Curiosity : Something behind TV and Radio

Watching TVWhile watching TV or Listening to FM Radio, what we do? We switch between channels/stations which in fact is tuning the frequencies  of  electromagnetic spectrum which are measured in Hertz (Hz). By the way who regulates this? What frequency is used for what purpose? Is there any standards? Know more now…

Radio spectrum refers to the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to radio frequencies – that is, frequencies lower than around 300 GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, called radio waves, are used for radio communication and various other applications.

So, your TV or Radio Stations produce the radio waves which you receive and enjoy.

Who can generate the Radio waves? Who controls it? 

The generation of radio waves is strictly regulated by the government in most countries, coordinated by an international standards body called the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Different parts of the radio spectrum are allocated for different radio transmission technologies and applications. In some cases, parts of the radio spectrum is sold or licensed to operators of private radio transmission services (for example, cellular telephone operators or broadcast television stations). Ranges of allocated frequencies are often referred to by their provisioned use (for example, cellular spectrum or television spectrum)

Flag of ITU.svgITU is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.

ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 Sector Members and Associates.

Okay, what are the frequencies or wave lengths used by our Televisions? What about our mobile phones?

Well, the ITU regulates it along with governments of various countries and allocates the frequencies as bands, for various purposes. The list below will explain the typical allocation.

band is a small section of the spectrum of radio communication frequencies, in which channels are usually used or set aside for the same purpose. Above 300 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth’s atmosphere is so great that the atmosphere is effectively opaque, until it becomes transparent again in the near-infrared and optical window frequency ranges.

To prevent interference and allow for efficient use of the radio spectrum, similar services are allocated in bands. For example, broadcasting, mobile radio, or navigation devices, will be allocated in non-overlapping ranges of frequencies. Each of these bands has a basic bandplan which dictates how it is to be used and shared, to avoid interference and to set protocol for the compatibility of transmitters and receivers.

Band name Abbreviation ITU band Frequency
and
wavelength in air
Example uses
Tremendously low frequency TLF   < 3 Hz
> 100,000 km
Natural and artificial electromagnetic noise
Extremely low frequency ELF   3–30 Hz
100,000 km – 10,000 km
Communication with submarines
Super low frequency SLF   30–300 Hz
10,000 km – 1000 km
Communication with submarines
Ultra low frequency ULF   300–3000 Hz
1000 km – 100 km
Submarine communication, Communication within mines
Very low frequency VLF 4 3–30 kHz
100 km – 10 km
Navigationtime signals, submarine communication, wireless heart rate monitorsgeophysics
Low frequency LF 5 30–300 kHz
10 km – 1 km
Navigation, time signals, AM longwavebroadcasting (Europe and parts of Asia),RFIDamateur radio
Medium frequency MF 6 300–3000 kHz
1 km – 100 m
AM (medium-wave) broadcasts, amateur radio, avalanche beacons
High frequency HF 7 3–30 MHz
100 m – 10 m
Shortwave broadcasts, citizens’ band radio, amateur radio and over-the-horizon aviation communications, RFIDOver-the-horizon radarAutomatic link establishment (ALE) /Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) radio communications, Marine and mobile radio telephony
Very high frequency VHF 8 30–300 MHz
10 m – 1 m
FMtelevision broadcasts and line-of-sight ground-to-aircraft and aircraft-to-aircraft communications. Land Mobile and Maritime Mobile communications, amateur radio,weather radio
Ultra high frequency UHF 9 300–3000 MHz
1 m – 100 mm
Television broadcasts, Microwave oven,Microwave devices/communications, radio astronomymobile phoneswireless LAN,BluetoothZigBeeGPS and two-way radios such as Land Mobile, FRS and GMRSradios, amateur radio
Super high frequency SHF 10 3–30 GHz
100 mm – 10 mm
Radio astronomy, microwave devices/communications, wireless LAN, most modern radarscommunications satellites, satellite television broadcasting,DBS, amateur radio
Extremely high frequency EHF 11 30–300 GHz
10 mm – 1 mm
Radio astronomy, high-frequencymicrowave radio relay, microwave remote sensing, amateur radio, directed-energy weaponmillimeter wave scanner
Terahertz orTremendously high frequency THz or THF 12 300–3,000 GHz
1 mm – 100 μm
Terahertz imaging – a potential replacement for X-rays in some medical applications, ultrafast molecular dynamics,condensed-matter physicsterahertz time-domain spectroscopy, terahertz computing/communications, sub-mm remote sensing, amateur radio

Courtesy : Wikipedia and ITU

Do you want to know about anything in a simpler and understandable way? Please drop a comment about it on any of our posts. We will get back on that in our future posts.

