Know : List of Oldest & Continuously Inhabited Cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

The age claims listed are generally disputed and may indeed be obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of “city” as well as “continuously inhabited” and historical evidence is often disputed.

Several cities listed here (Balkh, Byblos, Aleppo, Damascus, and Jericho) each popularly claim to be “the oldest city in the world”.

Name Continuously
inhabited since
Historical
region
Location
Aberdeen c. 580 Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Acoma
Puebloand Taos Pueblo,  New Mexico
c. 1075 Pueblo culture US
Albany, New York 1614 New Netherlands US
Aleppo Chalcolithic
(4300 BC or earlier)
Levant Syria
Alexandria 332 BC Egypt
Amesbury 8th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Britain
UK (England)
Amman c. 1878 Levant Jordan
Argos 5th
millennium BC.
Neolithic,
Mycenaean Greece
Greece
Århus c. 770 Denmark
Athens 5th–4th
Millennium BC
Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica,
Greece
Axum c. 400 BC Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia
Bagan 849 AD Kingdom of Pagan Myanmar
Baku The 1st century AD. Azerbaijan Absheron peninsula
Balkh  (as Bactra) 1500 BC Bactria Balkh
Province, Afghanistan
Bamyan 1st century AD Bactria Bamyan Province, Afghanistan
Bandar Seri Begawan 977 AD Kingdom of
Po-ni
Brunei
Baracoa 1511 New Spain Cuba
Barcelona  (as
Barcino)
3rd century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Bath  (as Aquae Sulis) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Beijing c. 1045 BC Ji,
Yan
Beijing,
China
Beirut 3000 BC Levant Lebanon
Belgrade 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Berat 314 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Albania
Berbera c. 400 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi 6th century BC Bessarabia Ukraine
Butuan 1001 AD Kingdom of Butuan Philippines
Byblos (Jubayl) Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier) Levant Lebanon
Cádiz 1100 BC Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Cagliari 8th century BC Sardinia Sardegna,
Italy
Cape Guardafui c. 500 BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Cape Town 1652 Cape colony South Africa
Cartagena  (as
Carthago Nova)
228 BC Iberia Spain
Carthage 814 BC Tunisia
Chalcis before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Chania c. 1400 BC Crete Crete,
Greece
Chengdu c. 400 BC Shu Sichuan,
China
Chios c. 1100 BC Chios North Aegean, Greece
Cholula c. 2nd
century BC
Old Cholula Mexico
Chur 15 BC Raetia Prima Grisons,
Switzerland
Cologne 50 AD Germania Inferior Germany
Constanţa 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Corfu,  Kerkyra 700 BC Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece
Crotone  (as Kroton) 710 BC Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy
Cusco c. 1100 Inca Empire Peru
Damascus Chalcolithic Levant Syria
Djenné-Jeno c. 200 BC Mali
Dublin 841 Ireland Ireland
Durrës 627 BC Illyria Albania
Edessa, Greece before the 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Edinburgh as Din
Eidyn
c. 580 Gododdin UK (Scotland)
Erbil 6000 BC or earlier Mesopotamia Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq
Évora 53 BC (Roman conquest) Lusitania Portugal
Faiyum  (as Shediet,
Crocodilopolis,  Ptolemais Euergetis,  Arsinoe)
c. 4000 BC Lower Egypt Faiyum Governorate, Egypt
Feodosiya  (as
Theodosia)
7th century
BC
Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Fes  (as Fes-al-Bali) 789 Morocco
Gaza c. 1000 BC Levant Gaza Strip
Gaziantep c. 3650 BC Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey
Ghadames  (as Cydamus) 19 BC Libya
Glasgow c. 6th century Dál Riata orAlt
Clut
UK
(Scotland)
Guangzhou
(as Panyu)
214 BC Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China
