Know : Rankings of Countries : Global Innovation Index

The core of the Global Innovation Index Report consists of a ranking of world economies’ innovation capabilities and results. Recognizing the key role of innovation as a driver of economic growth and prosperity, and the need for a broad horizontal vision of innovation applicable to developed and emerging economies, the GII includes indicators that go beyond the traditional measures of innovation such as the level of research and development.

Global Innovation Index

The top-ranked countries in the GII come from different parts of the globe, confirming the global dispersion of innovation. The top 10 this year are ranked as follows:

1. Switzerland (1st in 2012)
2. Sweden (2nd)
3. United Kingdom (5th)
4. Netherlands (6th)
5. United States of America (10th)
6. Finland (4th)
7. Hong Kong (China) (8th)
8. Singapore (3rd)
9. Denmark (7th), and
10. Ireland (9th).

Top GII by region

Complete List of Rankings

Country/Economy Score (0–100) Overall Rank Income  Income Rank Region Regional Rank Efficiency Ratio  Rank
Switzerland 66.59 1 HI 1 EUR 1 1 12
Sweden 61.36 2 HI 2 EUR 2 0.81 55
United Kingdom 61.25 3 HI 3 EUR 3 0.8 60
Netherlands 61.14 4 HI 4 EUR 4 0.91 26
United States of America 60.31 5 HI 5 NAC 1 0.74 86
Finland 59.51 6 HI 6 EUR 5 0.79 67
Hong Kong (China) 59.43 7 HI 7 SEAO 1 0.68 109
Singapore 59.41 8 HI 8 SEAO 2 0.64 121
Denmark 58.34 9 HI 9 EUR 6 0.76 78
Ireland 57.91 10 HI 10 EUR 7 0.81 57
Canada 57.6 11 HI 11 NAC 2 0.78 68
Luxembourg 56.57 12 HI 12 EUR 8 0.89 33
Iceland 56.4 13 HI 13 EUR 9 0.89 30
Israel 55.98 14 HI 14 NAWA 1 0.87 38
Germany 55.83 15 HI 15 EUR 10 0.87 40
Norway 55.64 16 HI 16 EUR 11 0.76 81
New Zealand 54.46 17 HI 17 SEAO 3 0.74 90
Korea Rep. 53.31 18 HI 18 SEAO 4 0.72 95
Australia 53.07 19 HI 19 SEAO 5 0.65 116
France 52.83 20 HI 20 EUR 12 0.79 63
Belgium 52.49 21 HI 21 EUR 13 0.76 75
Japan 52.23 22 HI 22 SEAO 6 0.66 112
Austria 51.87 23 HI 23 EUR 14 0.71 98
Malta 51.79 24 HI 24 EUR 15 1.06 4
Estonia 50.6 25 HI 25 EUR 16 0.82 51
Spain 49.41 26 HI 26 EUR 17 0.71 101
Cyprus 49.32 27 HI 27 NAWA 2 0.86 43
Czech Republic 48.36 28 HI 28 EUR 18 0.81 53
Italy 47.85 29 HI 29 EUR 19 0.79 62
Slovenia 47.32 30 HI 30 EUR 20 0.78 70
Hungary 46.93 31 HI 31 EUR 21 0.94 23
Malaysia 46.92 32 UM 1 SEAO 7 0.81 52
Latvia 45.24 33 UM 2 EUR 22 0.77 74
Portugal 45.1 34 HI 32 EUR 23 0.73 92
China 44.66 35 UM 3 SEAO 8 0.98 14
Slovakia 42.25 36 HI 33 EUR 24 0.75 84
Croatia 41.95 37 HI 34 EUR 25 0.82 50
United Arab Emirates 41.87 38 HI 35 NAWA 3 0.55 133
Costa Rica 41.54 39 UM 4 LCN 1 1.02 9
Lithuania 41.39 40 UM 5 EUR 26 0.69 105
Bulgaria 41.33 41 UM 6 EUR 27 0.88 35
Saudi Arabia 41.21 42 HI 36 NAWA 4 0.8 61
Qatar 41 43 HI 37 NAWA 5 0.71 97
Montenegro 40.95 44 UM 7 EUR 28 0.72 94
Moldova Rep. 40.94 45 LM 1 EUR 29 1.08 2
Chile 40.58 46 UM 8 LCN 2 0.74 88
Barbados 40.48 47 HI 38 LCN 3 0.73 91
Romania 40.33 48 UM 9 EUR 30 0.88 34
Poland 40.12 49 HI 39 EUR 31 0.68 110
Kuwait 40.02 50 HI 40 NAWA 6 1.03 8
TFYR of Macedonia 38.18 51 UM 10 EUR 32 0.72 96
Uruguay 38.08 52 UM 11 LCN 4 0.85 45
Mauritius 38 53 UM 12 SSF 1 0.8 59
Serbia 37.87 54 UM 13 EUR 33 0.82 49
Greece 37.71 55 HI 41 EUR 34 0.65 118
Argentina 37.66 56 UM 14 LCN 5 0.94 20
Thailand 37.63 57 UM 15 SEAO 9 0.76 76
South Africa 37.6 58 UM 16 SSF 2 0.71 99
Armenia 37.59 59 LM 2 NAWA 7 0.86 42
