Their Project work on Acid rain Prevention – As shared with us.
Acid rain and the problems caused by acid rain is already an environmental problem in many areas of the world and will become a global problem soon. That is why is is foolish and criminal on our part to not protect our garden and farms by the effect of acid rain. More than 20 thousand of plants, crops and 2000000 m deep of soil in 1 hectare of land are polluted every year. We have developed a design that is feasible, cost effective and efficient to filter purifies the acid rain and increases the pH of acid rain using chemical biological products. It consists of two units (1) a water collecting system from all over field using biodegradable transparent plastics and netted cloth.(2) from the middle of the plastic there is 2 PVC pipes attached fist PVC pipes filters the water using the ancient gravel method second purifies using concept of acid+base→salt +water. This complete setup is called ACID rain Bufferer.
Most of the plants, crops get to die through soil pollution which generally caused by soil acidification due to acid rain which make soil barren resulting food insecurity, soil pollution and creates disturbance in ecological balance. It is possible to reduce soil pollution and physiological damage to plants by making a device that filters direct falling of acid rain to normal clean healthy rain and filters its harmful components in useful product for plants and crops?
If a water collecting system from all over the garden of the x size is placed in a field and filtration units are attached to it using PVC pipes then the physiological damage is reduced by 100% and soil pollution by75%.
Researchers have been studying the effect of acid rain on plants and soil. Most of this research seeks the buffering ability of plants leaves and soil from Acid rain.
What is acid rain?
Acid rain is rain that is usually acidic; meaning it posses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide which react with water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acid.
Acid rain has generally H2SO4 and HNO3. H2SO4is major and HNO3 is minor acid.
The government has made special efforts since 1970s to reduce the release of SO2 into the atmosphere with positive results.
Clean unpolluted rain has an acidic pH, but usually no lower than 5.7, because CO2and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid. Carbonic acid then can ionize in water forming low concentrations of hydronium and carbonate ions.
How acid rain affects plants and soil?
The environmental problem caused by acid rain is generally has much more effect on plants, crops and soil.
The acid rain affects the plants in two ways:
1) Physiological damage to plant cells/plant tissues
2) Geochemical shifts in soils and soil waters that impede growth by affecting absorption of nutrients by roots and/or by leaching nutrients from the soil.
1. Affects different plants differently and certain tissues of the plants are more susceptible than others. Young rootlets and leaf shoots are typically very sensitive to low pH conditions but other aspects of the plant can be harmed as well. 2. Affects the composition and makeup of soil water, which is a main source of nutrients for the plant and soil substrates themselves. Excess acid in soils can dissolve soil substrate, leading to erosion, cause de-adsorption and migration out of the growth zone of important trace metals and nutrients (especially ammonium ions) and release to solution of toxic quantities of other metals (such as Fe).
Other problems caused by acid rain
Soil acidification is generally caused by acid rain which makes the soil acidic in nature which leads to barren land.
A recent survey tells that soil erosion carries away a volume of soil equivalent to one meter deep over 2000000 hectares of land.
A report prepared by UNEP, UNDP, FAO. Analyses that effect of acid rain on plants, crops and soil is costing at least us$ 10 billion a year in South Asia which is equivalent to 7% of south Asia’s agricultural GDP.
How acid rain affects farmer’s life?
Let us take an example if a farmer has a small plot say 1000m2and he grows rice in that field equivalent to 10000 kg. Acid rain takes place and 2500 kg of rice plants have been damaged in the above example we can clearly see that how it affects farmer’s life.
AIM: To test the efficiency of ARB by observing the plants and testing the soil ph, water pH.
- Duration of rain.
- Duration of sunlight.
- pH of rain.
- Amount of rainfall.
- Growth of plant.
- Texture of soil.
- All floors with same width and height.
- Plastic nets of the same size.
- PVC pipes of same size.
- Plants tested should be same.
- Amount of water provided to plants should be same.
- Type of soil should be same.
- Plants should be planted at the same time.
For testing our prototype we selected a plot in our garden of 6m sq and divided into two equal halves each of 3m sq and planted a plant of chili in both the area.
Group1: acid rain was watered to plant while placing ARB.
Group2: acid rain was watered to plants without placing ARB.
(For prototype built with different materials-consisting of 2 floors, aluminium boxes etc.
Control group: Plants in group2.
- Field of size 6m sq divided into two equal halves.
- Plants of chili.
- 8 wooden planks.
- 8 bamboos.
- Aluminium sheet.
- Netted cloth
- Biodegradable transparent plastic.
- Sulphuric acid.
- Ammonia crystals or ammonia solution.
- Green algae.
- Gravels of different size.
- Bituminous coal.
- PVC pipe.
- Mark an area of 6m sq and divide it into 2 equal halves of area 3m sq each.
- Plant a chili plant in both divided areas except in the middle.
- Build a prototype of ARB.
- 4. Take ammonia and wrap it in a cloth and hang it in middle of PVC pipe.
- Now prepare acid rain and water it every day two times to both Ares.
- Observe for 12 days.
- Record your data.
Testing: The plants of the control group received acidic water without placing a system of ARB. The plants of EG received clean healthy rain because ARB filters+purifies the acid solution and plants grown were healthier than controlled group plants this proved our design is feasible and efficient. We also measured the plant growth and tested pH of soil.
The original purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the plants and soil get affected by acid solution while placing ARB and without placing ARB.
We measured the growth till 6 days and tested soil texture, pH on the 12th day.
To get accurate results we took the plants from EG-1(with ARB) and EG-2 i.e. controlled group.
Average Plants growth
AVERAGE GROWTH OF LEAVES
Average pH of soil
After noting the data we observed what we expected. There was more difference in plants, soil in EG-1 than EG-2 i.e. Controlled group. We observed that acid solution when poured in the area of EG-1(with ARB) filters purifies the acid solution to a pH of 5.6,6.2 and sometimes 7 the values above were not fixed but they are not acidic in nature and uses its acid as ammonia sulphate(fertilizer) which was stored in the 4th channel of filtration chamber.
We also observed:
- The growth of plants was much healthier in EG-1 than EG-2.
- The soil texture was very good in EG-1 than EG-2.
- The soil pH was 6.2-5.6 in EG-1 and soil pH in EG-2 was 4.4-4.6
Images of EG-2(without ARB)
Images of EG-1(with ARB)
Clearly we can see the different ion between EG-1 and EG-2 image.
The result of this experiment supported our hypothesis and provide our design feasible and efficient. The Acid Rain Bufferer while placing it the field and it reduced physiological damage to plants by 100% and soil pollution by 75%.
With a little more development and research it can reduce the soil pollution by100% and can be patented.
The various gardeners and farmers can use this design in their garden or field and can save the damage to plants, crops and soil and use the ammonia sulphate in their field as fertilizers. As a result there will be more increase in the production and more plants and soil can be saved.
It can also reduce the load on our government as more production will be there so, there will be less chance of food insecurity and country GDP can also increase.
This is a step towards protecting the environment and maintains ecological balance in the nature. If this design is set up in all over the country it can reduce the death of farmers due to debt .It can reduce the plants death by 50% and soil pollution by 25%.thus can reduce global warming.
Cost of 8 bamboos=80Rs
Cost 8 wooden planks=40Rs
Cost of Netted cloth=50Rs
Cost of biodegradable plastic of 1m2=5 for 6m2=6×5=30Rs
Total estimated cost=1000Rs for 1000m2area.