Tagalog, Tibetanand nearly all other Tibeto-Burman languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and all other Dravidian languages, Tigrinya, Turkic languages, Turkish, Urdu, Yukaghir, and virtually all Caucasian languages.

Languages that have SVO structure:

Albanian, Arabic, Assyrian (VSO and VOS are also followed, depending on the person), Berber, Bulgarian, Chinese, English, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Ganda, Greek, Hausa, Hebrew, Italian, Javanese, Kashmiri, Khmer, Latvian, Macedonian, Polish, Portuguese, Quiche, Romanian, Rotuman, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swahili, Thai, Vietnamese, Yoruba and Zulu are examples of languages that can follow an SVO pattern

Languages that have VSO structure:

Semitic languages (including Arabic, Classical Hebrew, and Ge’ez (Classical Ethiopic) (dead language)), and Celtic languages (including Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, and Breton).

Other families where all or many of languages are VSO include the following

  • the Afroasiatic languages (including the Berber languages and the Egyptian language)
  • the Mayan languages (including Classic Maya)
  • the Otomanguean languages (including Zapotec languages and Mixtecan languages)
  • the Salishan languages
  • the Austronesian languages (including Tagalog, Cebuano, Hawaiian, Pangasinan, Māori, Malagasy, and Tongan).

Both the Spanish and Greek language resemble Semitic languages such as Arabic in allowing for both VSO and SVO structures: e.g. “Jesús vino el jueves” / Vino Jesús el jueves, “Tu madre dice que no vayas”/”dice tu madre que no vayas”. In Spanish, the only restriction on the VSO form is for the object to require a definite or indefinite article in the sentence

Languages that have VOS structure:

 Austronesian languages (such as Malagasy, Old Javanese, Toba Batak and Fijian) andMayan languages (such as Tzotzil). However, these have either (mixed) ergative or Austronesian alignment, and as such do not have a subject as it has been traditionally defined. Among languages with true subjects, in Hadza the word order VOS is extremely common, but is not the default, which is VSO

Languages that have OVS / OSV structure:

Object–verb–subject (OVS) or object–verb–agent (OVA) is a rare permutation of word order. OVS denotes the sequence object–verb–subject in unmarked expressions: Oranges ate SamThorns have roses. While the passive voice in English may appear to be in the OVS order, this is not an accurate description. In an active voice sentence, for example Sam ate the oranges, the grammatical subject, Sam, is the ‘agent’, who is acting on the ‘patient,’the oranges, which are the object of the verb ate. In the passive voice, The oranges were eaten by Sam, the order is reversed so that patient is followed by verb, followed by agent. However, the oranges become the subject of the verbwere eaten which is modified by the prepositional phrase by Sam which expresses the agent, maintaining the usual subject–verb–(object) order.

Star Wars franchise creator George Lucas attributed to his fictional character Yoda a native language featuring OSV grammatical order, as reflected in the character’s instinctive application of the OSV template to English vocabulary in generating statements such as “Your father he is, but defeat him you must.”