Gyeongju 57 BC Silla South Korea
Hamadan
(asEcbatana)
c. 800 BC Median Empire Iran
Hangzhou  (as Lin’an) c. 200 BC Qin Dynasty Zhejiang,
China
Hanoi 454 AD Jiaozhou Vietnam
Hebron c. 1500 BC Levant West Bank
Heraklion 824 Crete Greece
Ife c. 350 BC Osun State Nigeria
Igodomigodo c. 400 BC Kingdom of Benin Nigeria
Inverness c. 6th century Pictland UK
(Scotland)
Ioannina 527–565 Byzantine Empire Greece
Istanbul/Byzantion 685 BC Anatolia ThraceAnatolia Turkey
Jaffa c. 2000 BC Levant Israel
Jamestown,
Virginia
1607 Colony of Virginia US
Jenin c. 2450 BC Levant West Bank
Jericho Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Levant West Bank
Jerusalem (Old
City)
2800 BC Levant West Bank
Kaifeng  (as Daling, Bianzhou,
Dongjing, Bianjing)
c. 364 BC Wei Henan,
China
Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur c. 2nd
century AD
Nepal Kathmanduvalley,
Nepal
Kavala 6th century BC Macedonia Greece
Kediri 1042 AD Kediri Kingdom Indonesia
Kerch 7th century BC Crimea Russia/Ukraine
Kerikeri c. 1818 Northland New Zealand
Kiev 482 AD Medieval East Slavic civilization Ukraine
Kirkuk
(asArrapha)
3000–2200 BC Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate,
Iraq
Kismayo 4th century Bilad al-Barbar, after the 14th century part of theAjuuraan
Empire
Somalia
Kraków  (Wawel Hill) 7th century Lesser Poland Poland
Kumasi c. 1680 Ashanti
Empire
Ghana
Kutaisi c. 2000 BC Colchis Imeretiprovince,
Georgia
Kyoto
(as Heian-kyō, and sometimes
known in the west as Miyako)
794 AD Japan Japan
Lamia before the
5th century BC
Greece Greece
Lamu c. 1300 Kenya
Larnaca c. 1400 BC Alashiya Cyprus
Lisbon c. 1200 BC Iron Age Iberia Portugal
Ljubljana 50 BC Italia Slovenia
London  (asLondinium) 43 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Luang Prabang 698 AD Muang Sua Laos
Lund c. 990 Denmark Sweden
Luoyang  (as Zhenxun, Xibo) c. 2070 BC Xia Dynasty Henan,
China
Luxor  (as Waset, better known by its Greek nameThebes) c. 3200 BC Ancient Egypt Egypt
Madurai 500 BC Pandyan kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Mahasthangarh, Bogra 4th century BC Pundravardhana Bogra District, Bangladesh
Málaga 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Mangalia 6th century BC Dacia Romania
Manila 900 AD Kingdom of
Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila
Philippines
Mantua 6th century BC Po Valley Lombardy,
Italy
Marrakesh
(Murakuc)
1070 Morocco
Marseilles  (as
Massilia)
600 BC Gaul France
Messina  (as Zancle) 8th century
BC
Sicily Sicily, Italy
Metz 4th century BC Gaul France
Mexico City 1325 Mexica culture Mexico
Mogadishu c. 700 Sultanate of Mogadishu Somalia
Montreal 1642 New France Canada
Mtskheta c. 1000 BC Caucasian Iberia Georgia
Mytilene 10th century
BC
Lesbos North Aegean, Greece
Nablus  (asShechem) c. 100 Levant West Bank
Nanjing  (as Yecheng, Jianye,
Jiankang, Jinling)
c. 495 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Naples c. 680 BC Magna Graecia Italy
Nara  (as Heijō-kyō) 710 AD Japan Japan
Nijmegen 19 BC Germania Inferior Netherlands
Niš 279 BC Illyria Serbia
Nombre de Dios,
Colón
1510 New Granada Panama
Novi Sad 1st century
AD
Illyria Serbia
Old Cairo c. 100 Egypt
Oraibi, Arizona c. 1100 Hopi culture US
Osaka  (as Naniwa) c. 400 AD Japan Japan
Palembang c. 600 AD Srivijaya Indonesia
Panama City 1519 New Granada Panama
Paris 52 BC Lutetia France
Patna 5th century BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Patras c. 1100 BC Mycenaean Greece Greece
Peshawar c. 400–300 BC Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Plovdiv 3000 –
4000 BC
Thrace Plovdiv
Province, Bulgaria
Plymouth,
Massachusetts
1620 Plymouth Colony US
Polatsk 862 Belarus
Prague c. 6th century Bohemia Czech Republic
Provadia 4700 BC. Neolithic,
Danubian Plain
Bulgaria