Colombia 37.38 60 UM 17 LCN 6 0.76 79
Jordan 37.3 61 UM 18 NAWA 8 0.77 73
Russian Federation 37.2 62 UM 19 EUR 35 0.7 104
Mexico 36.82 63 UM 20 LCN 7 0.81 56
Brazil 36.33 64 UM 21 LCN 8 0.78 69
Bosnia and Herzegovina 36.24 65 UM 22 EUR 36 0.7 103
India 36.17 66 LM 3 CSA 1 1.02 11
Bahrain 36.13 67 HI 42 NAWA 9 0.62 123
Turkey 36.03 68 UM 23 NAWA 10 0.9 29
Peru 35.96 69 UM 24 LCN 9 0.77 72
Tunisia 35.82 70 UM 25 NAWA 11 0.88 36
Ukraine 35.78 71 LM 4 EUR 37 0.89 31
Mongolia 35.77 72 LM 5 SEAO 10 0.62 122
Georgia 35.56 73 LM 6 NAWA 12 0.71 100
Brunei Darussalam 35.53 74 HI 43 SEAO 11 0.65 119
Lebanon 35.47 75 UM 26 NAWA 13 0.66 114
Viet Nam 34.82 76 LM 7 SEAO 12 0.96 17
Belarus 34.62 77 UM 27 EUR 38 0.75 82
Guyana 34.36 78 LM 8 LCN 10 0.97 15
Dominican Republic 33.28 79 UM 28 LCN 11 0.9 28
Oman 33.25 80 HI 44 NAWA 14 0.54 134
Trinidad and Tobago 33.17 81 HI 45 LCN 12 0.75 85
Jamaica 32.89 82 UM 29 LCN 13 0.79 65
Ecuador 32.83 83 UM 30 LCN 14 0.94 21
Kazakhstan 32.73 84 UM 31 CSA 2 0.61 126
Indonesia 31.95 85 LM 9 SEAO 13 1.04 6
Panama 31.82 86 UM 32 LCN 15 0.61 127
Guatemala 31.46 87 LM 10 LCN 16 0.79 66
El Salvador 31.32 88 LM 11 LCN 17 0.76 80
Uganda 31.21 89 LI 1 SSF 3 0.95 19
Philippines 31.18 90 LM 12 SEAO 14 0.93 24
Botswana 31.14 91 UM 33 SSF 4 0.51 136
Morocco 30.89 92 LM 13 NAWA 15 0.75 83
Albania 30.85 93 LM 14 EUR 39 0.58 129
Ghana 30.6 94 LM 15 SSF 5 0.8 58
Bolivia Plurinational St. 30.48 95 LM 16 LCN 18 0.88 37
Senegal 30.48 96 LM 17 SSF 6 0.95 18
Fiji 30.46 97 LM 18 SEAO 15 0.51 137
Sri Lanka 30.45 98 LM 19 CSA 3 0.99 13
Kenya 30.28 99 LI 2 SSF 7 0.78 71
Paraguay 30.28 100 LM 20 LCN 19 0.82 48
Tajikistan 30 101 LI 3 CSA 4 0.9 27
Belize 29.98 102 LM 21 LCN 20 0.73 93
Cape Verde 29.69 103 LM 22 SSF 8 0.57 130
Swaziland 29.6 104 LM 23 SSF 9 1.06 5
Azerbaijan 28.99 105 UM 34 NAWA 16 0.65 117
Mali 28.84 106 LI 4 SSF 10 1.13 1
Honduras 28.8 107 LM 24 LCN 21 0.66 115
Egypt 28.48 108 LM 25 NAWA 17 0.68 108
Namibia 28.36 109 UM 35 SSF 11 0.48 139
Cambodia 28.07 110 LI 5 SEAO 16 0.87 39
Gabon 28.04 111 UM 36 SSF 12 0.81 54
Rwanda 27.64 112 LI 6 SSF 13 0.64 120
Iran Islamic Rep. 27.3 113 UM 37 CSA 5 0.68 107
Venezuela Bolivarian Rep. 27.25 114 UM 38 LCN 22 1.02 10
Nicaragua 27.1 115 LM 26 LCN 23 0.62 125
Burkina Faso 27.03 116 LI 7 SSF 14 0.79 64
Kyrgyzstan 26.98 117 LI 8 CSA 6 0.56 131
Zambia 26.79 118 LM 27 SSF 15 0.89 32
Malawi 26.73 119 LI 9 SSF 16 0.87 41
Nigeria 26.57 120 LM 28 SSF 17 1.03 7
Mozambique 26.5 121 LI 10 SSF 18 0.67 111
Gambia 26.39 122 LI 11 SSF 19 0.86 44
Tanzania United Rep. 26.35 123 LI 12 SSF 20 0.66 113
Lesotho 26.29 124 LM 29 SSF 21 0.47 140
Cameroon 25.71 125 LM 30 SSF 22 0.84 47
Guinea 25.7 126 LI 13 SSF 23 1.07 3
Benin 25.1 127 LI 14 SSF 24 0.69 106
Nepal 24.97 128 LI 15 CSA 7 0.76 77
Ethiopia 24.8 129 LI 16 SSF 25 0.74 87
Bangladesh 24.52 130 LI 17 CSA 8 0.84 46
Niger 24.03 131 LI 18 SSF 26 0.71 102
Zimbabwe 23.98 132 LI 19 SSF 27 0.91 25
Uzbekistan 23.87 133 LM 31 CSA 9 0.52 135
Syrian Arab Republic 23.73 134 LM 32 NAWA 18 0.45 142
Angola 23.46 135 UM 39 SSF 28 0.94 22
Côte d’Ivoire 23.42 136 LM 33 SSF 29 0.74 89
Pakistan 23.33 137 LM 34 CSA 10 0.97 16
Algeria 23.11 138 UM 40 NAWA 19 0.46 141
Togo 23.04 139 LI 20 SSF 30 0.56 132
Madagascar 22.95 140 LI 21 SSF 31 0.59 128
Sudan 19.81 141 LM 35 SSF 32 0.49 138
Yemen 19.32 142 LM 36 NAWA 20 0.62 124

