|Antigua and Barbuda||20.5||20.5||20.5|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||41.7||42||42.2|
|Central African Republic||8.4||8.2||8.2|
|Congo, Dem. Rep.||11.4||11.4||11.4|
|Egypt, Arab Rep.||3.7||3.7||3.7|
|Hong Kong SAR, China|
|Iran, Islamic Rep.||29.8||29.9||30.1|
|Isle of Man||76.1||76.1||74.7|
|Korea, Dem. Rep.||21.2||21.2||21.2|
|Macao SAR, China|
|Micronesia, Fed. Sts.||30.1||30.1||30.1|
|Northern Mariana Islands||6.5||6.5||6.5|
|Papua New Guinea||2.6||2.6||2.6|
|Sao Tome and Principe||51||50.5||50.7|
|Sint Maarten (Dutch part)|
|St. Kitts and Nevis||21.2||21.9||23.1|
|St. Martin (French part)|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines||25.6||25.6||25.6|
|Syrian Arab Republic||75.7||75.7||75.5|
|Trinidad and Tobago||10.5||10.5||10.5|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||1.1||1.1||1.1|
|United Arab Emirates||4.7||4.8||4.8|
|Virgin Islands (U.S.)||11.4||11.4||11.4|
|West Bank and Gaza||49.7||41.3||43.3|
Courtesy : http://data.worldbank.org
Member states and observers of the United Nations
States recognised by at least one United Nations member
States not recognised by any United Nations members
|State||Head of State||Head of Government|
|Nagorno-Karabakh||President – Bako Sahakyan||Prime Minister – Arayik Harutyunyan|
|Transnistria||President – Yevgeny Shevchuk||Prime Minister – Tatiana Turanskaya|
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.
The result is assurance. Consumers and producers know that they can enjoy secure supplies and greater choice of the finished products, components, raw materials and services that they use. Producers and exporters know that foreign markets will remain open to them.
The result is also a more prosperous, peaceful and accountable economic world. Virtually all decisions in the WTO are taken by consensus among all member countries and they are ratified by members’ parliaments. Trade friction is channelled into the WTO’s dispute settlement process where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments, and how to ensure that countries’ trade policies conform with them. That way, the risk of disputes spilling over into political or military conflict is reduced.
By lowering trade barriers, the WTO’s system also breaks down other barriers between peoples and nations.
At the heart of the system — known as the multilateral trading system — are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations, and ratified in their parliaments. These agreements are the legal ground-rules for international commerce. Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing member countries important trade rights. They also bind governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits to everybody’s benefit.
The agreements were negotiated and signed by governments. But their purpose is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.
The goal is to improve the welfare of the peoples of the 159 member states.
The History :
The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995. One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War. So while the WTO is still young, the multilateral trading system that was originally set up under GATT is well over 50 years old. (click here to read the complete history)
In 2000, new talks started on agriculture and services. These have now been incorporated into a broader agenda launched at the fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001.
The work programme, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), adds negotiations and other work on non-agricultural tariffs, trade and environment, WTO rules such as anti-dumping and subsidies, investment, competition policy, trade facilitation, transparency in government procurement, intellectual property, and a range of issues raised by developing countries as difficulties they face in implementing the present WTO agreements.
It does this by:
Administering trade agreements
Acting as a forum for trade negotiations
Settling trade disputes
Reviewing national trade policies
Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes
Cooperating with other international organizations
The WTO has about 150 members, accounting for about 95% of world trade. Around 30 others are negotiating membership.
Decisions are made by the entire membership. This is typically by consensus. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO, and was extremely rare under the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments.
The WTO’s top level decision-making body is the Ministerial Conference which meets at least once every two years.
Below this is the General Council (normally ambassadors and heads of delegation in Geneva, but sometimes officials sent from members’ capitals) which meets several times a year in the Geneva headquarters. The General Council also meets as the Trade Policy Review Body and the Dispute Settlement Body.
At the next level, the Goods Council, Services Council and Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Council report to the General Council.