Ptuj 1st century BC Pannonia Slovenia
Pyeongyang
(as Wanggeom-seong)
194 BC Gojoseon North Korea
Qabala  (as Kabalaka) 4th century BC Caucasian Albania Azerbaijan
Quebec City 1608 New France Canada
Quito 980 Quitu culture Ecuador
Rajagriha
(Rajgir)
600 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion) 743 BC Magna Graecia Calabria,
Italy
Rey 3000 BC Media Iran
Reykjavík c. 871 Iceland Iceland
Rhodes c. 408 BC Rhodes,
Aegean Sea
Dodecanese, Greece
Ribe 704–710 Jutland Denmark
Rome 753 BC Latium Lazio,
Italy
Roses  (as
Rhode)
4th century BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Saint John 1631 New France Canada
Samarqand 700 BC Sogdiana Uzbekistan
San
Diego
1769 New
Spain
US
San Juan 1508 New Spain Puerto Rico (US)
Sant Martí d’Empúries  (as Emporion) ca. 575 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Santa Fe de Bogota 1538 New Granada Colombia
Santa Fe, New
Mexico
1607 New Spain US
Santa Marta 1525 New Granada Colombia
Santiago del Estero 1553 Río de la Plata Argentina
Santo Domingo 1496 Hispaniola Dominican Republic
São Vicente, São
Paulo
1532 Governorate General of Brazil Brazil
Sault Ste. Marie,
Michigan
1668 New France US
Seoul
(as Wiryeseong)
18 BC Baekjae South Korea
Serres 5th century BC Macedonia Greece
Seville 8th century
BC
Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain
Sidon 4000 BC Levant Lebanon
Siem Reap 801 AD Khmer Empire Cambodia
Singapore 1170 AD Kingdom of Singapura Singapore
Skara 988 Sweden
Skopje 81–96 AD Macedonia (Roman
province)
Republic of Macedonia
Smederevo 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
Sofala c. 700 Mozambique
Sofia 4th century
BC
Moesia Sofia
Valley, Bulgaria
Solothurn c. 20 AD Gaul Switzerland
Sremska Mitrovica 1st century
BC
Illyria Serbia
St. Augustine,
Florida
1565 New Spain US
St. John’s,
Newfoundland and Labrador
1540s Newfoundland Colony Canada
Stara Zagora 342 BC Thrace Bulgaria
Staraya Ladoga 753 Russia
Stobi/Gradsko 217 BC Macedonia Republic of Macedonia
Susa
(Shush)
4200 BC Khuzestan Iran
Suzhou  (as Gusu, Wu) 514 BC Wu Jiangsu,
China
Syracuse 734 BC Sicily Sicily,
Italy
Taranto  (as Taras) 706 BC Magna Graecia Puglia,
Italy
Tarragona  (as
Tarraco)
218 BC Iberia Catalonia, Spain
Tbilisi c. 500 Caucasian Iberia Kartli province, Georgia
Ternate 1109 AD Sultanate of Ternate Indonesia
Thanjavur 300 BC Early Chola kingdom Tamil Nadu, India
Thebes c. 1400 BC Mycenaean
Greece
Boeotia,
Greece
Thessaloniki 315 BC Macedonia (ancient
kingdom)
Greece
Tidore 1109 AD Sultanate of Tidore Indonesia
Tongeren 10 BC Germania Inferior Belgium
Trier 30 BC Gallia Belgica Germany
Trikala before 1200 BC Mycenaean Greece Thessaly,
Greece
Trois-Rivières 1634 New France Canada
Trondheim 997 Norway Norway
Tyre 2750 BC Levant Lebanon
Ujjain  (As Avanti) c. 800 BC Malwa India
Upper Xingu c. 800 AD Xingu culture Brazil
Vaisali 500 BC Magadha Bihar,
India
Varanasi c. 1200–1100
BC
Iron Age India Uttar Pradesh, India
Varna 585 BC – 570 BC Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria
Veliky Novgorod 859 Russia
Vera Cruz 1519 New Spain Mexico
Verdun 4th century Lotharingia France
Veria c. 432 BC Macedonia Greece
Vitebsk 947 Belarus
Volterra c. 725 BC Tuscany Tuscany,
Italy
Vukovar 3500 BC Illyria Croatia
Winchester  (asVenta Belgarum) c. 70 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Worms 14 BC Germania Superior Germany
Xanthi before 879 Thrace Greece
Xi’an  (as Haojing, Fenghao,
Chang’an, Daxing)
c. 1100 BC Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi,
China
Yeha c. 700 BC D’mt Ethiopia
Yerevan 782 BC Urartu Armenia
York  (asEboracum) c. 72 AD Britannia UK
(England)
Zagreb 1 st century Illyria Croatia
Zeila/Avalite c. 9th century BC Bilad al-Barbar Somalia
Zürich
(Lindenhof)
c. 50 BC Gaul Switzerland
c.
Citation needed
 