The 30 Human Rights Laws of the UN – Dec.10th Human Rights Day

THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is generally agreed to be the foundation of international human rights law. Adopted in 1948, the UDHR has inspired a rich body of legally binding international human rights treaties. It continues to be an inspiration to us all whether in addressing injustices, in times of conflicts, in societies suffering repression, and in our efforts towards achieving universal enjoyment of human rights.

It represents the universal recognition that basic rights and fundamental freedoms are inherent to all human beings, inalienable and equally applicable to everyone, and that every one of us is born free and equal in dignity and rights. Whatever our nationality, place of residence, gender, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status, the international community on December 10 1948 made a commitment to upholding dignity and justice for all of us.

How Does International Law Protect Human Rights?

The International human rights law lays down obligations which States are bound to respect. By becoming parties to international treaties, States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights.  The obligation to respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect requires States to protect individuals and groups against human rights abuses. The obligation to fulfil means that States must take positive action to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights.

Through ratification of international human rights treaties, Governments undertake to put into place domestic measures and legislation compatible with their treaty obligations and duties. The domestic legal system, therefore, provides the principal legal protection of human rights guaranteed under international law. Where domestic legal proceedings fail to address human rights abuses, mechanisms and procedures for individual and group complaints are available at the regional and international levels to help ensure that international human rights standards are indeed respected, implemented, and enforced at the local level.

Article 1. We are all free and equal

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2. Don’t discriminate

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3. The right to life

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4. No slavery – past and present

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5. No Torture

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6. We all have the same right to use the law

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7. We are all protected by the law

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8. Fair treatment by fair courts

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9. No unfair detainment

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10. The right to trial

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11. Innocent until proven guilty

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12. The right to privacy

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13. Freedom to move

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14. The right to asylum

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15. The right to a nationality

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16. Marriage and family

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17. Your own things

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18. Freedom of thought

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19. Free to say what you want

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20. Meet where you like

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21. The right to democracy

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22. The right to social security

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23. Workers’ rights

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24. The right to play

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25. A bed and some food

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26. The right to education

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27. Culture and copyright

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28. A free and fair world

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29. Our responsibilities

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30. Nobody can take away these rights and freedoms from us 

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

Courtesy and Source : UNO and Google

Kanmoni, a Beautiful Girl Inspires : World Differently-Able Day

DECEMBER 3 : International Day of People with Disability [better said as “World Differently-Able Day”]  is an international observance promoted by the United Nations since 1992. It has been celebrated with varying degrees of success around the planet. The observance of the Day aims to promote an understanding of disability issues and mobilize support for the dignity, rights and well-being of persons with disabilities. It also seeks to increase awareness of gains to be derived from the integration of persons with disabilities in every aspect of political, social, economic and cultural life. It was originally called “International Day of Disabled Persons”. Each year the day focuses on a different issue.

Here is the story of Kanmoni…

disability_day_kanmoni_new_360Kanmoni, a beautiful and effervescent 12-year-old from Mavelikara in Kerala, has been winning friends and hearts with her music and zest for life. She was born without arms and with deformed legs, but you would scarcely know that as she plays ‘Twinkle Twinkle Little Star’ on the keyboard. With her feet.

Kanmoni also paints and writes with her feet and is independent in everyday life. “She doesn’t like to depend on anyone. From having her bath, to brushing her teeth, to applying eye liner, to eating her food, she does everything by herself using her feet,” says her mother Rekha Shashikumar.

Mrs Shashikumar says the future had looked dark when she was born, but they had not reckoned with Kanmoni’s fierce desire to live life on her terms.

The journey was not easy. She was refused admission by several schools, before VVHSS school in Thamarakulam took her in.

Now in class 8, school is where she most loves to be. Apart from her family, it is her classmates and her teachers who have been her biggest strength, the pre-teen says.

Like Bindu, a teacher at the school who learnt how to drive so that Kanmoni would not have to commute the 10 km to her school by public transport.

Another teacher,  Lolamma, “placed a pen in my feet as a child, and had given me a parrot’s picture to colour. From that day onward there has been no turning back,” says Kanmoni.

