Know : List of Countries using Nuclear Energy

Nuclear_power_station

Nuclear_label

Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries. Of the thirty countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Belgium, Hungary and Slovakia use them as the primary source of electricity, although many other countries have a significant nuclear power generation capacity. According to the World Nuclear Association, a nuclear power advocacy group, over 45 countries are giving “serious consideration” to introducing a nuclear power capability, with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey,Vietnam, Belarus, and Jordan at the forefront. China, South Korea and India are pursuing ambitious expansions of their nuclear power capacities

As of June 2011, Germany and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power which will be replaced mostly by fossil fuels, and a smaller part renewable energy.

Rank Country Capacity (MW)
(2014)
Nuclear share of
electricity production, 2013
1 United States United States 99,081 19.4%
2 France France 63,130 73.3%
3 Japan Japan 42,388 1.7%
4 Russia Russia 23,643 17.5%
5 South Korea South Korea 20,721 27.6%
6 China China 17,978 2.1%
7 Canada Canada 13,538 16.0%
8 Ukraine Ukraine 13,107 43.6%
9 Germany Germany 12,068 15.4%
10 Sweden Sweden 9,474 42.7%
11 United Kingdom United Kingdom 9,243 18.3%
12 Spain Spain 7,121 19.7%
13 Belgium Belgium 5,927 52.1%
14 India India 5,308 3.5%
15 Taiwan Taiwan 5,032 19.1%
16 Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,884 35.9%
17 Switzerland Switzerland 3,308 36.4%
18 Finland Finland 2,752 33.3%
19 Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,906 30.7%
20 Hungary Hungary 1,889 50.7%
21 Brazil Brazil 1,884 2.8%
22 South Africa South Africa 1,860 5.7%
23 Slovakia Slovakia 1,815 51.7%
24 Argentina Argentina 1,627 4.4%
25 Mexico Mexico 1,570 4.6%
26 Romania Romania 1,300 19.8%
27 Iran Iran 915 1.5%
28 Pakistan Pakistan 690 4.4%
29 Slovenia Slovenia 688 33.6%
30 Netherlands Netherlands 482 2.8%
31 Armenia Armenia 375 29.2%
World 374,704

Courtesy & Source: “Nuclear power station” by Ichabod Paleogene, Krzysztof Kori. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Know : Thorium – 8gm could power a car for 100yrs


Thorium_crystal
Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius and named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.

Thorium, a slightly radioactive metal that occurs in rocks and soils, may hold significant promise as a replacement for uranium in the nuclear energy sector. As global energy consumption increases, thorium is being looked into as a possible alternative to uranium to provide safe and abundant nuclear power at a reasonable cost. 1 gram of thorium is more energy dense than 7,396 gallons of gasoline. This means that 8 grams of the substance could power a thorium turbine motor vehicle for a century.

CanadaChinaGermanyIndia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States have experimented with using thorium as a substitute nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. When compared to uranium, there is a growing interest in thorium-based nuclear power due to its greater safety benefits, absence of non-fertile isotopes and its higher occurrence and availability. India’s three stage nuclear power programme is possibly the most well known and well funded of such efforts.

Thorium vs.Uranium

Thorium is an appealing alternative to uranium to many countries. It is both more cheap and more abundant than uranium, whose price is expected to rise yet more as backlash from the Fukushima disaster dies down, according to Energy and Capital. There are other benefits of thorium as well. During a thorium-powered nuclear reaction, most of the thorium itself is consumed, which leads to less waste, most of which is rendered non-hazardous in 30 years. The most dangerous nuclear waste material currently in use must be stored for 10,000 years, by way of contrast. Furthermore, 1 metric ton of thorium is equal to 250 metric tons in terms of efficiency in a water reactor.

Extraction of thorium would be less expensive per unit of energy than extraction of uranium as well, because it is present in higher concentrations by weight than the other metal, according to Dauvergne. The source also mentions another peculiar trait of thorium: it is nearly impossible to weaponize, as it contains no fissile isotope. This in itself has slowed uranium research, according to a 1997 international scientific symposium on nuclear fuel cycles.

The dangers of uranium – widely publicized in the wake of the Fukushima disaster – often lead analysts and others to consider thorium more seriously. As thorium is not fissile on its own, reactions could be stopped in case of emergency, according to Forbes. The publication suggests thorium could allow countries like Iran and North Korea to benefit from nuclear power without causing concern that they are secretly developing nuclear weapons, as well.

Thorium can also be used together with conventional uranium-based nuclear power generation, meaning a thriving thorium industry would not necessarily make uranium obsolete.

When used in a breeder-like reactor, however, unlike uranium-based light water reactors, thorium requires irradiation and reprocessing before the above-noted advantages of thorium-232 can be realized, which initially makes solid thorium fuels more expensive than uranium fuels. But experts note that “the second thorium reactor may activate a third thorium reactor. This could continue in a chain of reactors for a millennium if we so choose.” They add that because of thorium’s abundance, it will not be exhausted in 1,000 years.

thoriumVsUranium

Where thorium is found

Thorium is present in small quantities in soils and rocks everywhere, and it’s estimated to be about four times more plentiful than uranium. Large reserves, rather than the trace amounts of the metal in the average backyard, exist in China, Australia, the US, Turkey, India and Norway, according to Reuters.

thorium_reserves

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Source : Wikipedia, energyfromthorium.comhttp://uraniuminvestingnews.com/, Stuff They Don’t Want You To Know