Courtesy & Source: Wikipedia 

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Documentary : Scenic Routes Around the World – Asia – India

Trek through India’s Route of the Gods, a journey that transcends dreams and imagination. Start in Leh and end in Benares in the valley of the Ganges, crossing the Himalayas at over 16,000 feet. Along the way, you’ll meet the epic characters that define this remarkable country.

Courtesy and Source : YouTube and Questar Entertainment

Appreciate Talent : Acid Rain Prevention : Kumar Saurabh & Astha Srivastva

Kumar Saurabh

Kumar Saurabh  a Class 10 student along with his friend Astha Srivastva a student of Class 9, from Sunbeam School, Lahartara, Varanasi, India has come up with his Idea to prevent the effects of Acid rain and can preserve small farms and gardens for the effects of Acid rains.

Driven by questions, these two young talents searching out for the answers. They have worked on Acid Rain prevention and successfully got positive results for their efforts. 

Kumar’s dream is to win  the INTEL ISEF GRAND AWARD, he believes that he will contribute back to the benefits of the society in the future through his inventions. “I have a dream to make maximum no.of patents at very small age” said Saurabh, who won regional level science exhibitions.

And Astha the multitalented on the other hand has a vision to become a renowned lawyer , now supports Kumar in his science projects.

Their Project work on Acid rain Prevention – As shared with us.

SUMMARY:

Acid rain and the problems caused by acid rain is already an environmental problem in many areas of the world and will become a global problem soon. That is why is is foolish and criminal on our part to not protect our garden and farms by the effect of acid rain. More than 20 thousand of plants, crops and 2000000 m deep of soil in 1 hectare of land are polluted every year. We have developed a design that is feasible, cost effective and efficient to filter purifies the acid rain and increases the pH of acid rain using chemical biological products. It consists of two units (1) a water collecting system from all over field using biodegradable transparent plastics and netted cloth.(2) from the middle of the plastic there is 2 PVC pipes attached fist PVC pipes filters the water using the ancient gravel method second purifies using concept of acid+base→salt +water. This complete setup is called ACID rain Bufferer.