Note: World Bank Income Group Classification (July 2012): LI = low income; LM = lower-middle income; UM = upper-middle income; and HI = high income. Regions are based on the United Nations Classification (11 February 2013): EUR = Europe; NAC = Northern America; LCN = Latin America and the Caribbean; CSA = Central and Southern Asia; SEAO = South East Asia and Oceania; NAWA = Northern Africa and Western Asia; and SSF = Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Global Innovation Index 2013 (GII), in its 6th edition this year, is co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, a specialized agency of the United Nations).


Courtesy: Wikipedia and www.globalinnovationindex.org

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Know : World Trade Organization (WTO)

Brief Overview:

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.

The result is assurance. Consumers and producers know that they can enjoy secure supplies and greater choice of the finished products, components, raw materials and services that they use. Producers and exporters know that foreign markets will remain open to them.

The result is also a more prosperous, peaceful and accountable economic world. Virtually all decisions in the WTO are taken by consensus among all member countries and they are ratified by members’ parliaments. Trade friction is channelled into the WTO’s dispute settlement process where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments, and how to ensure that countries’ trade policies conform with them. That way, the risk of disputes spilling over into political or military conflict is reduced.

By lowering trade barriers, the WTO’s system also breaks down other barriers between peoples and nations.

At the heart of the system — known as the multilateral trading system — are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations, and ratified in their parliaments. These agreements are the legal ground-rules for international commerce. Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing member countries important trade rights. They also bind governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits to everybody’s benefit.

The agreements were negotiated and signed by governments. But their purpose is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

The goal is to improve the welfare of the peoples of the 159 member states.