Numerous specialized committees, working groups and working parties deal with the individual agreements and other areas such as the environment, development, membership applications and regional trade agreements.
The WTO Secretariat, based in Geneva, has around 600 staff and is headed by a director-general (Roberto Azevêdo). Its annual budget is roughly 160 million Swiss francs. It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Since decisions are taken by the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role that other inter-Secretariat, Genevanational bureaucracies are given.
The WTO agreements
How can you ensure that trade is as fair as possible, and as free as is practical? By negotiating rules and abiding by them. (Click here to read more about the WTO agreements)
The WTO is ‘rules-based’; its rules are negotiated agreements.
> Overview: a navigational guide
> Tariffs: more bindings and closer to zero
> Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers
> Standards and safety
> Textiles: back in the mainstream
> Services: rules for growth and investment
> Intellectual property: protection and enforcement
> Anti-dumping, subsidies, safeguards: contingencies, etc
> Non-tariff barriers: red tape, etc
> Plurilaterals: of minority interest
> Trade policy reviews: ensuring transparency
10 benefits of the WTO trading system
From the money in our pockets and the goods and services that we use, to a more peaceful world — the WTO and the trading system offer a range of benefits, some well-known, others not so obvious.
1. The system helps promote peace
2. Disputes are handled constructively
3. Rules make life easier for all
4. Freer trade cuts the costs of living
5. It provides more choice of products and qualities
6. Trade raises incomes
7. Trade stimulates economic growth
8. The basic principles make life more efficient
9. Governments are shielded from lobbying
10. The system encourages good government
10 common misunderstandings about the WTO
Is it a dictatorial tool of the rich and powerful? Does it destroy jobs? Does it ignore the concerns of health, the environment and development? Emphatically no. Criticisms of the WTO are often based on fundamental misunderstandings of the way the WTO works.
Courtesy and Source : www.wto.org, Wikipedia and Google
Are you an Indian? Then you can travel to only 52 countries without a VISA. India stands behind 144 countries among the total of 199 countries.
Whereas 34 countries have the privilege to travel to more than 150 countries without a VISA. Citizens of Finland, Sweden and UK (Great Britain) enjoys the best privilege to travel 173 countries without a VISA, followed by Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, U.S.A which is not far behind as they are allowed in 172 countries as per the annual Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index which ranks countries according to the nations their citizens can access just using their passport.
Nine of the top 10 countries are EU members with only the USA breaking the European dominance by being placed joint second with Denmark, Germany and Luxembourg.
The index, which says that there are 219 countries in the world, indicates that EU membership is a vital factor for visa free movement. Sweden has been a member of the European Union since 1995.
Passport holders from Afghanistan will encounter the most problems travelling abroad as they were ranked last in the list. Afghan citizens can only visit 28 countries without a visa placing them in 93rd place followed by Iraq (31 countries) and Pakistan and Somalia on 32 countries.
Russia was ranked 41st with 95 countries and a travel expert revealed there are loopholes in visiting the country. Many Swedes travel to Russia on cruise ships which depart from Stockholm without requiring a visa.
“Russian visas remain complex, but if you take a cruise to St Petersburg you can dodge the red tape. The same applies to the 72-hour stopover scheme just introduced by several major gateways to China,” said tour operator Neil Taylor to the Independent newspaper in Britain.
There are 71 countries in the world whose citizens with their passports are allowed to travel to 100 or more other countries without a VISA. To our surprise Russia ranks 41 in the list with the score of 95. After 64th ranked country (Saudi Arabia) the no. of countries that can be travelled without VISA is getting fewer than the countries rank. In that way 82 countries are allowed to travel less than the ranks.
(Without VISA means you can get a VISA on arrival or as per the country’s norm, but can travel to reach the country without any VISA)
Courtesy, Copyrights and Data Source : Henleyglobal
Note : This is shared for educational purposes only, (data source from Henleyglobal). For more details / study please reach Henleyglobal, who holds the complete credits for this highly informative data.
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