QUESTION:

Most of the plants, crops get to die through soil pollution which generally caused by soil acidification due to acid rain which make soil barren resulting food insecurity, soil pollution and creates disturbance in ecological balance. It is possible to reduce soil pollution and physiological damage to plants by making a device that filters direct falling of acid rain to normal clean healthy rain and filters its harmful components in useful product for plants and crops?

HYPOTHESIS:

If a water collecting system from all over the garden of the x size is placed in a field and filtration units are attached to it using PVC pipes then the physiological damage is reduced by 100% and soil pollution by75%.

REASEARCH:

Summary:

Previous research:

Researchers have been studying the effect of acid rain on plants and soil. Most of this research seeks the buffering ability of plants leaves and soil from Acid rain.

What is acid rain?

Acid rain is rain that is usually acidic; meaning it posses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide which react with water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acid.

Acid rain has generally H2SO4 and HNO3. H2SO4is major and HNO3 is minor acid.

The government has made special efforts since 1970s to reduce the release of SO2 into the atmosphere with positive results.

Clean unpolluted rain has an acidic pH, but usually no lower than 5.7, because CO2and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid. Carbonic acid then can ionize in water forming low concentrations of hydronium and carbonate ions.

How acid rain affects plants and soil?

The environmental problem caused by acid rain is generally has much more effect on plants, crops and soil.

The acid rain affects the plants in two ways:

1) Physiological damage to plant cells/plant tissues

2) Geochemical shifts in soils and soil waters that impede growth by affecting absorption of nutrients by roots and/or by leaching nutrients from the soil.

1. Affects different plants differently and certain tissues of the plants are more susceptible than others. Young rootlets and leaf shoots are typically very sensitive to low pH conditions but other aspects of the plant can be harmed as well. 2. Affects the composition and makeup of soil water, which is a main source of nutrients for the plant and soil substrates themselves. Excess acid in soils can dissolve soil substrate, leading to erosion, cause de-adsorption and migration out of the growth zone of important trace metals and nutrients (especially ammonium ions) and release to solution of toxic quantities of other metals (such as Fe).

Other problems caused by acid rain

Soil acidification is generally caused by acid rain which makes the soil acidic in nature which leads to barren land.

A recent survey tells that soil erosion carries away a volume of soil equivalent to one meter deep over 2000000 hectares of land.

A report prepared by UNEP, UNDP, FAO. Analyses that effect of acid rain on plants, crops and soil is costing at least us$ 10 billion a year in South Asia which is equivalent to 7% of south Asias agricultural GDP.

How acid rain affects farmer’s life?

Let us take an example if a farmer has a small plot say 1000m2and he grows rice in that field equivalent to 10000 kg. Acid rain takes place and 2500 kg of rice plants have been damaged in the above example we can clearly see that how it affects farmer’s life.

EXPERIMENT:

AIM: To test the efficiency of ARB by observing the plants and testing the soil ph, water pH.

Independent variable:

  • Duration of rain.
  • Duration of sunlight.
  • pH of rain.
  • Amount of rainfall.

Dependent variable:

  • Growth of plant.
  • Texture of soil.

Controlled variable:

  • All floors with same width and height.
  • Plastic nets of the same size.
  • PVC pipes of same size.
  • Plants tested should be same.
  • Amount of water provided to plants should be same.
  • Type of soil should be same.
  • Plants should be planted at the same time.

Experimental group:

For testing our prototype we selected a plot in our garden of 6m sq and divided into two equal halves each of 3m sq and planted a plant of chili in both the area.

Group1: acid rain was watered to plant while placing ARB.

Group2: acid rain was watered to plants without placing ARB.

Materials required:

(For prototype built with different materials-consisting of 2 floors, aluminium boxes etc.

Control group:  Plants in group2.