   Members,
   Members, dually represented by the European Union
   Observers
   Non-members

The History : 

The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995. One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War. So while the WTO is still young, the multilateral trading system that was originally set up under GATT is well over 50 years old. (click here to read the complete history)

In 2000, new talks started on agriculture and services. These have now been incorporated into a broader agenda launched at the fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001.

The work programme, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), adds negotiations and other work on non-agricultural tariffs, trade and environment, WTO rules such as anti-dumping and subsidies, investment, competition policy, trade facilitation, transparency in government procurement, intellectual property, and a range of issues raised by developing countries as difficulties they face in implementing the present WTO agreements.

It does this by:
Administering trade agreements
Acting as a forum for trade negotiations
Settling trade disputes
Reviewing national trade policies
Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes
Cooperating with other international organizations

Organizational Structure

The WTO has about 150 members, accounting for about 95% of world trade. Around 30 others are negotiating membership.

Decisions are made by the entire membership. This is typically by consensus. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO, and was extremely rare under the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments.

The WTO’s top level decision-making body is the Ministerial Conference which meets at least once every two years.

Below this is the General Council (normally ambassadors and heads of delegation in Geneva, but sometimes officials sent from members’ capitals) which meets several times a year in the Geneva headquarters. The General Council also meets as the Trade Policy Review Body and the Dispute Settlement Body.

At the next level, the Goods Council, Services Council and Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Council report to the General Council.

Numerous specialized committees, working groups and working parties deal with the individual agreements and other areas such as the environment, development, membership applications and regional trade agreements.

Secretariat

The WTO Secretariat, based in Geneva, has around 600 staff and is headed by a director-general (Roberto Azevêdo). Its annual budget is roughly 160 million Swiss francs. It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Since decisions are taken by the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role that other inter-Secretariat, Genevanational bureaucracies are given.

The WTO agreements
How can you ensure that trade is as fair as possible, and as free as is practical? By negotiating rules and abiding by them. (Click here to read more about the WTO agreements)

The WTO is ‘rules-based’; its rules are negotiated agreements.

Overview: a navigational guide
Tariffs: more bindings and closer to zero
Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers
Standards and safety
Textiles: back in the mainstream
Services: rules for growth and investment
Intellectual property: protection and enforcement
Anti-dumping, subsidies, safeguards: contingencies, etc
Non-tariff barriers: red tape, etc
Plurilaterals: of minority interest
Trade policy reviews: ensuring transparency

10 benefits of the WTO trading system

From the money in our pockets and the goods and services that we use, to a more peaceful world — the WTO and the trading system offer a range of benefits, some well-known, others not so obvious.

1. The system helps promote peace
2. Disputes are handled constructively
3. Rules make life easier for all
4. Freer trade cuts the costs of living
5. It provides more choice of products and qualities
6. Trade raises incomes
7. Trade stimulates economic growth
8. The basic principles make life more efficient
9. Governments are shielded from lobbying
10. The system encourages good government

10 common misunderstandings about the WTO

Is it a dictatorial tool of the rich and powerful? Does it destroy jobs? Does it ignore the concerns of health, the environment and development?  Emphatically no. Criticisms of the WTO are often based on fundamental misunderstandings of the way the WTO works.

1. WTO dictates?
2. 
Blindly for trade?
3. 
Ignores development?
4. 
Anti-green?
5. 
Anti-health?
6. 
Wrecks jobs?
7. 
Small left out?
8. 
Tool of lobbies?
9. 
Weak forced to join?
10. 
Undemocratic?

____

Courtesy and Source : www.wto.org, Wikipedia and Google

Know : List of Secular, Non Secular and Ambiguous Countries

Secularmap

SECULAR COUNTRIES

North America

Africa

Canada Angola
Cuba Benin
Honduras  Botswana
Mexico Burkina Faso
United States of America  Burundi
South America Cameroon
Brazil Cape Verde
Chile Chad
Colombia Republic of the Congo
Ecuador Ethiopia
Peru Gabon
Uruguay The Gambia
Venezuela Guinea
Europe Guinea-Bissau
Austria Liberia
Albania Mali
Belarus Namibia
Belgium  Senegal
Bosnia and Herzegovina Rwanda
Bulgaria South Africa
Croatia  
Czech Republic  
Estonia

Asia

France Azerbaijan
Hungary China
Ireland East Timor 
Italy Georgia
Latvia India
Macedonia Japan
Netherlands Kazakhstan
Poland Kyrgyzstan
Portugal Laos
Romania Lebanon
Russia Nepal
Serbia North Korea
Slovakia Philippines
Slovenia Singapore
Spain South Korea
Sweden Syria
Turkey Taiwan Taiwan
Ukraine Tajikistan

Oceania

Turkey
Australia  Turkmenistan
Federated States of Micronesia Vietnam
New Zealand  

Ambiguous /Without Data 

Argentina

Bangladesh (ambiguous data, – Constitution states that Bangladesh is both Islamic and secular.