Kanmoni’s class teacher Vividha describes her as a very bright student, loved by her classmates. “We just have to give her a little bit more time in comparison to others to be able to write, since she uses her feet and alter seating arrangements in class to seat her comfortably,” she said.

World Disability Day: inclusion remains a challenge in India

As the world celebrates the International Day for People with Disabilities, in India, accessibility and inclusion of the disabled remain a challenge. While the world has taken giant steps towards inclusion, India still has a lot of work to do.

While cities across the world have moved towards being disabled friendly, India lags behind. Places like Chicago even offer discounts for wheelchair users. But Mumbai, which dreams of becoming Shanghai, may find it difficult to get there, if the challenge of accessibility for the disabled is not met.

Read Complete Article from : NDTV

Courtesy and Source : Wikipedia, NDTV

Note: One article from NDTV is used as it is to keep the inspiration as it is. Unable to cut excerpts from such a beautiful article. Thanks  Sneha Mary Koshy NDTV for bringing this story.

Song of the Week : UNITED : Human Rights

Music written and produced by Chris Thomas, Geoff Levin and Hiroko Hayata.
Lyrics and vocals by Charles Gee. Rap variation by Lai Lai

If U-N-I-T-E-D
 The world would be a better place … you know?
As ink pours from my pen, pain pours from my heart
Knowin’ there’s kids somewhere that actually starve.
Take the time out, close your eyes, just picture this:
No color, no hate, nemesis or differences.
TV is  yelling me with scenes of negativity
But we can control it if we cooperate willingly,
We came a long way, but got so much further to go.
Guns kill, but hatred destroys us the most.
And the problem could never be solved you see,
Human Rights de ne the word—EQUALITY
If we don’t respect and love each other, we’re just living a lie
Because UNITED starts with you and I.
You feel me?

(Chorus)
U-N-I-T-E-D
A better place this world would be
We’re all in this game, can’t you see?
We’re all a part of this family tree.
(Repeat Chorus)

(Lai Lai’s Rap)
We all are born free and equal,
Free to walk
And free to talk
Free to dance
Free to jump and free to prance
Know what I’m saying?
Got to keep it together
No matter how bad the weather
It will be all right
Keep it tight
’Cause we all got our freedom rights
Everyday from the night
To the broad daylight
Don’t discriminate
Learn to appreciate
So you don’t ha a imitate
Don’t be the one to hate
It’s never too late
You got the right to life
Innocent till proven guilty
You can say what you like
You gotta get the education
Don’t throw it away
Know your human rights
’Cause it can help you someday.

(Repeat Chorus)
U-N-I-T-E-D
A better place this world would be
We’re all in this game, can’t you see?
We’re all a part of this family tree.

Feel Humane ! : After Typhoon Haiyan (50 Photos)

Obviously we all will feel so humane after seeing these pictures. Just have this thought in your mind reverb forever. “Our lives are so uncertain, till we live carry a humane spirit and love in our souls”

Pray for them. Help if you can.

A child waits with fellow typhoon survivors as they line up in the hopes of boarding an evacuation flight on a C-130 military transport plane Tuesday, November 12, 2013, in Tacloban, central Philippines. (Photo by Bullit Marquez/AP Photo)

A child waits with fellow typhoon survivors as they line up in the hopes of boarding an evacuation flight on a C-130 military transport plane Tuesday, November 12, 2013, in Tacloban, central Philippines. (Photo by Bullit Marquez/AP Photo)

A Filipino woman holding a baby runs during a downpour in the super typhoon devastated city of Tacloban, Leyte province, Philippines, 12 November 2013. International aid poured in for the Philippines as authorities stepped up efforts to reach survivors driven to looting after one of the world's strongest typhoons devastated their towns. A tropical depression brought heavy rains over the central and eastern Philippines, where provinces badly hit by Haiyan are located, raising concerns that relief operations would be hampered. (Photo by Francis R. Malasig/EPA)

A Filipino woman holding a baby runs during a downpour in the super typhoon devastated city of Tacloban, Leyte province, Philippines, 12 November 2013. International aid poured in for the Philippines as authorities stepped up efforts to reach survivors driven to looting after one of the world’s strongest typhoons devastated their towns. A tropical depression brought heavy rains over the central and eastern Philippines, where provinces badly hit by Haiyan are located, raising concerns that relief operations would be hampered. (Photo by Francis R. Malasig/EPA)

Source and Courtesy : Avaxnews