  • Field of size 6m sq divided into two equal halves.
  • Plants of chili.
  • 8 wooden planks.
  • 8 bamboos.
  • Aluminium sheet.
  • Netted cloth
  • Biodegradable transparent plastic.
  • Water
  • Sulphuric acid.
  • Ammonia crystals or ammonia solution.
  • Green algae.
  • Gravels of different size.
  • Bituminous coal.
  • PVC pipe.

Procedure:

  1. Mark an area of 6m sq and divide it into 2 equal halves of area 3m sq each.
  2. Plant a chili plant in both divided areas except in the middle.
  3. Build a prototype of ARB.
  1. 4.     Take ammonia and wrap it in a cloth and hang it in middle of PVC pipe.
  1. Now prepare acid rain and water it every day two times to both Ares.
  2. Observe for 12 days.
  3. Record your data.

Testing: The plants of the control group received acidic water without placing a system of ARB. The plants of EG received clean healthy rain because ARB filters+purifies the acid solution and plants grown were healthier than controlled group plants this proved our design is feasible and efficient. We also measured the plant growth and tested pH of soil.

DATA:

The original purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the plants and soil get affected by acid solution while placing ARB and without placing ARB.

We measured the growth till 6 days and tested soil texture, pH on the 12th day.

To get accurate results we took the plants from EG-1(with ARB) and EG-2 i.e. controlled group.

1

Average Plants growth

AVERAGE GROWTH OF LEAVES

2

3

4

Average pH of soil

5

Observation:

After noting the data we observed what we expected. There was more difference in plants, soil in EG-1 than EG-2 i.e. Controlled group. We observed that acid solution when poured in the area of EG-1(with ARB) filters purifies the acid solution to a pH of 5.6,6.2 and sometimes 7 the values above were not fixed but they are not acidic in nature and uses its acid as ammonia sulphate(fertilizer) which was stored in the 4th channel of filtration chamber.

We also observed:

  • The growth of plants was much healthier in EG-1 than EG-2.
  • The soil texture was very good in EG-1 than EG-2.
  • The soil pH was 6.2-5.6 in EG-1 and soil pH in EG-2 was 4.4-4.6

6

7

Images of EG-2(without ARB)

8

Images of EG-1(with ARB)

Clearly we can see the different ion between EG-1 and EG-2 image.

CONCLUSION:

The result of this experiment supported our hypothesis and provide our design feasible and efficient. The Acid Rain Bufferer while placing it the field and it reduced physiological damage to plants by 100% and soil pollution by 75%.

With a little more development and research it can reduce the soil pollution by100% and can be patented.

The various gardeners and farmers can use this design in their garden or field and can save the damage to plants, crops and soil and use the ammonia sulphate in their field as fertilizers. As a result there will be more increase in the production and more plants and soil can be saved.

It can also reduce the load on our government as more production will be there so, there will be less chance of food insecurity and country GDP can also increase.

This is a step towards protecting the environment and maintains ecological balance in the nature. If this design is set up in all over the country it can reduce the death of farmers due to debt .It can reduce the plants death by 50% and soil pollution by 25%.thus can reduce global warming.

COST:

Cost of 8 bamboos=80Rs

Cost 8 wooden planks=40Rs

Cost of Netted cloth=50Rs

Cost of biodegradable plastic of 1m2=5 for 6m2=6×5=30Rs

Total estimated cost=1000Rs for 1000m2area.

Diagrams:

9

Note : For any queries, feedback and further information you can contact

Kumar Saurabh

Class 10, Sunbeam School, Lahartara, Varanasi, India.

Contact no.: 950690164, 8052845206, 9554417237

Email: ksaurabh55@gmail.com

Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/kumar.saurabh.1426

We at Propel Steps feel so delighted to give them a motivation for their dedicated work and we are privileged to share their project model and wish them great success ahead. We will be there with them on every milestone they cross. The copyrights of the process / project belong solely to Kumar Saurabh.