Finland 
Germany 
Indonesia
Lebanon 
Malaysia 
Myanmar 
Norway
Sri Lanka 
Switzerland 
Thailand 
United Kingdom 

Non Secular / Religious

Afghanistan
Algeria
Alsace-Moselle
Argentina
Bahrain
Bangladesh* (ambiguous data, – Constitution states that Bangladesh is both Islamic and secular.
Bhutan 
Brunei
Cambodia
Comoros
Costa Rica
Denmark 
Djibouti
Egypt
England
Georgia
Greece
Iceland 
Iran 
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Libya
Liechtenstein
Malaysia
Maldives
Malta
Mauritania
Monaco
Morocco
Mount Athos 
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Somalia
Sri Lanka
Tunisia
Tuvalu 
United Arab Emirates
Vatican City
Yemen

Former secular countries

Bangladesh (1971-1977)
Iran(1925-1979)
Madagascar (1960–2007)
Iraq (1932–1968)

Courtesy & Source : Wikipedia Link1, Link2


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Food We Eat : Flags From Foods :) [18 countries]

Photographs by Australian advertising agency WHYBIN\TBWA from the Sydney International Food Festival, Australia’s largest festival ever attended by a million last year. As a part of promotion, the creative team has recreated 18 national flags of countries  Australia, Spain, Italy, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America, Thailand, Indonesia, Switzerland, France, China, Lebanon, Greece, India and Brazil using their traditional ingrdients. 

Hope this will be a delight to you. Enjoy the pictures 🙂 Why not try something like this in our place?

Brazil’s flag made from banana leaf, limes, pineapple and passion fruit.

Brazil’s flag made from banana leaf, limes, pineapple and passion fruit.

India’s flag made from curries, rice, and pappadum wafer.

India’s flag made from curries, rice, and pappadum wafer.

Greece’s flag made from Kalamata olives and feta cheese.

Greece’s flag made from Kalamata olives and feta cheese.

Lebanon’s flag made from lavash, fattoush and herb sprig.

Lebanon’s flag made from lavash, fattoush and herb sprig.

China’s flag made from pittaya/dragon fruit and star fruit.

China’s flag made from pittaya/dragon fruit and star fruit.

France’s flag made from Blue cheese, brie and grapes.

France’s flag made from Blue cheese, brie and grapes.

Switzerland’s flag made from charcuteries and emmental.

Switzerland’s flag made from charcuteries and emmental.

Indonesia’s flag made from spicy curries and rice (Sambal).

Indonesia’s flag made from spicy curries and rice (Sambal).

Thailand’s flag made from sweet chilli sauce, shredded coconut and blue swimmer crab.

Thailand’s flag made from sweet chilli sauce, shredded coconut and blue swimmer crab.

United States of America’s flag made from hot dogs, ketchup, and mustard or cheese.

United States of America’s flag made from hot dogs, ketchup, and mustard or cheese.

United Kingdom’s flag made from scone, cream and jams.

United Kingdom’s flag made from scone, cream and jams.

Turkey’s flag made from Turkish Delights (Lokum).

Turkey’s flag made from Turkish Delights (Lokum).

South Korea’s flag made from Kimbap and sauces.

South Korea’s flag made from Kimbap and sauces.

Japan’s flag made from tuna and rice.

Japan’s flag made from tuna and rice.

Vietnam’s flag made from rambutan, lychee and starfruit.

Vietnam’s flag made from rambutan, lychee and starfruit.

Italy’s flag made from Basil, pasta, and tomatoes.

Italy’s flag made from Basil, pasta, and tomatoes.

Spain’s flag made from chorizo and rice.

Spain’s flag made from chorizo and rice.

Australia’s flag made from meat pie and sauce.

Australia’s flag made from meat pie and sauce.

____

Courtesy and Source : Twisted Sifter

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